NUTR Exam 1 study guide
NUTR Exam 1 study guide Nutr 2360
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aisha Dewees on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Nutr 2360 at Texas State University taught by Hannah Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Basic Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Lesson 1 Nutrition The substances that help us grow and maintain life 6 Nutrient classes Macronutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Water ENERGY YEILDING Organic have carbon and are required in large amounts Micronutrients Vitamins and Minerals NON Energy Yielding lnorganic No carbon But your body needs little amounts Essential Nutrients Nutrients that CONNOT be made in the body must be ingested Dietary Calories The energy needed to increase 1kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius are measures in kcaor cal 1 kcal or 1 dietary calorie 1000 Calories Carbohydrates Made of Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen CHO Yield 4kcalg Monosaccharide Complex carbs Fiber Glycogen Starch Lipids Made of Hydrogen and Carbon 0 Are Fatty Acids Yield 9kcag Proteins Made of Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogenonly one with this o Is an Amino Acid 0 Yield 4kcalg Energy Calculations of grams of food carbsfatproteinalcohol x its Energy Yield kcal from food Percentage of Calories kcal from food tota kcal x 100 kcal Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins CampB 0 Don t stay in the body long 0 Fat Soluble Vitamins A D E K o Are stored easily 0 Need fat to absorb Minerals 0 Major need grams or Sodium K Chloride Ca Phosphorus Trace needs very small amounts of Iron Zinc Copper and Selenium Minerals are inorganic Water need aot Alcohol yields 7kcalg Phytochemicals Found in plants giving off certain colors and vitamins This makes us want or not want to eat the foods 0 food traits Zoochemicals Found in animals 0 Contain chemicals needed found in sh eggs red meat Factors on Food Choice Health Pleasure Taste Smell Texture Color Temperature Cognitive In uences Habit comfort craving Social In uences Relationships Family Community Media Geographic Location Religion Accesseconomic status area Food Environments Malnutrition Undernutrition lacking essential nutrients can lead to starvation Overnutrition excessive amounts of nutrientcalorie intake can lead to diabetes 0 Both cause de ciency and nutrition toxicity Forti cation vs Enrichment Forti cation is replacing nutrients lost in processing Enrichment is adding in nutrients to food that are naturally not found Lesson 2 Scienti c Method 0 Systematic unbiased approach to theory Observes Hypothesizes Experiments Analyzes Data uses Peer Review and Concludes and Publishes Types of Studies Etymological observing researched trends in a populations 0 Laboratory observe cells and tissues this doesn39t equal causation in organisms Interventional Animal using animal models also doesn39t equal causation in humans Interventional Human cohort over time testing theory and using placebo effect quotDouble Blindquot This is when the patient in the study and the professional administrating the study are unaware of what is being tested the placebo drug is unknown Placebo Effect 0 Given what is thought to be an active drug can cause mental and physical effects with a quotsugar Pillquot thus giving the effect that the medication trial is working Correlation Dietary Guidelines 0 Set by the USDA and DHHS Suggesting a diet patter with appropriate calorie levels in 0 Various veggies Fruits Grains Lowfat Dairy Oils 0 Protein sh lean meats and legumes How are the DGA made 0000 0 Review via committee 0 Systematic reviews Mata analysis 0 Review of research 0 Data analysis 0 Determine food patters De ne Dietary Reference Values DIR proper intake of nutrients within a group EAR making recommendations for a particular group age gender weight RDA specialized intake for 98 of the population evaluates the intake of a speci c nutrient o Prevents de ciency AI daily intake need to maintain a nutritional state for one group 0 UL the quotcapquot maximum amount of nutrient intake that will not cause an issue AMDR This determines the of calories in a macronutrient within a range 0 Carbohydrates 4565 0 Fat 2035 0 Proteins 1035 What is required to be on a food label 0 Total Calories Cal from fat Trans Fat Sat Fat Sodium Cholesterol Total Carbs Fiber Sugar Proteins Vitamins C A and Calcium and Iron Ingredient Labeling Requirements 0 All food with more than one ingredient but be listed 0 Key for food allergies Lesson 3 Digestion Chemically Breaking down Food to be absorbed Absorption Uptake of Nutrients from the GI tract and placed into the blood and or lymph Tissues of the GI Tract Mucosa is the innermost later made of Epithelial and Connective tissues Submucosa Holds the blood vessels made of connective and epithelial ssue Muscularis Circular and Longitudinal smooth muscle Serosa outermost layer protects the GI Tract The Digestive organs and sphincters in order Mouth Esophagus Lower Esophageal Sphincter Stomach Pyloric Sphincter Accessory Organs Liver makes the bile rst to