Wayne State Abnormal Psychology PSY 3310 Exam 1 Study Guide
Wayne State Abnormal Psychology PSY 3310 Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 3310
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sanaya Irani on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 3310 at Wayne State University taught by Robert Kanser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.
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Study Guide – Exam 1 Multiple Choice (45 Questions worth 90 points) Short Answer (1 Question worth 10 points) Chapter 1: Introduction and Historical Overview Defining Mental Disorder / Abnormal Behavior The four main characteristics (the 4 D’s) Dysfunction: acting abnormally; breakdown in cognitive behavioral function Distress: upsetting to the individual Disability: some people with disorders are not distressed about it, as they believe their actions are justified. Deviance: violates social norms. Case Example: Tom is uncomfortable riding escalators. As a result, Tom avoids using them. Dysfunction: mentally unable to use escalators Distress: need more information Disability: not much Deviance: overtly not really violating norms Pros and Cons of labeling behavior as “abnormal” Pros: conditions can be effectively diagnosed and treated by medical professionals Cons: labeling, people may be wrongly diagnosed, people may be insulted by diagnoses. Psychopathology What is it? What are the targets? Psychopathology: the study of nature, development, and treatment of psychological disorders. Targets: Clinical description, causation, and treatment/outcome. Clinical Description: allows us to distinguish it from normal behavior and other disorders. Etiology/Causes: What causes the disorder?/Nature vs. Nurture Treatment: target symptomsoutbreaks, mania Key terms: prevalence, incidence, course Prevalence: how many people have it (rare/common) Incidence: # of cases of time Course: pattern of symptoms/disorders over time (episodic vs. chronic) often depends on medication use. History: 3 main traditions o Know their view of mental illness and their common treatments Supernatural Tradition: mental illness is caused by possession by evil demons or spirits. Treatments: exorcism, tortureto scare spirits out of body of make body uninhabitable by demons Biological Tradition: founded by Hippocrates, mental disorders are caused by natural causes, such as problems with the brain. The brain was known as the seat of wisdom, consciousness, intelligence, and emotion. According to the Humoral Theory the balance of the four humors (blood, black, yellow bile and phlegm) Treatments: blood letting /induced vomiting Insulin Shock therapy: to treat psychotic/schizophrenia Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)induce convulsions with electric shock and is still used today. Psychological Tradition: moral therapy, psychoanalytic theory, humanistic theory, behavioral model Treatment: treatment was lacking or quite harmful at asylums o Psychological tradition: moral therapy, psychoanalytic theory, humanistic theory, behavioral model Moral Therapy: Pioneered by Dorothea Dix who pushed for the mental hygiene movement and urged improvement of asylums and greater quality of care Psychoanalytic Theory: Proposed by Freud where human behavior is determined by unconscious forces and the conflicts between these forces results in psychopathology. The mind is divided into the id, ego and superego. Id: Unconscious, consists of pleasure principle which results in immediate gratification Ego: primary conscious, driven by reality principle which uses logic and reason Mediated role conflict between the id and superego Superego: unconscious, driven by the moral principle which incorporates parental and societal values Humanistic Theory: patient and doctors are equals and the role of the therapist is to provide the right environment for the patient to grow and become the best person they can be. Optimism, genuine, humanistic, growthcentered, existential and understanding of why people do what they do. If given the right environment, people will grow and heal themselves. Carl Rogers: Patientcentered therapy Unconditional positive regard and a therapeutic relationship can foster growth. Behavioral Model: John Watson (18781958) Behaviorism focuses on observable behaviors Emphasis on learning rather than innate tendencies Classical Conditioning: Pavlov, the dog and bell example Unconditioned stimulussomething that illicit a response Unconditioned responsethat response Conditioned stimulusa stimulus that you learn to associate with the UCS Conditioned responsethe UCR following the CS. Operant Conditioning: Skinner, Reinforcements and Punishments. Modeling: can learn by observing others’ behaviors. Behaviorallybased therapy: Floodingexposure to feared stimulus Systematic desensitization: combines deep muscle relaxation and gradual exposure to feared condition Intermittent reinforcement: rewarding behavior occasionally is more efficient than frequently. Key people: know their theory and contributions o Hippocrates; Walter Freeman; Dorothea Dix; Freud (esp structure of the mind); Carl Rogers; Pavlov, Skinner, & Mendlove Hippocrates: Founder of the biological tradition and believed that mental disorders are caused by natural causes, such as problems with the brain. He believed the brain was the seat of wisdom and came up with the Humoral theory. Walter Freeman: traveled in his “lobotomobile” and performed over 2900 lobotomies. Jabbed ice pick through the eye socket and wiggled around to damage frontal lobe. This process, known as the transorbital lobotomy, turned many people into vegetables, but cured a few. Dorothea Dix: Crusader for prisoners and mentally ill. She began the mental hygiene movement and urged improvement of institutions and increased access to