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CLP3305 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Courtney Adams

CLP3305 Exam 1 Study Guide CLP3305

Marketplace > Florida State University > Sociology > CLP3305 > CLP3305 Exam 1 Study Guide
Courtney Adams
GPA 3.8

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This is a study guide for Dr. Sullivan's first test! It is based on thorough notes taken in class since he stressed the importance of studying the topics he emphasized during class. Enjoy and feel ...
Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Dr. Sullivan
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Adams on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLP3305 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Sullivan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Clinical and Counseling Psychology in Sociology at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
    Clinical  Psychology       CLP3305   1/8/16     Chapter  1:  Clinical  Psychology  -­‐  Introduction     Psychiatrists  vs.  Psychologists       • Psychiatrists   o Different  than  a  psychologist   o A  physician   o ***Rooted  in  the  medical  tradition***  à  Biggest  difference   o Medical  model:  biochemical   o Should  be  used  if  life  threatening     o Treated  medically  with  medicine  à  Most  people  think  this  is  the   difference  between  psychiatry  and  psychology  but  that’s  NOT  correct     • Psychologists     o NOT  treated  medically   o A  more  proactive  approach   o Traditionally  work  with  normal  or  moderately  maladjusted   o Psychology  model:  social,  economical       Counseling  vs.  Clinical  Psychology     • Both  are  very  similar         Clinical:  works  with  people  who  are  having     suicidal  thoughts,  suffering  from  PTSD  à  more   extreme  cases   Clinical     Counseling     Counseling:  working  with  people  suffering  from     family  issues,  interracial  issues,  etc.           Other  mental  heath  professions     • School  counselor:  usually  do  what  their  boss  say  (principles),  works  a  lot   with  administration   • School  psychologist:  does  a  lot  of  assessments,  works  a  lot  with  one  student   and  then  moves  on  to  the  next,  makes  recommendations  to  the  parents,  very   intense  BUT  brief   • Mental  health  tech:  what  you  get  trained  for,  short  course  and  then  hired   right  out  of  college                 Clinical  Psychology       CLP3305     1/11/16     The  Clinical  Psychologist       • Makes  up  50%  of  grad  school  majors,  most  of  these  descriptions  apply  to   MOST  but  not  all  psychologists     • Activities  of  a  clinical  psychologist     o ***Therapy/Intervention***   § Usually  individual:  what  most  people  do   § Group  Therapy:  a  little  more  difficult  à  everyone  wants   something  different  (meeting  times,  etc.)   • Most  effective  when  there  are  captive  groups  like  in   prison  or  hospitals   § Varies  amount  different  dimensions  or  orientations   • Symptom  substitution   o Freud  believes  in  this  (NOT  skinner)   o It  depends  on  the  therapist  AND  client     o There  is  NO  major  bullet   o You  have  to  match  your  counseling  styles  with   the  clients  and  then  decide  which  route  you  want   to  take     o ***Diagnosis/Assessment***   § MOST  do  this  at  the  beginning  to  decide  which  route  to  take   § Trying  to  understand  the  client  and  decide  on  the  best  course   of  action   • Ex:  Court  experts  practice  diagnosis  and  assessment.   This  is  basically  all  they  do   § Chief  element  of  the  clinical  psychologist’s  identity   • HISTORY:  clinical  psychology  originates  from  the   military       o ***Administration***   § You  are  ONLY  as  good  as  your  records   § Record  security  is  also  very  important     o **Consultation**   § When  you  talk  a  case  over  with  another  professional   § Should  be  someone  you  don’t  have  a  close  relationship  with   • Ex:  NOT  a  husband,  boyfriend,  family  member,  CAN  BE   a  friend   § Should  be  in  the  right  setting,  secure  location         Clinical  Psychology       CLP3305   • Example:  If  you  are  counseling  a  client  that  is  dealing  with  the  death  of  her   grandma  and  your  grandma  passes  too,  would  you  refer  the  client?   