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Midterm Study Guide

by: Gabriela Saint-Louis

Midterm Study Guide PSYC 2588

Gabriela Saint-Louis
GPA 3.04
Attitudes Toward Death and Dying
Woodruff, P

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About this Document

comprehensive study guide for midterm ( articles, terms, class notes, etc)
Attitudes Toward Death and Dying
Woodruff, P
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2588 at George Washington University taught by Woodruff, P in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Attitudes Toward Death and Dying in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
I ve arranged this by topic with corresponding articles and class outline Please add notes for the articles highlighting the main points and try to fill in the class outlines with notes from class Midterm 1 question from one of the first 8 articles 10iden ca ons bonus question worth 10 points from lecture readings I am addingprevious midterm questions to the bottom of this document that are related to what she told us to knowTrv to answer them if vou can Children amp death Articles 12 3 1 The Little MatchSeller By Hans Anderson Small girl must sell matches to support her family Her life at home is abusive and the little girl misses her grandmother more than anything Because she hasn t sold any matches that night the little girl decides to hide out in an alleyway until morning She looks into a window and sees a family warm and full in their home To stay warm the girl lights the matches one by one with delusions of excellent cuisines and beautiful Christmas tree Despite the little bursts of heat she ultimately freezes to death with visions of her grandmother beside her 2 Communication among Children parents and Funeral Directors Daniel J Schaefer a funeral director in NY explaining the How and Why of death 1 know why parents are sad and why they themselves are sad 2 explanation of death and what it means notion that something has stopped working as a firm foundation for children and parents feel comfortable in not lying or deceiving in using this type of explanation Children s reactions to death 1 ages 36 see death as reversible sesame street program with the return of Mr Hooper after death 2 tend to connect events that are not connected 3 ages 69 know that death is final but they still think about return 4 ages 912 much closer to an adult sense of grieving Responsibility something they did caused death of person Magical thinking does this mean I will die too anger at being abandoned A guilt caused death 3 Dr KubIerRoss who changed persoective on Death Dies at 78 She was a psychiatrist pioneered in counseling terminally ill patients revolutionized the care of dying ended taboos of not talking about death and made death less dehumanizing Her bestseller was On Death and Dying She proposed five stages of dying turned the analogy into medical discipline Later research on verifying life after death damaged her reputation Her autobiography was The Wheel of Life A Memoir of Living and Dying gt Related class outlinenotes O thanatology The study of death Comes from Greek mythology 1 thanatos God of long sleep or death 2 hypnos God of short sleep at night 0 Shneidman Ultimate uncertaintycertainty 0 death is the leveler of all persons 0 only members of the animal kingdom who can anticipate death display signs of anxiety 0 death related behavior 1 risk taking behavior a the Type A pedestrian Safest most cautious looked both ways only crossed when the light was green only crossed at intersection really cared about living b The Type E pedestrian Reckless crossed in middle of street without looking walking between crossed cars walking when light is red when interviewed they knew their lives were in jeopardy some had contemplatedattempted suicide 2 Sex discrimination after death a Went through obituariesdeath notices in 2 major newspapers i Equal numbers of males and females in death notices ii Obituaries much longer biography like If a woman gets an obituary the woman is defined in terms of her husband 0 the child s understanding of death developmental stages 0 Children s concept of death is molded by the experiences they have with death Eventually child understands that everyone dies 0 First studies of death with children were done by Maria Nagy I When a young baby is held in someone s armsmattress they merge with the object I From 6 mo 2 years Children become aware of alternating states All gone Peekaboo Help child learn meaning of wellbeing in light of separation Child believes separation is temporary hard to think separation as permanent I From 35 Children think of the dead as alive somewhere else in a diminished state I From 69 Children personify death Images come from cartoons games etc Now know that people do not return but think death occurs only under certain conditions old war car accident Also believe they can avoid death by being gooddoing what you are told I Age 10 Death is abstract final inevitable universal Child understands cessation body does not function Also causation what causes death Also know that child s understanding of death can come much earlier due to a personal experience 0 talking with the child about death 0 Children ask gut level questions Do not use euphemisms with them Q Do not say that death is just like sleeping Not helpful 