care. Worked to establish 32 new, public hospitals. Freud: Came up with the psychoanalytic theory which proposed that human behavior was determined by unconscious forces. Mind is divided into the id (unconscious), ego (primary conscious) and superego (unconscious). Carl Rogers: Founded patient centered therapy, therapeutic relationship centered growth, unconditional positive regard=complete understanding. Pavlov: Pavlov discovered classical conditioning through his famous experiment with the dogs and the bell. Using a slab of meat, he conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell as they thought the bell signaled the arrival of food. Skinner: founder of operant conditioning and positive/negative punishments and positive/negative reinforcements. Menlove: used modeling, which is learning by observing others’ behaviors. Children watched others playing with dogs and eventually overcame their own fear of dogs. Chapter 2: Integrative Approach to Psychopathology Unidimensional vs Multidimensional models Unidimensional: explains behaviors in a single cause and ignores info from other areas. Ex. Genetic factors are sole contributors to disease Multidimensional: system of influences that cause and influence behavior. Abnormal behavior results from multiple influences which are interdimensional and integrative. ** Be able to explain generally what each paradigm is characterized by ** Genetic Paradigm Genotype: having a certain gene/allele Phenotype: how the allele manifests/is expressed Most psychological disorders have genetic component but less than 50%. Human genome has over 20,000 genes but only certain are turned on at a time. Epigenetics: genetic structures of cells change as a result of learning experiences. The relationship between genes and the environment o DiathesisStress model & the Reciprocal GeneEnvironment model DiathesisStress model: a certain stressor turns on given genes, which develop into an abnormal disorder. Reciprocal GeneEnvironment model: genes vulnerable to the disorder and experiencing the environmental risk factors (stressors) associated with it. Epigenetics and non inheritance of behavior: Genes are not the whole story. Suomi study where monkeys had the genetic risk to be stressed but were raised by calm mothers, so they grew to be calmer and became calm parents as well. Neuroscience Paradigm Brain Structure o Brainstem: Hindbrain, Midbrain, Thalamus/Hypothalamus Hindbrain: regulates automatic processes Medulla: heart rate, blood pressure, respiration Pons: regulates sleep rhythm Cerebellum: balance and other physical properties Midbrain: coordinates movement with sensory input Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS) Thalamus: receives and integrates sensory information Hypothalamus: helps and regulates behaviors and emotions o Forebrain: Limbic system and Lobes of the Cortex ***very general, what does each control**** Forebrain: most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processes Limbic System: Hippocampus: memory Amygdala: emotional stimuli and memories ability to learn and control impulses and drives regulate emotional experience and expressions Cerebral Cortex: home to 4 lobes Frontal Lobe: thinking/reasoning and memory Parietal: body functioning, body posture Occipital: visual info Temporal: long term memory, hearing/advanced visual The peripheral nervous system: somatic vs autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) o ****general, what do they all control***** Consists of the nerves and spinal cord Somatic Branch: voluntary movements/muscles Autonomic Branch: involuntary processes Sympathetic: mobilizing body in stressor danger. Fight or flight, increased heart rate, hormone release Parasympathetic: storage of energy, digestive process, rest and digest. Neurotransmitters: what are they, what do they do? Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers which transmit messages between brain cells. Agonists: mimics effects of neurotransmitters Antagonists: inhibit/block effects and prevent neurotransmitters from interacting with other cells’ dendrites o 5 main types: what are their roles? Disorders they’re linked to? Serotonin: when disregulated, can cause depression. Main role is in info processing, behavior, mood, thoughts. Lows levels may cause lack of inhibitions. Norepinephrine: aka noradrenaline. Involved in alarm processes and basic body processes. Dopamine: linked with pleasure seeking behaviors. Implicated in depression and ADHD. High levels of Dopamine result in schizophrenia, while low levels result in Parkinson’s disease. GABA: main inhibitory neurotransmitter Glutamate: main excitatory neurotransmitter (generally activating) Cognitive Behavioral Paradigm: Types of learning Classical Conditioning Respondent/Operant Learning Learned helplessness Social learning (modeling/observational behavior) Prepared learning Implicit memory: acting on basis of experiences which are not related Blind Sight: blind people can still sense objects in their visual field even if they don’t experience sight. Emotion: three components of emotion Emotions illicit or invoke some kind of action. Affect: way you show emotions, what others can see Mood: persistent emotions/how you are feeling Three main components: behavior, physiology, and cognition Issue of social stigma May limit the degree to which people express mental problems May discourage treatment seeking Principle of Equifinality: People could develop disorders over various paths and the paths differ by developmental stage. Chapter 3: Diagnosis and Assessment Clinical assessment: definition and purpose Clinical assessment: the systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in an individual with a possible psychological disorder. Purpose: to understand individual (strengths, weaknesses, diagnoses), predict