o There  are  two  questions  to  consider.     1. How  are  you  doing  with  the  death  of  your  grandma?  Were  you  close   with  her?  Were  you  expecting  it?   2. How  is  your  relationship  with  that  client?  How  long  have  you  been   counseling  her?   a. If  you  just  started,  maybe  you  should  refer  her.  If  you  have   been  meeting  with  her  for  a  while  and  are  nearing  the  end,  you   should  maybe  stick  with  it.  All  depending  on  how  well  you  are   taking  the  death     • 1-­‐3  are  very  rare  and  NOT  as  important  as  the  first  four  activities     o Teaching   o Clinical  supervision   o Research       1/13/16     Employment  sites     • #1  Private  Practice   o You  have  a  license  and  you  work  along  side  with  insurance  companies   • University  settings:  counseling  centers,  psychology  department     • Others:  military,  criminal  justice  system,  prison  system     Demographic  Notes     • The  percentage  of  women  is  dramatically  rising  (34%)   o Its  getting  harder  and  harder  to  find  older  female  therapists  and   younger  male  therapists   • Orientations   o Integrative  (29%)   § Or  “flexible”   § Take  your  personality  and  problem  and  match  it  to  a  specific   therapy  technique   § Different  for  each  person   o Cognitive  (28%)     § Common  and  effective  for  clients  who  suffer  from  anxiety  and   depression   § Very  popular  today   o Psychodynamic  (15%)   § Freud     § People  with  family  and  early  childhood  issues       Clinical  Psychology       CLP3305   § Lengthy,  clinical   o Behavioral   § Skinner   § Works  well  with  children  and  pet  therapy   • Some  say  they  are  dissatisfied  with  they  job  as  a  clinical  psychologist  (12%)   o Mostly  because  of  the  money   • Research  and  scientific  tradition   o Where  the  research  and  application  collide   o Have  to  understand  the  research  and  then  be  able  to  apply  it   o Mostly  focusing  on  studying  groups  during  research     o Statistical  significance   § There  will  be  times  when  the  group  differences  will  be   different  and  its  assumed  that  it  is  because  of  the  treatment       Training       PhD  vs.  PsyD     • PhD:  Doctor  of  Philosophy   o Emphasis  on  the  scientist  (research)   o Scientist  (75%)  and  Practitioner  (25%)   o Will  mostly  focus  on  research     o More  difficult  to  get  into  than  medical  school   o Less  money  because  the  school  usually  pays  some   o Usually  one  more  year   o Want  to  work  at  major  research  universities     o Focus  of  research  and  publications   o MORE  important  emphasis  of  orientation   § Want  to  focus  on  applying  based  on  research  (need  to  be  100%   certain  the  university  is  doing  the  research  you  are  interested   in  à  narrow  your  options,  match  research  interests)       • PsyD:  Doctor  of  Psychology   o Emphasis  on  the  practitioner  (applied)   o Practitioner  (75%)  and  Scientist  (25%)   o Will  focus  more  on  the  applied  part   o Easier  to  get  into     o Cost  more  money  because  they  are  usually  private  schools   o Wants  to  work  with  people   o Don’t  emphasize  on  research  and  publications   o Emphasis  of  orientation     § Since  working  with  people,  you  want  to  keep  in  mind  which   type  of  people  you  want  to  work  with  (children,  elderly,  etc.)       