New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Life 103 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Caroline Hurlbut

Life 103 Exam 1 Study Guide LIFE 103

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > LIFE 103 > Life 103 Exam 1 Study Guide
Caroline Hurlbut
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is the study guide for Exam 1. 50 questions covering everything from the first lecture to the one right before the exam.
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.


Reviews for Life 103 Exam 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/06/16
Exam 1 Study Guide 1. What do nodes on a phylogenic tree represent? 2. What is the difference between homology and analogy? 3. What is a conserved gene and give an example. 4. Describe the endosymbiotic theory. 5. Describe horizontal gene transfer. 6. Name a key feature of prokaryotes. 7. What do all bacterial cells have? 8. What are bacterial cell walls made of and what does it do? 9. What is the purpose of bacterial endospores? 10. What are facultative anaerobes and give an example. 11. Name the three ways genetic recombination can occur and describe each one. 12. Name three causes of horizontal gene transfer. 13. What disease is the pathogen organism Yersinia pestis responsible for? 14. What is a protist? 15. Name the four supergroups within Eukarya and describe each one, including any important phyla. 16. Which group of organisms are modern land plants most closely related to? 17. Which group of organisms contains the protists most closely related to fungi and animals? 18. Why was the kingdom Protista eliminated? 19. Which two domains are most closely related to each other? 20. What are mycelia? 21. Describe mycorrhizae. 22. Describe the three stages of the sexual life cycle of fungi. 23. Name and describe the four important fungal groups. 24. What is the relationship between fungi and lichen? 25. What is sporopollenin and what is its job in charophytes? 26. Describe alternation of generations and why it’s an important adaptation for evolving land plants. 27. What are the names for the male and female gametangia in a seedless land plant? 28. What are apical meristems? 29. Name and describe the three main phyla of the nonvascular bryophytes. 30. What is peat and why is it important? 31. What are sporangia? 32. Name the two types of vascular tissue and describe the function of each. 33. Name and describe the two main phyla of seedless vascular plants. 34. What are sori? 35. What is the difference between homosporous and heterosporous? 36. Nonvascular plants’ life cycles are dominated by while vascular plants’ life cycles are dominated by . 37. Describe the function of gametophytes and sporophytes, including ploidy. 38. What is the name for modern land plants and why are they called that? 39. What is a seed and what is its function? 40. What do all seed plants have in common? 41. What are gymnosperms? 42. The life cycle of a gymnosperm is dominated by the . 43. What is desiccation? 44. What are conifers? 45. Describe the female anatomy of gymnosperms. 46. Describe the male anatomy of gymnosperms. 47. What is pollination and why is it an adaptive advantage? 48. What are three key features of a gymnosperm life cycle? 49. Describe the life cycle of a pine. 50. Name the four phyla of gymnosperms and describe them. Answers 1. Nodes on a phylogenic tree represent a common ancestor. 2. Homology is phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry. Analogy is similarity due to convergent evolution, which occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages. 3. Conserved genes are genes that evolve slowly over time. An example of this is DNA coding for rRNA. 4. The endosymbiotic theory is the idea that mitochondria/chloroplasts evolved from symbiotic cyanobacteria, which led to an explosion in diversity among organisms. 5. Horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genes between genomes, often through a tubelike organ called a sex pilus, which has played a key role in the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 6. Many prokaryotes (especially in Archaea) are extremophiles, which means they can live in environments with a pH of <1 or >12 and in temps above 100˚C. 7. All bacterial cells have a nucleoid region, cytoplasm, a plasma membrane, and a cell wall. 8. Bacterial cell walls are made of a rigid network of sugars and polypeptides called peptidoglycan, which provides structure and protection for the cell. 9. Bacterial endospores are dormant bodies of genetic material used by vegetative cells of Bacillus and Clostridium to continue life in case of harsh conditions. Release of these spores is triggered by the depletion of nutrients, and they are the most resistant of all life forms. 10. Facultative anaerobes are organisms that can survive with or without oxygen and can use both aerobic and aerobic respiration, such as muscle cells. 11. Genetic recombination can occur by transformation, transduction, and conjugation. Transformation is the gathering of naked DNA fragments and inserting them into a foreign host organism. Transduction is the transfer of DNA by bacteriophage. Conjugation is the transfer of DNA through horizontal gene transfer. 12. Horizontal gene transfer can occur by exchange of transposable elements and plastids, viral infection, and fusion of organisms. 13. Yersinia pestis is responsible for causing the bubonic plague. 14. “Protist” is a historic term unrelated to evolutionary history. A protist is defined as anything that isn’t a plant, animal, fungus, or prokaryote. 15. The four supergroups of Eukarya are Excavata, the SAR clade, Archaeplastida, and Unikonta. Excavata have an excavated groove on their bodies and include the diplomonads, parabasalids, and euglenozoans. The SAR clade is defined by DNA similarities and includes the stramenophiles, which have hairy flagella, the alleviates, which have membrane sacs, and the rhizarians, which have pseudopodia and cilia. Archaeplastida is the parent group of modern land plants and includes red/ green algae. The two subgroups of green algae are the charophytes and chlorophytes. The Unikonts includes animals, fungi, and some protists, and has two groups: the amoebozoans and the opisthokonts. 