Life 103 Exam 1 Study Guide
Life 103 Exam 1 Study Guide LIFE 103
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Exam 1 Study Guide 1. What do nodes on a phylogenic tree represent? 2. What is the difference between homology and analogy? 3. What is a conserved gene and give an example. 4. Describe the endosymbiotic theory. 5. Describe horizontal gene transfer. 6. Name a key feature of prokaryotes. 7. What do all bacterial cells have? 8. What are bacterial cell walls made of and what does it do? 9. What is the purpose of bacterial endospores? 10. What are facultative anaerobes and give an example. 11. Name the three ways genetic recombination can occur and describe each one. 12. Name three causes of horizontal gene transfer. 13. What disease is the pathogen organism Yersinia pestis responsible for? 14. What is a protist? 15. Name the four supergroups within Eukarya and describe each one, including any important phyla. 16. Which group of organisms are modern land plants most closely related to? 17. Which group of organisms contains the protists most closely related to fungi and animals? 18. Why was the kingdom Protista eliminated? 19. Which two domains are most closely related to each other? 20. What are mycelia? 21. Describe mycorrhizae. 22. Describe the three stages of the sexual life cycle of fungi. 23. Name and describe the four important fungal groups. 24. What is the relationship between fungi and lichen? 25. What is sporopollenin and what is its job in charophytes? 26. Describe alternation of generations and why it’s an important adaptation for evolving land plants. 27. What are the names for the male and female gametangia in a seedless land plant? 28. What are apical meristems? 29. Name and describe the three main phyla of the nonvascular bryophytes. 30. What is peat and why is it important? 31. What are sporangia? 32. Name the two types of vascular tissue and describe the function of each. 33. Name and describe the two main phyla of seedless vascular plants. 34. What are sori? 35. What is the difference between homosporous and heterosporous? 36. Nonvascular plants’ life cycles are dominated by while vascular plants’ life cycles are dominated by . 37. Describe the function of gametophytes and sporophytes, including ploidy. 38. What is the name for modern land plants and why are they called that? 39. What is a seed and what is its function? 40. What do all seed plants have in common? 41. What are gymnosperms? 42. The life cycle of a gymnosperm is dominated by the . 43. What is desiccation? 44. What are conifers? 45. Describe the female anatomy of gymnosperms. 46. Describe the male anatomy of gymnosperms. 47. What is pollination and why is it an adaptive advantage? 48. What are three key features of a gymnosperm life cycle? 49. Describe the life cycle of a pine. 50. Name the four phyla of gymnosperms and describe them. Answers 1. Nodes on a phylogenic tree represent a common ancestor. 2. Homology is phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry. Analogy is similarity due to convergent evolution, which occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages. 3. Conserved genes are genes that evolve slowly over time. An example of this is DNA coding for rRNA. 4. The endosymbiotic theory is the idea that mitochondria/chloroplasts evolved from symbiotic cyanobacteria, which led to an explosion in diversity among organisms. 5. Horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genes between genomes, often through a tubelike organ called a sex pilus, which has played a key role in the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 6. Many prokaryotes (especially in Archaea) are extremophiles, which means they can live in environments with a pH of <1 or >12 and in temps above 100˚C. 7. All bacterial cells have a nucleoid region, cytoplasm, a plasma membrane, and a cell wall. 8. Bacterial cell walls are made of a rigid network of sugars and polypeptides called peptidoglycan, which provides structure and protection for the cell. 9. Bacterial endospores are dormant bodies of genetic material used by vegetative cells of Bacillus and Clostridium to continue life in case of harsh conditions. Release of these spores is triggered by the depletion of nutrients, and they are the most resistant of all life forms. 10. Facultative anaerobes are organisms that can survive with or without oxygen and can use both aerobic and aerobic respiration, such as muscle cells. 11. Genetic recombination can occur by transformation, transduction, and conjugation. Transformation is the gathering of naked DNA fragments and inserting them into a foreign host organism. Transduction is the transfer of DNA by bacteriophage. Conjugation is the transfer of DNA through horizontal gene transfer. 12. Horizontal gene transfer can occur by exchange of transposable elements and plastids, viral infection, and fusion of organisms. 13. Yersinia pestis is responsible for causing the bubonic plague. 14. “Protist” is a historic term unrelated to evolutionary history. A protist is deﬁned as anything that isn’t a plant, animal, fungus, or prokaryote. 15. The four supergroups of Eukarya are Excavata, the SAR clade, Archaeplastida, and Unikonta. Excavata have an excavated groove on their bodies and include the diplomonads, parabasalids, and euglenozoans. The SAR clade is deﬁned by DNA similarities and includes the stramenophiles, which have hairy ﬂagella, the alleviates, which have membrane sacs, and the rhizarians, which have pseudopodia and cilia. Archaeplastida is the parent group of modern land plants and includes red/ green algae. The two subgroups of green algae are the charophytes and chlorophytes. The Unikonts includes animals, fungi, and some protists, and has two groups: the amoebozoans and the opisthokonts. 16. Modern land plants are most closely related to green algae called charophytes. 