behavior, plan treatment, and evaluate treatment outcome. Key Concepts: reliability, validity, standardization know definitions and examples Reliability: consistency in measurement interrater: consistency between different observers testretest: similarity of scores across repeated test administration internal consistency: extent to which test items are related to one another Validity: does technique measure what it’s supposed to measure concurrent: how do your scores measure with another measure predictive: how well measure tells us what will happen Standardization: ensuring consistency Ex. Specific set of instructions, structured scoring, evaluation procedures Components of mental status exam Clinical Interview: most common clinical assessment model. unstructured: series open ended questions semistructured: outline of questions, but flexible structured: same questions in exact same order Mental Status exam: appearance and behavior, thought processes, mood and affect, intellectual functioning, and sensorium. Behavioral Assessment: focus, ABCs Focus on the presenthere and now. Direct observation of behaviorenvironment relations Purpose is to identify problematic behaviors and situations. Antecedants: what happened prior to the behavior of concern Behavior: behavior of concern Consequence: what happened after the behavior was demonstrated Projective tests (theory and targets) vs. objective tests Projective tests: rooted in psychoanalytic tradition, used to assess unconscious processes, project aspects of personality onto ambiguous test stimuli, require high degree of inference in scoring and interpretation Ex. Rorschach Inkblot test and Thematic Apperception Test Objective Tests: roots in empirical tradition, test stimuli are less ambiguous, require minimal clinical inference in scoring and interpretation Purpose of Neuropsych testing Access broad range of skills and abilities Goal is to understand brainbehavior relations Diagnosing Psych Disorders Assignment to categories based on shared attribution or relations o Key Terms: taxonomy, nosology Taxonomy: classification in a scientific context Nosology: taxonomy in psychological/medical phenomena o Classical vs dimensional vs prototypical approaches Classical: strict categories (ex. You either have social anxiety disorder or you don’t) Dimensional: classification along dimensions (ex. Different people have varying amounts of anxiety in social situations) Prototypical approaches: combines classical and dimensional views Chapter 4: Research Methods Define: Independent Variable, Dependent Variable Independent Variable: the variable that causes or influences behavior Dependent Variable: the behavior influenced by the independent variable Internal vs. External validity Internal validity: Extent to which results of a study are due to the independent variable External validity: extent to which the results of a study are generalizable to the population it’s studying Research Designs o Case studies: strengths and limitations Strengths are that it is an extensive observation and detailed description of a client. The limitations are that it lacks scientific rigor and suitable controls, internal validity is typically weak, and often entails numerous confounds. o Correlational vs Experimental designs Correlation vs causation Correlation: Assess the degree to which levels of certain variables are linked to levels of other variables. Statistical relationship between two or more variables, no independent variable is manipulated, range from 1 to 1, positive vs. negative correlation Correlation does not imply causation Experimental Designs: manipulation of independent variable, attempt to establish causal relations Control groups: different types and their importance Placebo: some participants are given an inactive treatment, but participants do not know which treatment they are getting Double Blind: participants and the assessors are unaware of what kind of treatment participants are getting o Genetic research strategies: genotype vs phenotype Genotype: genetic makeup Phenotype: observable characteristics Family studies, adoptee studies, twin studies ^ Who do they look at, and what do they show Family Studies: behaviors/emotional traits in family members Adoptee Studies: separate environmental from genetic factors Twin studies: psychopathology in fraternal vs. identical twins o Time based designs Crosssectional vs longitudinal designs Cohort effects? Crosssectional designs: compare crosssection of some population across different age group. Longitudinal designs: follow one group over time and assess change Cohort effects: difference caused by age groups Chapter 5: Anxiety, Trauma, and ObsessiveCompulsive Disorders Anxiety disorders Anxiety vs Fear vs Panic Attack Anxiety: a future oriented mood state with apprehension about future danger of misfortune. Physical symptoms of tension and may lead to avoidance of situations likely to provoke fear. Certain levels of fear and anxiety are good and adaptive. Fear: present oriented mood state with immediate fight or flight response to danger or threat. Involves immediate activation of the sympathetic nervous system and utilizes strong avoidance/escapist strategies. Panic Attack: Abrupt experience of intense fear at inappropriate times. Physical symptoms include heart palpitations, chest pain, sweating, chills or dizziness. Cognitive symptoms include fear of losing control, dying or going crazy. There are two types expected or unexpected. Contributions: Biological (genetics, NTs, brain structures), Psychosocial Genetics: more likely to be anxious if family has a history of anxiety. NTs: depleted levels of GABA are associated with more anxiety. Deficits in norepinephrine and serotonin are also associated with greater anxiety. Psychosocial: Freud: reactivation of infantile