Exam 1: Study Guide
Exam 1: Study Guide NREM 221
Popular in Soil Resources
Popular in Environmental Science
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Gervais on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NREM 221 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Ghezzi in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Soil Resources in Environmental Science at Ball State University.
Reviews for Exam 1: Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/16
Soil Resources Study Guide Chapter 1: The Soils Around Us -Functions of soils in ecosystems Soils as Media for Plant Growth Soil as Regulator of Water Supplies Soil as Regulator or Raw Materials Soil as Modifier of the Atmosphere Soil as Habitat for Soil Organisms Soil as Engineering Medium Pedosphere as Environmental Interface Soil as Natural Body -Soil Profile and its Layers Components of Soil o Minerals (47%) o Unavailable Water (16%) o Available Water (17%) o Air (17%) o Organic (3%) Soil Layers o O Horizon: Organic surface layer o A Horizon: Mineral horizon at surface (Top Soil) o E Horizon: Elluvial horizon o B Horizon: Illuvial horizon o C Horizon: Unweathered, parent material o R Horizon: Consolidated bedrock -Minerals (Inorganic) constituents of soils -Influence of Humans on Soil Quality Chapter 2: Formation of Soils from Parental Material Weathering of Mineral and Rocks Primary Minerals Light colored alumino-silicate minerals o Quartz o Feldspar o Muscovite Mica Dark colored ferro-magnesium mineras o Biotite o Hornblende o Olivine Secondary Minerals Al and Fe oxides and hydroxides o Geothite o Gibbsite o Very stable soils minerals- OLD soils Aluminosilicate clays Salts o Calcite o Dolomite o Gypsium Rocks Igneous o Cooled from molten magma o Granite o Basalt Sedimentary o Deposited and re-cementation of weathering products from other rocks o Sandstone o Limestone Metamorphic o Transformation of igneous and sedimentary rock by high pressure Weathering Physical Chemical Factors Influencing Soil Formation 1. Climate 2. Biotic Activities 3. Topography 4. Parent Materials 5. Time Parent Materials Residual Organic Transported Climate Effective Precipitation Temperature Biota Vegetation Animals Microorganisms Topography Time Processes of Soils Formations Transformation Translocation Additions Losses Chapter 3: Soil Classification Concept of Individual Soils Pedon Polypedon Soil Series Comprehensive Classification System: Soil taxonomy Soil Taxonomy Diagnostic Soil Horizons Epipedons Endopedons Organization of Soil Taxonomy O r d Suborde r Great Group Subgroup Family Series Soil Orders Entisols Inceptisols Andisols Aridisols Gelisols Vertisols Mollisols Alfisols Ultisols Spodosols Oxisols Tools of Taxonomy 1. Base Saturation 2. Diagnostic Epipedons 3. Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons 4. Moisture regimes 5. Temperature regimes Soil Spatial Variability General types of variability o Vertical o Horizontal In the Field o Small Scale o Medium Scale o Large Scale Approaches to Soil Sampling Soil Auguring Nonintrusive Grid sampling Transect sampling Chapter 4: Soil Architecture and Physical Properties Nature of Soil Separates Sand Silt Clay Structure of Minerals Soils -Arrangements of the way of sand, clay, and silt particles Structural Types Granular Platy Prism-like Blocky Single-grained Massive Soil Density Particle Density Bulk Density Soil Pores Macropores Micropores Factors Influencing Aggregate Formation and Stability Physical- Chemical Processes o Mutual attraction among clay particles o Shrinking/Swelling Biological Processes o Activities of soil organisms o Influence of organic matter Chapter 5: Soil Water- Characteristics and Behavior Structure and Related Properties of Water -Water Molecules Hydrogen Bonding Cohesion Adhesion Surface Tension Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water Capillary Rise Soil Water Potential Matric Potential Osmotic or Solute Potential Hydrostatic Potential Soil Water Content and Soil Water Potential Mass Water Content Volumetric Content The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil Saturated Flow Unsaturated Flow o Saturated Flow: Darcy’s Law and Ksat o Factors Influencing Saturated Hydraulics Conductivity o Unsaturated Flow Infiltration and Percolation Infiltration control Water Movement in Stratified Soils Hydrologic Cycle Watershed Evaporation/ transpiration Interception Infiltration Surface Runoff Drainage Soil Storage Precipitation Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum Vegetative Mulches
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'