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Exam 1: Study Guide

by: Angela Gervais

Exam 1: Study Guide NREM 221

Angela Gervais
GPA 3.02

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Here is another helpful study guide for the exam on Tuesday! Good luck!
Soil Resources
Dr. Ghezzi
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Gervais on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NREM 221 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Ghezzi in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Soil Resources in Environmental Science at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Soil Resources Study Guide Chapter 1: The Soils Around Us -Functions of soils in ecosystems  Soils as Media for Plant Growth  Soil as Regulator of Water Supplies  Soil as Regulator or Raw Materials  Soil as Modifier of the Atmosphere  Soil as Habitat for Soil Organisms  Soil as Engineering Medium  Pedosphere as Environmental Interface  Soil as Natural Body -Soil Profile and its Layers  Components of Soil o Minerals (47%) o Unavailable Water (16%) o Available Water (17%) o Air (17%) o Organic (3%)  Soil Layers o O Horizon: Organic surface layer o A Horizon: Mineral horizon at surface (Top Soil) o E Horizon: Elluvial horizon o B Horizon: Illuvial horizon o C Horizon: Unweathered, parent material o R Horizon: Consolidated bedrock -Minerals (Inorganic) constituents of soils -Influence of Humans on Soil Quality Chapter 2: Formation of Soils from Parental Material Weathering of Mineral and Rocks Primary Minerals  Light colored alumino-silicate minerals o Quartz o Feldspar o Muscovite Mica  Dark colored ferro-magnesium mineras o Biotite o Hornblende o Olivine Secondary Minerals  Al and Fe oxides and hydroxides o Geothite o Gibbsite o Very stable soils minerals- OLD soils  Aluminosilicate clays  Salts o Calcite o Dolomite o Gypsium Rocks  Igneous o Cooled from molten magma o Granite o Basalt  Sedimentary o Deposited and re-cementation of weathering products from other rocks o Sandstone o Limestone  Metamorphic o Transformation of igneous and sedimentary rock by high pressure Weathering  Physical  Chemical Factors Influencing Soil Formation 1. Climate 2. Biotic Activities 3. Topography 4. Parent Materials 5. Time Parent Materials  Residual  Organic  Transported Climate  Effective Precipitation  Temperature Biota  Vegetation  Animals  Microorganisms Topography Time Processes of Soils Formations  Transformation  Translocation  Additions  Losses Chapter 3: Soil Classification Concept of Individual Soils  Pedon  Polypedon  Soil Series Comprehensive Classification System: Soil taxonomy  Soil Taxonomy  Diagnostic Soil Horizons  Epipedons  Endopedons Organization of Soil Taxonomy O r d Suborde r Great Group Subgroup Family Series Soil Orders  Entisols  Inceptisols  Andisols  Aridisols  Gelisols  Vertisols  Mollisols  Alfisols  Ultisols  Spodosols  Oxisols Tools of Taxonomy 1. Base Saturation 2. Diagnostic Epipedons 3. Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons 4. Moisture regimes 5. Temperature regimes Soil Spatial Variability  General types of variability o Vertical o Horizontal  In the Field o Small Scale o Medium Scale o Large Scale Approaches to Soil Sampling  Soil Auguring  Nonintrusive  Grid sampling  Transect sampling Chapter 4: Soil Architecture and Physical Properties Nature of Soil Separates  Sand  Silt  Clay Structure of Minerals Soils -Arrangements of the way of sand, clay, and silt particles Structural Types  Granular  Platy  Prism-like  Blocky  Single-grained  Massive Soil Density  Particle Density  Bulk Density Soil Pores  Macropores  Micropores Factors Influencing Aggregate Formation and Stability  Physical- Chemical Processes o Mutual attraction among clay particles o Shrinking/Swelling  Biological Processes o Activities of soil organisms o Influence of organic matter Chapter 5: Soil Water- Characteristics and Behavior Structure and Related Properties of Water -Water Molecules  Hydrogen Bonding  Cohesion  Adhesion  Surface Tension Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water  Capillary Rise Soil Water Potential  Matric Potential  Osmotic or Solute Potential  Hydrostatic Potential Soil Water Content and Soil Water Potential  Mass Water Content  Volumetric Content The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil  Saturated Flow  Unsaturated Flow o Saturated Flow: Darcy’s Law and Ksat o Factors Influencing Saturated Hydraulics Conductivity o Unsaturated Flow Infiltration and Percolation  Infiltration control  Water Movement in Stratified Soils Hydrologic Cycle  Watershed  Evaporation/ transpiration  Interception  Infiltration  Surface Runoff  Drainage  Soil Storage Precipitation  Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum  Vegetative Mulches


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