fear Behaviorists: product of early classical conditioning/learning Todayearly experiences leading to a sense of lack of control and predictability in one’s life leads to more anxiety. Stressful life events trigger vulnerabilities. Invokes conditioning and cognitive explanations Anxiety and fear are learned responses Catastrophic thinking and appraisals play a role o Triple vulnerability model: theory for development of anxiety Generalized biological vulnerability: heritable contribution to negative effect Generalized psychological vulnerability: physical sensations are potentially dangerous Specific psychological vulnerability: sense that events are uncontrollable/unpredictable Comorbidity: having more than one diagnosis at once Common across anxiety disorders because they share feats of anxiety and panic Major depression is the most common secondary diagnosis. Overview and defining features of: GAD, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, Specific Phobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, Selective Mutism GAD: Excessive uncontrollable anxious apprehension and worry about multiple areas of life. Persists for six months or more. Accompanied by associated symptoms of muscle tension, restlessness, fatigue, irritability, concentration difficulties, and sleep disturbance. Panic Disorder: Experience of unexpected panic attacks, develop anxiety, worry, or fear about another attack. Many develop agoraphobia. Agoraphobia: fear of being in places in which it would be difficult to escape or get help in the event of unpleasant physical symptoms (ex. Panic attack, dizziness, vomiting, incontinence) Specific Phobia: Extreme irrational phobia of a specific object or situation. People go to great lengths to avoid phobic objects. Must recognize that fear and avoidance are unreasonable and markedly interferes with one’s ability to function. Common specific phobias are animals, natural environment, situational, bloodinjection injuries. Social Anxiety Disorder: extreme fear and discomfort in social or performance situations. Markedly interferes with one’s ability to function. Often avoid certain situations or endure them with great distress. Performance only subtype: Anxiety only occurs in performance situations without anxiety in everyday interactions Selective Mutism: Rare childhood disorder characterized by a lack of speech. Must occur for more than a month and cannot be limited to the first month of school. High comorbidity with SAD. o General treatments: meds, CBT (exposure, PCT) GAD: Treatment is generally weak and includes pharmacotherapy and specifically benzodiazepines and antidepressants. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: trigger worry response and teach coping Alternative psychotherapies: acceptance basedaccepting thoughts/emotions Meditational approaches: increase tolerance to worry Combined Treatments: short term: drugs = therapy Long term: drugs < therapy Panic Disorder: medications benzodiazepines or SSRIs. Psychotherapy: CBT is effective, Target Interoceptive Avoidance Panic Control Treatment: cognitive therapy combined with purposefully triggering (exposure to) panic sensations to build tolerance. Psychological and combined treatments: CBT alone produces best longterm outcome Agoraphobia: similar to panic disorder Specific Phobia: CBT is critical Social Anxiety Disorder: Psychological treatment: CBT, Cognitivebehavioral group treatment (CBGT) Medications: generalized social anxiety treated with SSRIs, circumscribed performance anxiety may be treated by beta blockers or benzodiazepines Selective Mutism: CBT is most effective Know overview/defining features and treatments for: OCD: obsessions vs compulsions Obsessions: intrusive and nonsensical thoughts, images, or urges Compulsions: thoughts and actions to neutralize anxious thoughts Vicious cycle of obsessions and compulsions Biological treatments: SSRIs and psychosurgery is used in extreme cases Psychological treatment: CBT is the most effective Hoarding: Excessively collecting or keeping items regardless of their value, with a difficulty discarding items due to a fear of needing them later. Causes clinically significant distress or impairment. Trichotillomania and Excoriation: Trichotillomania is the urge to pull out one’s own hair from anywhere on the body. Leads to noticeable hair loss Excoriation: repetitive and compulsive picking of the skin leading to tissue damage. Behavioral habit reversal is best treatment for both. BDD: Preoccupation with some imagined defect in appearance. Leads to clinically significant distress and compulsive behaviors. Medications that work for OCD provide some relief. CBT and exposure to anxiety and preventing compulsions work best. Chapter 6: Somatic Symptom Disorders and Dissociative Disorders Conversion vs Factitious Disorders: Clinical descriptions Conversion Disorders: Malfunctioning of sensory or motor functioning without organic/neurological cause. Retain most normal functions but lack awareness. Unconscious and incentive is internal. Factitious Disorders: purposefully faking physical symptoms, may actually induce physical symptoms or just pretend to have them, no obvious external gains. Conscious but incentive is internal. Dissociative disorders: derealization vs depersonalization Depersonalization: distortion in perception of one’s own body or experience Derealization: losing a sense of the external world. Dissociative amnesia: dissociative fugue Includes several forms of psychogenic memory loss. Generalized vs. localized or selective type. May involve dissociative fugue: during the amnestic episode, person travels or wanders, sometimes assuming a new identity in a different place. Unable to remember why or how someone has ended up in a new place.
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