receive nutrients Gallbladder stores the bile releases into the duodenum Pancreases exocrine organ releasing hormones to promote digestion and regulate blood sugar Secretions Saliva uses amylase to break down carbs Gastric Juices to make chyme Bile to neutralize acidity Pancreatic Juices to also neutralize Organ Hormones Gastrin stomach and duodenum promoting movement Cholecystokinin small intestine stimulates the release of Bile when chime is present Secretin small intestine in response to chime stimulates pancreatic bicarbonate Gastric Inhibitory Peptide small intestine slows movement for absorption Cell Functions Goblet Cells make the mucus Parietal Cells secrete HCL and intrinsic factor in stomach Chief Ces makes pepsinogen to break down proteins Enterocytes absorbing cells in small intestine make a blood barrier Vii increase absorption area Microvilli brush border increase surface area and help with absorbing secreting and new cells Absorption Passive Diffusion moving via concentration gradient No energy is needed Facilitated Diffusion move via concentration gradient require a carrier 0 Active Transport MUST HAVE ATP move against the gradient Nutrients Absorbed Stomach Alcohol and some water 0 Small Intestine and Colon Water calcium amino acids bile vitamins fats and glucose Transport Circulatory Systems Lymphatic fat soluble nutrients via lymph Cardiovascular water soluble nutrients via blood Moving Peristalsis the pinching of the GI tract pushing the food down Segmentation breaks and pinches the food breaking the food up to absorb better Swallowing Mechanical breakdown chewing creates the bous Swallowed into the pharynx and pushed down with peristalsis Enters the stomach at the Lower Esophageal Sphincter stopping back up Stomach Protection Secretion of Gastrin from the pancreas to make the chyme foodHCL basic Chyme semi uid partially digested food from the stomach Enzymes Digestion o Primarily in the Small intestine Lesson 4 Simple and Complex CHO Simple Monosaccharides o Glucose Fructose Galactose Disaccharides o Lactose Sucrose Maltose Complex Oligosaccharides o Raf nose Stachyose Poysaccharides o Glycogen Fiber Starch Hexoses Sugar Alcohol and Peptides Hexoses Glucose Fructose Galactose Sugar Xylitol Mannitol Sorbitol Pentose Ribose and Deoxyribose Food Source of Monosaccharides Glucose fruits syrups and beans Fructose quottable sugarquot agave honey corn syrup Galactose milk sugar in lactose Disaccharide Composition Linked together via condensation reaction 0 Sucrose GlucoseFructose o Maltose GlucoseGucose o Lactose GlucoseGaactose Digestible Polysaccharide Starch and Glycogen Sta rch Granules stored in amyloplast of plant cells 0 Found in potatoes beans bread rice and wheat Glycogen Branching molecules Stored in the liver and muscles Fiber Soluble Fiber gel like in water promotes bowl health aids in feeling full 0 Found in fruits common in jams oats and legumes Insoluble Fiber will not mix with water enhances blood glucose control 0 Decreases cholesterol 0 Promotes heart health 0 Found in the skins of veggies and fruits and seeds Nutritive vs NonNutritive Sweeteners Nutrition Based have calories 0 Honey corn syrup lactose fruit brown sugar syrup NonNutrition Based are calorie free 0 Acceptable Daily Intakes ADI o SaccharinSweetNLow is bitter Can39t be used to cook ADI3diet sodas or 7 packets o Aspartame Equal Can39t be cooked with Avoid PKU o SucraloseSpenda Made from sucralose Can use in cooking ADI 5mgkg body weightday o Steviatruvia From leaves 300x as sweet as sucrose ls addictive Function of digestible CHO c To provide energy 0 Spare protein Prevent Ketosis Function of Ingestible CHO Insoluble Fiber promoting good bowel health Soluble Fiber promoting heart health and decrease cholesterol DiverticulaDiverticulitis Are hernias along the large intestinecommon o Is only an issue when they are very large 0 Food trapped can cause infection 0 The infection of trapped food is Diverticulitis Sugar Recommendations 0 Dietary Guidelines 10 of total 0 WHO 10 of total 12 Tsp IOM 25 of total 30 Tsp Overall Recommendations 0 50 of total energy needed 0 16 added sugars 2550 Fiber 0 1 fruit and 1 whole grainday Lactose Intolerance Lack of the actase enzyme 0 So it cannot be broken down Undigested Lactose then causes gas and bloating Blood Sugar Controlled by Insulin and Glucose Insulin lowers high glucose after eating Fasting glucose levels Iower until you eat Diabetes Type1 o Autoimmune disease of beta cells 0 No insulin is made 0 Treat Diet control Insulin Pump 0 Can risk vision loss infection and kidney disease Type2 0 Peripheral cells are resistant to insulin Glucose levels remain high 0 Treat O O Low sugar diet exercise medication or insulin Can cause loss of feeling in limbs and uncontrolled bleeding Can lead to vision loss infection and amputationgangrene Gestational O O O O 0 During pregnancy No known cause Without treatment is can cause birth defects or still birth Treat Medication constant testing strict diet Risk for type2 diabetes in mom typel in baby macrosomia Fasting Plasma Glucose Test checks for diabetes
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