0 Do not tell the child that only old people die Not true sometimes something can happen but we hope that all of us will live to be old 0 teachable moment for child to potentially take action ex squirrels on H st 0 attending a funeral adult should accompany child dead body needs explaining 0 child may feel responsible take them to nursing home or cemetery 0 the child s exposure to death 0 don t be concerned about traumatization l we face many in life better to try and talk about it much exposure to death 0 images of death 1 connectionseparation You are with your family members you feel their love VS being anxious when you are left alone around others see the and feel them 2 movementstasis Being able to playrun VS Being confined movement is life stasis is death 3 integrity disintegration All in one piece vs Cuts injuries blood Integrity is whole body Disintegration is wounds and death 0 the dying child 0 children with life threatening conditions know they are going to die dying children may hesitate to share their concerns because of the fear that this would make their parents feel worse and for fear of abandonment See Movie Focus for the dying child is on home care because they feel most secure in their own home 0 truth telling 1 Vernick and Karon Speak honestly with the sick and dying child 2 Work with 51 children suffered from leukemia Doctors nurses and parents tried to keep the secret They told the children that the dead child went home or went to the 13th floor When it s really necessary to move a child to 13th floor he panicked That s where kids go to die Then they decided to tell children the truth When kids told they were sick kids were more cooperative and made everything easier Children with terminal illness doctors usually ells parents and then childre Dr at Stanford tells children over five first and asks how to tell parents lying to children does nothing They will eventually understand children understanding disorder allows them to cooperate 0 communicating and interacting with the dying child 1 interpersonal functions a empathy i sharing the experience and trying to put yourself in their place b respect i having the feeling that you care about the human potential that is in all of us 0 genuineness i being yourself 2 types of communication a direct language i talking about the situation directly b verbal symbolic language i talk through the problem with the child ii if they re wrong don t tell them right away iii be accessible iv allude euphemisms hinting c nonverbal symbolic language i take note of body language ii artwork iii body posture facial expressions behavior etc 0 Spinetta isolation of the dying child 1 know the experiment he did with 25 near death child patients and 25 with minor illnesses 50children 610 25 terminal with leukemia 25 chronic non fatal disease dolls of mother father doctor nurse placed in a diorama ask children where they would want dolls to be terminal children placed adult doll further away from bed than the not terminally ill 2 personal space psychosocial distance dying child tends to isolate experiment diorama adult dolls parents doctors etc to see preference and actual distance between themselves and others result kids isolate personal space is psychosocial distance 0 Freud 1 life instinct Eros life instinct sexual instincts the drive to live and basic instinctual impulses such as thirst and hunger to preserve and prolong life 2 death instinct Thanatos death instinct hate anger and aggression antisocial behaviors such as violence serves to balance Eros by driving the individual to death and extinction 0 social death 0 Isolation and abandonment O Treating you as if you re already dead making decisions for you talking about you as if you are not there 0 Glasser and Strausstypes of awareness 1 closed awareness Patient is totally unaware of his terminal illness Physiciansfamily conspire to keep it that way 2 suspected awareness Patient suspects he may be dying but no one has told the patient and the patient doesn t talk about it 3 mutual pretense awareness Patient knows family knows medical staff knows but no one will discuss it with the patient 4 open awareness Psychologically the best Everyone knows and everyone talks about it 0 Glaser and Straussdying trajectories 1 lingering trajectory a social death b positive gives family chance to say goodbye 2 expected quick trajectory a pointed trajectory A procedure like a transplant will take place It can either save the person or kill the person b danger period trajectory Will the patient survive a stressful event like a heart attack c crisis trajectory Someone is not in acute danger at the moment but their life could be threatened d will probably die trajectory The person will probably die and nothing can be done 3 unexpected quick trajectory An unexpected procedure does not go well 0 interventions with the dying patient 1 physical pain Constant Occasional Mild Severe Debilitating Bromton s Mixture 2 emotional pain Depression Anger 3 social pain What is their agenda Who do they want to be in touch with 4 spiritualphilosophical pain Why is this happening to me Is God punishing me Q KublerRoss who she was and stages of dying 1 denial Bad news It s not me Can t be true Fueled by anxiety Usually runs its course in a short time Acts as a buffer to shocking news and allows the person to mobilize other