Clinical  Psychology       CLP3305   § Have  to  also  keep  in  mind  the  languages  you  want  to  be  around   (if  you  speak  French,  Spanish,  etc.),  or  if  you  want  to  work  with   people  who  are  in  military       • Masters  level   o Terminal  masters:  that’s  all  you  want     § Clinical  social  worker   § Mental  heath  worker     • Working  in  grad  school  isn’t  really  harder  BUT  there  is  so  much  more  to  do     o Very  difficult  on  relationships:  NO  time,  moving  a  lot       1/15/16     Clinical  Training  Programs     • **Scientist-­‐practitioner  model**  all  APA  programs  have  to  adopt  this  model   o A  mix  of  scientist  (research)  and  practitioner  (applied)   o At  least  75%  of  one  and  25%  of  the  other  but  have  to  adopt  BOTH   o Completed  in  5  years  (including  internship)     • Coursework   o Full  term,  usually  starting  in  Aug   o Usually  very  flexible,  they  will  work  with  you     • Practicum  work   o Basically  a  pre-­‐internship     • Research   o Important  for  schools  practicing  more  of  the  scientist  model     o PhD     • The  qualifying  exam     o PsyD:  usually  a  case  study  where  you  take  info  about  a  client,  assess   them  and  then  come  up  with  a  solution   o PhD:  usually  a  written  exam       • Internship   o One  year  of  supervised  work  to  get  experience     o Mandatory  for  ALL  APA  accredited  schools         Clinical  Psychology       CLP3305   1/18/16   Martin  Luther  King  Day  (No  school)     1/20/16     Appendix:  A  Primer  for  applying  to  graduate  programs  in  clinical  psychology     Applying  to  PhD  programs           • “Professional  Schools  of  Psychology”   o More  of  a  safety  net,  tier  3  school   o NOT  all  schools  are  APA  accredited   o More  expensive   o NOT  apart  of  a  major  University     o Be  extremely  cautious  of  these  schools  company  that  owns  the  GRE     • 1.  GPA**   o Overall  GPA   o Major  GPA  or  the  students  GPA  from  the  last  2  years   o Drawback  to  GPA   § Numbers  can  be  manipulated  (school  attended,  classes  taken,   NOT  comparing  apples  to  apples)   § Someone  can  have  a  4.0  GPA  in  psychology  courses  vs.   someone  else  having  a  3.5  GPA  in  engineering  courses  (the   psychology  courses  may  be  easier  than  the  engineering   courses,  not  really  comparing  the  same  thing)   § Someone  may  have  a  great  GPA  at  a  community  college  while   someone  else  may  have  a  lower  gpa  at  FSU  (the  level  of   difficulty  of  the  courses  at  the  university  have  to  also  be  taken   in  effect)     • 2.  GRE**  à  You  do  not  study  for  the  GRE,  you  prepare  for  it!   o “Graduate  Study  in  Psychology”:  book  that  the  APA  offers  that   includes  the  acceptance  rates     o You  should  apply  for  top,  middle,  bottom:  safety  net  schools)     • 3.  Resume/CV**   o Contact  the  Career  Center  for  guidance  in  writing  your  resume/CV   o The  difference  between  the  two   § The  CV  is  a  more  extensive  resume  that  includes  your  research   information       1/22/16         Clinical  Psychology       CLP3305   • 4.  Letter  of  Recommendation**   o First  ask  if  the  person  is  willing  to  write  you  a  “strong  letter  of   recommendation”     o Most  schools  ask  for  3  letters  of  recommendation     o Should  be  from  people  who  know  you  very  well  and  can  describe  you   in  detail     • 5.  The  Personal  Statement**     o Applied:  can  talk  about  why  you  want  to  do  into  that  specific  field   § A  little  self  disclosure   o Research:  NO  self  disclosure,  want  to  focus  more  on  research   experience     o Be  careful  in  mentioning  first/last  names  (nothing  negative)   § Only  do  this  when  you  have  a  well  known  mentor  and  you  are   saying  something  very  nice  and  respectful     Personal  Statement  Assignment   • Start  with  25  points  (-­‐2pts  per  day  if  late,  -­‐5  if  you  email  it)   • Just  have  to  turn  it  in  online  and  printed  =  25  points     • Doesn’t  have  to  be  APA  style  BUT  spell  out  numbers  less  than  10,  there  vs.   their,  to  vs.  too,  “FLOW”  or  transitioned  statements       2  Step  Process  for  applying  for  Graduate  School   1. The  numbers:  GPA  and  GRE   2. The  personal  side:  Resume/CV,  Letter  of  Recommendation,  and  Personal   Statement             Clinical Psychology CLP3305   1/25/16       Chapter  3:  Current  issues  in  clinical  psychology     Professional  Regulation  (     • Licensing    ***   o Allows  you  to  practice  therapy  with  a  legal  protection   o That  