17. The opisthokonts in the group Unikonta contain the protists most closely related to fungi and animals. 18. DNA sequencing eliminated the kingdom Protista. 19. Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related to each other than either are to Bacteria. 20. Mycelia are interwoven networks of branched tiny ﬁlaments with high surface areas called hyphae. 21. Mycorrhizae are mutually beneﬁcial relationships between fungi and plant roots. Mycorrhizal fungi deliver ions and minerals to plants while plants supply fungi with organic nutrients. 22. The three stages of the sexual life cycle of fungi are plasmogamy, which is the union of cytoplasm from two parent mycelia, the heterokaryon, which is coexistence period of haploid nuclei from each parent, and karyogamy, which is the fusion of the nuclei to create a diploid organism. 23. The four important fungal groups are zygomycetes, which are the most ecologically diverse group and contain pathogens, soil, and brea molds, glomeromycetes, which have mycorrhizal symbiosis with plant roots, and the higher fungi. The higher fungi are the ascomycetes, which produce spores in saclike asci in fruiting bodies called ascocarps (ex. fungus that makes penicillin), and the basidiomycetes, which produce spores in basidiocarps, and include mushrooms, shelf fungi, and the pathogens rust and smut. 24. Fungi and lichen have a symbiotic association. The fungus provides the environment for the plant to grow and the plant provides carbon compounds or organic nitrogen. 25. Sporopollenin is a durable polymer layer found in plant spore walls of charophytes and protects the zygotes from drying out, particularly during the period of land scarcity of water. 26. Alternation of generations describes the two-stage multicellular life cycle of early plants, the gametophyte and the sporophyte. This cycle results in spores that can be spread over long distances, which gave land plants an adaptive advantage. 27. The female gametangia is called archegonia, while the male gametangia is called the antheridia. 28. Apical meristems are the tips of roots and shoots in which plants sustain continual growth. Cells from apical meristems can also differentiate into various tissues. 29. The phylum bryophyta, which are nonvascular land plants without true roots, includes liverworts, mosses, and hornworts. These plants have fake roots called rhizoids. 30. Peat is extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material formed by peat moss called sphagnum. Peat can be used as a source of fuel and contains 30% of the world’s carbon, which could be a major environmental concern if released at once. 31. Sporangia are multicellular organs containing sporopollenin in which the sporophyte produces spores. 32. The two types of vascular tissues are xylem, which conducts water and minerals strengthened by lignin, and phloem, which as tube cells that distribute organic organic products. 33. The seedless vascular plants include lycophytes, which contains fake mosses and quillworts, and monilophytes, which includes ferns and horsetails. The monilophytes possess a strobilus, a modiﬁed leaf structure that produces spores. 34. Sori are clusters of sporangia under the leaves of a plant (fern). 35. Homosporous vascular plants produce one type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte. Heterosexual vascular plants produce megaspores that develop into female gametophytes and microspores that develop into male gametophytes. 36. The gametophyte dominates the nonvascular life cycle while the sporophyte dominates the vascular life cycle. 37. The gametophyte is haploid and produces haploid gametes via mitosis. The sporophyte is diploid and produces haploid spores via meiosis. 38. Modern land plants are called embryophytes because they have embryos. 39. A seed is a sporophyte embryo along with its food supply packaged in a protective coat, which provides energy for the embryo. 40. All seed plants have reduced gametophytes, heterospory, and air-borne pollen. 41. Gymnosperms are plants that bear exposed seeds, typically on sporophylls that form cones. 42. The life cycle of a gymnosperm is dominated by the sporophyte. 43. Desiccation is the resistance of seeds to harsh environmental conditions. 44. Conifers are cone-bearing plants that make up most gymnosperms. 45. The ovule consists of a megasporangium (diploid tissue where haploid megaspore is formed) and a megaspore (haploid cell that grows into the female gametophyte) wrapped in the sporophyte’s protective cover called the integument. 46. The male gymnosperm anatomy includes a microsporangium (diploid tissue where microspores are formed), microspores (develop into pollen grains containing the male gametophyte), and pollen (contains male gametophyte within the tough pollen wall). 47. Pollination is the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules. It eliminates the need for a ﬁlm of water and can be dispersed great distances. 48. Three key features of the gymnosperm life cycle are miniaturization of gametophytes, development of seeds from fertilized ovules,, and the transfer of sperm to ovules by pollen. 49. The pine tree is the sporophyte and produces sporangia in male and female cones. The small male cones produce microspores called pollen grains, each of which contains a male gametophyte. The large female cones contain ovules, which produce megaspores that develop into female gametophytes. It takes nearly three years from cone production to mature seed. 50. The four gymnosperm phyla are coniferophyta, which includes conifers (ﬁr, pine,sequoia, etc.), cycadophyta, which includes palm-like leaves with a large cone, gnetophyta, which includes oddballs, and gingkophyta, which includes only one living species.
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