defenses 2 anger Rage envy resentment Against god doctor family friends Can be rational or irrational 3 bargaining Attempting to make a deal with fate for an extension of life to live long enough to see a special event 4 depression a reactive To past losses You re never going to see Paris again You re never going to have a third child b preparatory The things you ll never get to do 5 acceptance Person is dealing with impending death Doesn t mean you like it just that you are dealing with it gt Interwoven with these stages is hope 0 hospice care don t worry about history but know founding of it secily 1 St Christopher39s and Dame Cicely Saunders MD Very first hospice in modern day movement of hospice a at age 39 she went to medical school and finally had influence over the dying b Palliative care pain management not necessarily only for people that are dying but can be 2 home care 80 of people in US have this type of care Physician needs to feel that nothing more can be done in order to cure Then someone must request hospice care 3 inpatient care 20 of people in the US have this type of care Very few rules Young children infants animals can come in a Hallmark of hospice care Whole person Allowing the person to live meaningfully to have a supportive environment to control pain etc 0 AIDS 1981 estimated 11 million cases leaves person helpless sometimes exposed to persecution disempowering alienates those who suffer from it OOOOOO Autopsy article 4 4 Deaths CIO unexamined and the living Dav the price 0 Decline of autopsies may erode the quality of care 0 Autopsies help to find unchecked diagnosis missedwrong diagnosis 0 Autopsies help doctors and medical field learn 0 Coexisting infectionsillness made the diagnosis harder 0 Reasons behind declining autopsiesFinancial constraints arrogance of doctors malpractice fear of legal suits if the diagnosis is wrong gt Related class outlinenotes Autopsypost mortem 1 Procedure a external examination i look for bruising injuries growths or discoloration b dissection and examination of organs i yincision ii star at shoulders meet at sternum end at crotch iii each organ weighed or described iv organ usually sliced where they connect at one c microscopic examination of tissue i slides need to be stained ii tissues cut thin enough to examine d toxicology and cultures i urine samples ii cultures looking for fungus infections viruses iii blood samples from chambers of the heart iv toxicology looks for drugs time consuming 68 weeks 2 Methods don t worry about the differences just know reasons a Virchow remove organs one by one b Rokitansky remove all organs at once and lift them out 3 Reasons and Purposes a normally done in situations of murder unattended deaths suicides and dying in solitude Disposal of the Dead Articles 5 6 5 The Contemporary American Funeral 0 Death is an event that can be attached to a certain day hour and minute it is the point in time when life ceases to exist 0 Grief is a very powerful emotion triggered by death it is thus the emotional response to death Q Bereavement is a state of having lost a significant other to death Denial avoidance and defiance are only aberrations of the grief process and thus cannot be a means to grief resolution The person in bereavement should decide the ultimate method of final disposition of the body These decisions are guided by their personal values and their cultural norms 0 Most funerals follow this process 1 Body removed for institutional setting ie hospital 2 Taken to funeral home 3 Bathed embalmed and dressed 4 Placed in casket 5 Ceremony takes place usually has religious content 6 Most bodies end in earth burial 79 or cremation 21 Q How the funeral meets the needs of the bereaved 0 Expression of grief social support and meaningful context for the death 0 an experience of significant personal value insofar as it meets the religious social and psychological needs of the mourners 0 These needs must be met in order for the bereaved individual s grief to be resolved 0 Grief must support the reality and finality of death can t live in deny or avoid death if you see the dead person I Only way we can withdraw our emotional investment in the deceased and seek to create new relationships with the living 0 Support network to help cope with grief for both family coworkers neighbors etc 0 Sociologically the funeral is a social event that brings the chief mourners and the members of society into a confrontation with death showing support I In our culture no one is invited but many come I Human interaction and social support are very important in times of strong emotions Q Grief shared is grief diminished Q Theologicallyphilosophically the funeral attempts to give meaning to the death I For someone who is religious this may be an understanding of the afterlife 0 Cultural expectations requires us to dispose of the dead with ceremony and dignity Q The needs of children and their attendance at funerals O The funeral is an experience of value and significance for children I They want to be apart of this important family activity I Being excluded from the funeral often causes children to have negative destructive and at time more traumatic fantasies about it I They should be given the opportunity to see the dead prior to the visitation but they would not be forced to do so 0 They will react at their own emotional level