16. Modern land plants are most closely related to green algae called charophytes. 17. The opisthokonts in the group Unikonta contain the protists most closely related to fungi and animals. 18. DNA sequencing eliminated the kingdom Protista. 19. Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related to each other than either are to Bacteria. 20. Mycelia are interwoven networks of branched tiny filaments with high surface areas called hyphae. 21. Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots. Mycorrhizal fungi deliver ions and minerals to plants while plants supply fungi with organic nutrients. 22. The three stages of the sexual life cycle of fungi are plasmogamy, which is the union of cytoplasm from two parent mycelia, the heterokaryon, which is coexistence period of haploid nuclei from each parent, and karyogamy, which is the fusion of the nuclei to create a diploid organism. 23. The four important fungal groups are zygomycetes, which are the most ecologically diverse group and contain pathogens, soil, and brea molds, glomeromycetes, which have mycorrhizal symbiosis with plant roots, and the higher fungi. The higher fungi are the ascomycetes, which produce spores in saclike asci in fruiting bodies called ascocarps (ex. fungus that makes penicillin), and the basidiomycetes, which produce spores in basidiocarps, and include mushrooms, shelf fungi, and the pathogens rust and smut. 24. Fungi and lichen have a symbiotic association. The fungus provides the environment for the plant to grow and the plant provides carbon compounds or organic nitrogen. 25. Sporopollenin is a durable polymer layer found in plant spore walls of charophytes and protects the zygotes from drying out, particularly during the period of land scarcity of water. 26. Alternation of generations describes the two-stage multicellular life cycle of early plants, the gametophyte and the sporophyte. This cycle results in spores that can be spread over long distances, which gave land plants an adaptive advantage. 27. The female gametangia is called archegonia, while the male gametangia is called the antheridia. 28. Apical meristems are the tips of roots and shoots in which plants sustain continual growth. Cells from apical meristems can also differentiate into various tissues. 29. The phylum bryophyta, which are nonvascular land plants without true roots, includes liverworts, mosses, and hornworts. These plants have fake roots called rhizoids. 30. Peat is extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material formed by peat moss called sphagnum. Peat can be used as a source of fuel and contains 30% of the world’s carbon, which could be a major environmental concern if released at once. 31. Sporangia are multicellular organs containing sporopollenin in which the sporophyte produces spores. 32. The two types of vascular tissues are xylem, which conducts water and minerals strengthened by lignin, and phloem, which as tube cells that distribute organic organic products. 33. The seedless vascular plants include lycophytes, which contains fake mosses and quillworts, and monilophytes, which includes ferns and horsetails. The monilophytes possess a strobilus, a modified leaf structure that produces spores. 34. Sori are clusters of sporangia under the leaves of a plant (fern). 35. Homosporous vascular plants produce one type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte. Heterosexual vascular plants produce megaspores that develop into female gametophytes and microspores that develop into male gametophytes. 36. The gametophyte dominates the nonvascular life cycle while the sporophyte dominates the vascular life cycle. 37. The gametophyte is haploid and produces haploid gametes via mitosis. The sporophyte is diploid and produces haploid spores via meiosis. 38. Modern land plants are called embryophytes because they have embryos. 39. A seed is a sporophyte embryo along with its food supply packaged in a protective coat, which provides energy for the embryo. 40. All seed plants have reduced gametophytes, heterospory, and air-borne pollen. 41. Gymnosperms are plants that bear exposed seeds, typically on sporophylls that form cones. 42. The life cycle of a gymnosperm is dominated by the sporophyte. 43. Desiccation is the resistance of seeds to harsh environmental conditions. 44. Conifers are cone-bearing plants that make up most gymnosperms. 45. The ovule consists of a megasporangium (diploid tissue where haploid megaspore is formed) and a megaspore (haploid cell that grows into the female gametophyte) wrapped in the sporophyte’s protective cover called the integument. 46. The male gymnosperm anatomy includes a microsporangium (diploid tissue where microspores are formed), microspores (develop into pollen grains containing the male gametophyte), and pollen (contains male gametophyte within the tough pollen wall). 47. Pollination is the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules. It eliminates the need for a film of water and can be dispersed great distances. 48. Three key features of the gymnosperm life cycle are miniaturization of gametophytes, development of seeds from fertilized ovules,, and the transfer of sperm to ovules by pollen. 49. The pine tree is the sporophyte and produces sporangia in male and female cones. The small male cones produce microspores called pollen grains, each of which contains a male gametophyte. The large female cones contain ovules, which produce megaspores that develop into female gametophytes. It takes nearly three years from cone production to mature seed. 50. The four gymnosperm phyla are coniferophyta, which includes conifers (fir, pine,sequoia, etc.), cycadophyta, which includes palm-like leaves with a large cone, gnetophyta, which includes oddballs, and gingkophyta, which includes only one living species.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.