person  is  a  professional  and  has  an  education     o Some  people  pretend  to  be  people  they  are  NOT   § Helps  us  to  know  that  people  are  who  they  say  they  are     o Requirements:     1. Doctoral  Degree:  APA  accredited     2. Postdoctoral  experience:  additional  year  of  training  after  you   graduate  and  did  your  internship   3. An  exam  (EPPP):  everyone  takes  the  same  exam  but  different   states  require  different  requirements     4. Administrative  requirement     5. Oral  Exam:  some  states  how  this  extra  requirement  but  NOT   Florida   o Additional  requirements:  An  extra  30  hrs.   § Sex  therapy     § Hypnosis     o You  can  only  be  licensed  in  one  state   o Provisional  License:  VA;  can  be  licensed  and  transferred  but  have  to   be  a  license  in  that  state  soon       1/27/16     Private  Practice       § Usually  a  session  is  listed  as  an  hour,  but  its  really  45-­‐50  minutes   § The  therapist  would  make  $120  per  hour   o This  is  hard  to  do   • So  they  can  also  choose  to  pair  up  with  an  insurance  company     o In  Florida,  BCBS  and  Florida  Blue  are  the  popular  ones   • With  this  option,  the  patient  pays  the  therapist  a  $20  copay  and  the   insurance  company  pays  $80  =  $100   o With  this  option  the  therapist  makes  $100   o This  is  less  than  the  $120,  BUT  it  sets  them  up  with  a  large  pool  of   patients     § Yes,  it  is  less  money  but  the  therapist  has  access  to  more   patients  that  they  wouldn’t  have  had     Trade  off:  Less  money  per  session  but  more  clients   Clinical Psychology CLP3305   • Also  with  the  pairing  up  with  the  insurance  companies,  there  is  an  increases   focus  on  accountability   o Insurance  companies  are  the  “gatekeepers”   o They  make  sure  the  therapist  is  following  the  rules     o The  therapists  tell  the  insurance  companies  what  the  diagnosis  is   o The  insurance  companies  then  tell  the  therapists  how  long  it  should   take  to  treat  the  patient   o Prevents  the  therapist  from  milking  to  patient  along  and  getting  more   money  for  their  service   o Ex:  seeing  them  for  2  yrs  when  in  reality  it  should  be  a  3  wk  session   § Insurances  help  keep  this  truthful  and  fair  to  the  patient     Prescription  Privileges       • Trade  offs     • Pros:   o More  variety  of  treatments     o Easy  to  access  and  cost  efficient  for  the  patient   o Helpful  for  rural  communities     o Advantage  over  other  healthcare  providers     • Cons:   o Takes  away  from  psychological  treatment   o Biological  over  psychological     o Gets  in  the  way  of  the  relationship  between  psychiatry  and  medicine   o Malpractice  increases       Not  going  to  be  tested  on  the  technological  innovation     • Intake:  find  out  what’s  going  on,  first  meeting   • Collusion:  Ignoring  the  elephant  in  the  room       1/29/16     Ethical  Standards     • Can  lose  your  license  when  you  violate  the  ethical  standards   • APA  Publication  for  psychologists     o Beneficence  and  non-­‐maleficence:  “Do  no  harm”   § Doing  nothing  at  all  or  making  them  worse  than  they  already   are     o Integrity  and  Justice   o Respect  for  individuals  rights   o Responsibility     • Competence     Clinical Psychology CLP3305 o “You  represent  you”   § Ex:  If  a  client  calls  you  a  doctor  and  you  really  aren’t,  you  have   an  obligation  to  correct  that  person   § You  want  to  represent  yourself  in  the  best  manor  possible   o Be  sensitive  to  different  race,  genders,  ethnicities,  backgrounds,   culture,  age,  sexual  preferences,  etc.     • Privacy  and  Confidentiality  **       o Client-­‐therapist  relationship   o Tarasoff  case:  Anytime  you  have  a  client  that  threatens  someone  else,   you  have  to  inform  that  person   § National  standard   o Baker  act:  Anytime  a  client  threatens  to  harm  themselves  or  have  to   be  hospitalizes   § State  wide  standard   § Florida   o Suspected  child  abuse,  suicide,  murder,  elder  abuse  (in  Florida)     • Human  Relations  **   o Also  called  dual  relationships,  conflict  of  interest,  hidden  agenda,   boundary  issues   o You  want  to  be  friendly  but  keep  it  strictly  professional     § Sexual  activities,  employing  a  client,  selling  a  product  to  a   client,  becoming  friends  with  a  client   • All  are  stickily  prohibited     § If  you  see  a  client  in  public,  let  them  acknowledge  you  first!   o Can  lead  to  termination  of  therapy             Clinical  Psychology         CLP3305     2/1/16     Most  common  ethical  incidents     1. Confidentially     2. “Boundary  Issues”:  blurred,  dual  or  conflicted  relationships   3. Payment:  You  can  charge  them  for  a  “no  show”  fee  as  long  as  you  let  them   know  before  charging  and    it  is  clearly  stated  in  the  documents  they   signed     Professional  Issues   • If  you  have  a  friend  or  family  member  that  you  are  concerned  about,  “plant   the  seed”   o Let  them  know  the  specific  resources  available  for  them  to  get  help   • Three  steps   1. Plant  the  seed   2. Gain  that  person’s  trust   3. Don’t  judge     Chapter  4:  Research  methods  in  clinical  psychology     Research  and  ethics  (in  relation  to  adults)   • Must  be  interesting  to  you   • Choose  something  timely  (something  in  the  news  that  matters)   o Ex:  autism,  bullying,  sexual  harassment     • IRB:  your  study  has  to  be  submitted  to  IRB  and  they  have  to  approve  it  before   you  start   • Informed  consent  **   o The  researcher  is  required  to  inform  the  participant  of  any  risk,   limitations,  discomforts,  etc.   o The  researcher  is  also  required  to  inform  the  participant  that  they   have  the  freedom  to  withdraw  from  the  study   • Confidentiality  **   o The  only  place  you  have  the  participant’s  name  is  on  the  informed   consent  agreement   o Everywhere  else  in  the  study,  the  participant’s  identity  will  be   protected     • Deception/Lying   o The  research  is  allowed  to  lie,  BUT  only  when  the  IRB  approves   • Debriefing     o The  researcher  is  required  to  inform  the  participant  the  idea  behind   the  study,  why  it  is  important  and  what  they  were  specifically  testing   • Fraudulent  Data   o Common   o Some  people  submit  made  up  findings       Clinical  Psychology         CLP3305   o But  very  counterproductive  because  you  want  to  publish  the   experiment  so  other  people  can  replicate  it  and  get  close  to  the  same   results     2/3/16     Chapter  5:  Diagnosis  and  classification  of  psychological  problems   Abnormal  Behavior     • Statistical  infrequency  (#s)  or  violation  of  social  norms  **   o Advantages  of  this  definition     § Cutoff  points   § Appeal     • We  like  #s  (ex:  IQ)   o Problems  with  this  definition     § Choice  of  cutoff  points     • Ex:  at  what  point  do  you  get  a  ticket  when  the  speed   limit  is  70?  71?  75?  85?   • Close  calls  are  so  frustrating   § Number  of  deviations   • Ex:  why  is  a  90  an  A?   § Cultural  and  development  relativity     • #s  are  good  but  they  aren’t  everything   o We  need  to  pay  attention  to  the  #s  but  also  the  culture  (BOTH)     • Subjective  distress   o Keyword  -­‐  Subjective:  exactly  how  much  stress  so  you  need  and   everyone  has  a  different  threshold   o Advantages  of  this  definition     § It  seems  reasonable  to  think  that  adults  can  assess  when  they   are  stressed  and  that  they  can  share  this  information  AND  ARE   MOTIVATED  TO  DO  SO     • Works  when  people  are  motivated  to  make  a  change   • When  the  patient  is  stressed,  they  will  be  more   motivated  to  fix  the  problem  and  more  likely  to  change   with  therapy   o Problems  with  this  definition     § Not  everyone  that  is  diagnosed  as  “disordered”  reports  they   are  stressed   • Doesn’t  work  for  people  that  don’t  care,  people  that  are   delusional,  and  people  that  are  in  denial     o Schizophrenic:  these  people  know  there  is  a   problem,  but  they  think  the  problem  is  YOU  (not   themselves)         Clinical  Psychology         CLP3305   o Substance  Abuse/Eating  Disorder:  People   diagnosed  with  either  of  these  are  in  denial,  “If  I   wanted  to  quit,  I  could”   o Antisocial  people:  People  that  don’t  care  about   anyone  but  themselves     § How  mush  stress  is  abnormal?     • Disability,  dysfunction,  or  impairment     o Must  create  some  degree  of  social  or  occupational  problems  with  the   person   § “Be  all  that  you  can  be”   § People  fitting  in  this  category  are  NOT  being  all  that  they  can   be     § They  are  hurting  themselves   o Advantages  of  this  definition     § Little  inference  required   o Problems  with  this  definition     § Who  establishes  the  standards  for  social  or  occupational   dysfunction?   • “Are  you  playing  God”   • It’s  your  views  to  think  the  patient  is  at  fault  for  hurting   himself  or  herself.  Who  says  he/she  needs   family/friends,  social  atmosphere,  school,  work,  etc?     • Take  home  message:  Abnormal  behavior  does  not  necessarily  indicate   mental  illness     2/5/16     Mental  illness   • DSM5:  updated  version  of  the  book  that  all  psychologists  follow  (Basically  a   book  of  all  the  disorders  and  their  numbers)   o The  syndrome,  cluster  of  abnormal  behaviors   o A  mental  disorder  represents  a  dysfunction  within  an  individual     § This  means  it  is  not  a  societal  issue   o Not  all  “outliers”  (both  ends  of  the  bell  curve)  are  signs  of  mental   disorders     • The  importance  of  diagnosis     1. Treatment  has  to  match  the  problem   § Shows  what  mode  of  treatment  would  be  most  effective   2. Insurance  purposes     3. Communication:     § Between  professionals:  when  one  uses  a  term  in  the  book  and   the  other  knows  exactly  what  he/she  is  referring  to       Clinical  Psychology         CLP3305   § Between  client  and  therapist:  as  a  therapist,  you  are  required   to  tell  the  client  what  their  diagnosis  is  but  sometimes  you   would  rather  not  because  the  client  may  start  to  fill  that  role   4. “Normalizing”:  Lets  the  patient  know  that  other  people  feel  exactly   what  and  how  they  feel.  Shows  them  that  they  are  not  alone   5. Allows  distinctions  to  be  made   6. Research       • Co-­‐morbidity:    multiple  diagnosis       **DON’T  have  to  know  the  multiaxal  assessment  system  of  diagnosis**     • General  Issues  in  classification     o Quality  vs.  Quantity     § Quality:  “black  vs.  white,”  you  either  have  it  or  you  don’t     § Quantity:  the  reality  is  that  everyone  experiences  it,  BUT  the   key  is  how  much  you  experience  it     • “Quantity  is  the  key”   o Bases  of  categorization   § Classify  psychiatric  patients     § Heterogeneity:  sometimes  can  be  a  problem  because  most  of   the  time  when  someone  is  diagnosed  with  a  problem  they  are   grouped  within  that  category   • You  have  to  be  careful.  Everyone  in  a  category  isn’t  the   same   o Pragmatics  of  classification     § Everything  in  the  DSM5  is  covered  by  insurance.  So  you  have  to   be  careful  what  you  classify  as  a  condition     o Reliability     § Goes  hand  in  hand  with  validity   § Refers  to  consistency  of  diagnosis   • Key  word  –  Consistency:  basically  a  second  opinion     o Both  people  should  come  up  with  the  same   diagnosis     • Negatives  to  Diagnosing     o For  some  clinicians  classifying  people  may  become  more  satisfactory   than  trying  to  relieve  their  problems  ***   o Classifications  can  be  harmful   § Self  Fulfilling  Prophecies:  the  diagnosis  becomes  the  clients   identity,  consumes  their  life,  becomes  who  they  are     § Gives  the  client  an  excuse:  “No,  I  cant  do  this  because  I  am   Schizophrenic”   • Diathesis-­‐stress  model:  works  under  all  models  and  included  BOTH  nature   and  nurture   o Environmental  stress  then  causes  the  disorder  


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