and ask questions at their level of comprehension I Never lie to the child I Do not overanswer their question 0 Parents shouldn t worry about the child s first reaction to death so long as they are provided with love care and supportive attention they will usually progress into an emotional resolution of death I Children actually give other grievers strength and support providing positive evidence of the fact that life goes on I Their presence can be a symbolic testimony to the immortality of the deceased I They often change the atmosphere from depressing and sad to being full of laughter verbalization and celebration 6 Six Feet Under 0 American funerals are truly expensive 0 Having the presence of the body is important 0 Funeral home is not wildly profitable The cost of daily management of funeral home is high There being not enough funerals also add to the cost Increased cremation also hit the funeral industry 0 Consolidate of funeral homes is in peril Harddriving sales of corporate funerals drive people away gt Related class outlinenotes 0 Documents of death 1 death certificate physicians involved with death fill out and sign state seal on it needs to make multiple copies to send to agencies like Insurance 2 disposal of remains what you want done with the body 3 obituary printed without cost photo if well known person biography age and cause of death optional 4 death notice look like classified ad pay by the line color or bampw photo usually gives date of death list survivors arrangement of funeral service 5 last will and testament Will is the hard copypiece of paper Testament is the act by which a person determines the disposition of his or her property a testateintestate testate die with will intestate die without will b testatortestatrix Testator Male who has a will filled out for himself Testatrix Female who has a will filled out for herself c executorexecutrix Executor You have designated a male to carry out the directions of the will Executrix You have designated a female to carry out the directions of the will 6 You need 2 witnesses only to your signature The witnesses do not need to know what is in the will 7 Harvesting the dead a organ donation Organs can be used to save someone else s life b body donation Bodies can be used for gross anatomy courses in medical schools i Body Farms 0 History of the funeral 1 w 60000 years ago It is believed through archaeological studies that the early Neanderthals ceremoniously buried their deaths They buried them with possessions proving that they believed in some form of an afterlife 2 Egyptians In the beginning bodies were buried in the sand Sometimes wind would blow the sand away and bodies would be found From that Egyptians realized they needed another way to preserve the dead ldea was to preserve the body so the soul could return to it after a period of time 3 Greeks family would use perfumes and spices to mask smell cremation allowed soul to be released from body 4 Romans Burial and cremation had undertakers 5 Hebrews Given cloths over heads wrapped 6 Christians body washed and rubbed in alcohol wrapped in cloth 7 Leonardo da vincivenous injection showed that we can preserve bodies with alcohol injections through for him it was for purpose of taking pictures of the bodies 8 US 19th Centurv family does prep for dead coffin made used formaldehyde 0 Funeral directors be able to describe what they do 1 body removal pick up in inconspicuous van give death certificates 2 preneed or at need Preneed funeral planned before death At need death has already occurred and family plans funeral 3 embalming to preserve the remains and prevent decomposition 4 restorative art if missing body parts from accident create new ones 5 make up nair used on unsightly hair beautician usually likes to work from photo 6 dressing waterproof pants underwearclothes socks on feet showed not usually used jewelry must be clarified for showing or burial too 7 casketing O cremation 1 cremainsquotbake and shake ashes 14001800 degrees F 16 lbs of bone fragments and ash 2 columbarium a room or building with niches for funeral urns to be stored place to put the ashes cremulator Device to grind the bone fragments that remain after cremation into fine powder calcium phosphate of bone 0 The cemetery 1 ground burial 2 mausoleum column burials 3 tombstone headstone grave marker 4 epitaphsinscriptionoptional 5 also an option to do it yourself green funeral burial at sea cryonics O the practice or technique of deepfreezing the bodies in the hope of future revitalization first to do this 1967 wrapped in aluminum foil put in sleeping bag storage tank hung upside down liquid nitrogen freezing head in belief that cloning could happen one day 0 only 100 people frozen that we know of 0 burial in space orbit 0 two tubes labeled and put in rocks 0 cremated remains launched about 400 miles out 0 orbit from 6 years 0 mummify Grief Articles 78 7 The Grievinq Process Leminq Grief vs Grieving Grief is an emotion over which individual has no control grieving is an active coping process 6 staaes of Capina with GrieH Kavanauah gt compared to Kubler Ross s 5 stages denial anger bargaining depression and acceptance of the dying process 1 shock and denial 2 disorganization O stag in bereavement process in which one may feel totally out of touch with the reality of everyday life 0 confusion daze haze life void of meaning 3 volatile emotions Q volatile reactions to terror hatred resentment and jealousy are often experienced as emotional manifestations of these feelings towards God medical personnel funeral directors other family members in laws friends who haven t experienced death in their families andor even person who has died 4 guilt O anger and resentment turned in on oneself and often results in self deprecation and depression 5 loss and loneliness O the other side of denial 0 often transformed into depression and sadness fed by feelings of selfpity 0 even formerly undesirable spouse such as an alcoholic is missed in a way few can understand 6 relief 0 although relief can give rise to feelings of guilt like denial it can also be experienced as a safe place from eh pain loss and loneliness that are endured when on is grieving 7 reestablishment 0 never occurs all at once rather it is a goal that one realizes has been achieved long after it has occurred The four tasks of mourning worden 1 Accept the reality of the loss 0 view the body at the place of death before preparation by the funeral director 0 talk about the deceased and the circumstances surrounding the death 0 view photographs and personal effects of the deceased O distribute the possessions of the deceased among relatives and friends 2 experience the pain of grief O tears can afford cleansing for wounds created by loss and fully experiencing the pain ultimately provides wonderful relief to those who suffer while eliminating longterm chronic grief 3 adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing 0 take on some of the social roles performed by the deceased or to find others who will 4 withdraw emotional energy and reinvest it in another relationship 0 those able to withdraw emotional energy and reinvest it in other relationships find the possibility of a newly established social life 8 Disenfranchised Grief circumstances in which a person experiences a sense of loss but does not have a socially recognized right role or capacity to grieve in these cases the grief is disenfranchised the person suffers a loss but has little or no opportunity to mourn publicly The nature of Disenfranchised Grief 1 the relationship is not recognized O underlying assumption is that closeness of relationship exists only among spouses andor immediate kin 0 relationships that may not be publicly recognized or socially sanctioned extramarital affairs cohabitation homosexual relationshipse to 2 the loss is not recognized 0 loss itself is not socially defined as significant perinatal deaths abortions loss of a pet 3 the griever is not recognized 0 characteristics of the bereaved in effect disenfranchise the grief 0 person is not socially defined as capable of grief and little or no social recognition 0 the very old and very young mentally disabled The special problems of disenfranchised grief 1 the situations mentioned tend to intensify emotional reactions 2 both ambivalent relationships and concurrent crises have been identified in the literature as conditions that complicate grief gtRelated class notesoutline Q Bereavement O grief 0 Eric Lindemann Coconut Grove Fire 1942 0 Mass General hospital 0 began study of patients with severe burns or amputations O coconut grove fire occurred during studies 492 people died and able to interview all survivors survivors reported somatic distress preoccupation with vision of the dead strong feelings of guilt irritable and restless cognitive distress sleeplessness Mourning Behaviors actions can be individual or can be determined by culturereligion grief work theoryFreud Q Focused us on the emotional needs of the bereaved person 0 Failure of grief work leads to actual misery dysfunction and potentially pathological grief may develop 0 Pakesgrief work Q Preoccupation of thoughts about the dead person 0 Repeatedly going over the experience of how the death occurred 0 Cognitive Dissonance We have an internal cognition that does not mesh with external reality 0 stages of grief O Shocked and denial I Important for someone to be there I can be in such a state of shock that they may not show emotion Q Disorganized and confused O Anger and rage I Over abandonment 0 One of various forms of guilt I Causation guilt I Guilt because you wished that the patient would die I Guilt through benefiting from death I Survival guilt I Moral guilt Q Punishment from god or fate because of behavior on my part I Cultural guilt O Loneliness Build idealized image of the deceased 0 Relief No more looking at sickness No more caretaking Returning to norms 0 Acceptance 0 long range effects 0 Hallucinationsdelusions 0 Physical symptoms insomnia fatigue loss of appetite Q Vague complaints or symptoms that the deceased had 0 Identification with the deceased taking on their employment wearing their clothes developing their mannerisms Q ldealizing the person 0 Broken heart syndrome 1967 Q Possibility of your own death or mortality goes up when someone you love dies 0 You may lose your will to live in a state of helplessness 0 Physiological changes stress may lower the effect of our immune system Q Behavioral changes smoking drinking sleeping less neglecting previous prescribed medication ignoring medical conditions 0 recovery from grief 1 death of a spouse a unresolved grief i unexpected grief syndrome Spouse dies suddenly Disbelief and anxiety continuing ii conflicted grief syndrome You loved this spouse deeply but then something changed became an alcoholic abused you and now you have a hatred for this person iii chronic grief syndrome Spouse was very dependent and widowed spouse is now helpless 2 death of a child a Knapp Beyond Endurance i No event is as traumatic as the death of a child Dr Knapp has interviewed over 155 families who experienced such a loss to determine how they coped or failed to cope ii Dr Knapp examines three types of death death occurring after a long illness sudden or unexpected death and death by murder iii Death occurring after long illness better coping iv Sudden or unexpected death difficulty responding v Fear that memories will fade away and the inability to find a context for understanding the death of a child b Shadow grief the sorrow of a child s death often seems to follow a family like a shadow Years after the death many of the mothers were still feeling the anguish 3 grief in the elderly a bereavement overload due to time in life bereavement overload may be dealing with loss after loss delayed grief reaction perhaps by adjusting quickly back to life for and delayed reaction 0 disenfranchised grief reaction hidden grief unrecognized by others unacknowledged by society keeping it to yourself 0 Examples of events leading to disenfranchised grief are the loss of a pet a trauma in the family a generation prior the loss of a home or place of residence l Relationship to deceased is not socially recognized mistress l Loss is not acknowledged as a genuine loss ie miscarriage abortion pet former spouse l Death may not be socially sanctioned if your kid was shot robbing a store suicide AIDS I Grievers are unrecognized young child mentally challenged coworker l People who are not considered entitled to these feelings nurse health aid hospice worker o Silverman widow to widow program people cannot get away with grief with proper treatment like medical one She observed grief as central fact of human existence not simply an illness from which we hope to recover Her finding was that grief did not simply fade away after a brief period of crisis Also she came up with several principles a Grief does not have a final outcome b Grief can most usefully be regarded as a life transition c People can help each other 0 afterlife 1 Toynbee unconscious fear of oblivion consciousness and that state of quotnot beingquot makes life after death incomprehensible 2 Freud to think there is an afterlife is a psychological creation of human mind denying reality of death defense against inherent fear of annihilation and extinction 0 the near death experience NDE 0 Raymond Moody Life After Life began to encounter people that spoke of being declared dead and having strange experiences and being brought to life Collected 150 of them and he narrowed them down to 50 and wrote a paper back called Life After Life People had experiences where they were declared dead and then they were resuscitated Found that there were unifying themes specifically 14 common variables 0 most common experiences examples I 2 of 14 1 out of body experience OBE autoscopic experience autoscopic experience floating above body looking down and later you can describe exactly what you saw this can happen during a panic attack 2 panoramic memory life review a Some people said it was like PPT image by image Some people said it was like viewing life from childhood to adulthood from left to rightright to left b life flashes before your eyes like a slideshow rapidly appearing memories that go in chronological order appear in a slideshow or looks as if there is a curved screen Whether you read left to right or right to left 0 Albert heim O The Swiss geologist who fell off mountain during climbing and had a 20 second near death experience sought to discover the scientific nature of this experience I his published Remarks on Fatal Falls was the first attempt to deal with what are now called NearDeath Experiences influenced by his own experience I collected accounts of other persons who came close to death in accidents especially alpine falls Nearly 95 experienced the calm state many heard beautiful music and like Heim saw themselves surrounded by a wonderful blue heaven and rosy cloudlets O Olkar Pfister O swiss Lutheran minister and lay psychoanalyst Q in 1919 formed the swiss society for psychoanalysis early associate of fruied 0 Michael Sabom O Cardiologist whose first book Recollections of Death is considered ot be a landmark in the field of neardeath research 0 1994 founded the Atlanta Study which is the first comprehensive investigation of its kind into NDEs its purpose was to document the lifeanddeath dramas played out in operating rooms and hospital beds simultaneous events unseen by medical personnel but reported with astonishing clarity and conviction by early 50 individuals who returned from death s door his book Light and dEath shares the results from this study Q Is death a wall or a door Herman Feifel 0 Reasons I wall physical reasons oxygen deprivation I door the experience shared by humankind through thousands of years 0 write about what Kastenbaum says about this I Not everyone describe this as wonderful peaceful Some people find it terrifying QUESTIONS FROM PAST MIDTERMS 1 Trace the history of the funeral 2 What are the suggestions for talking to a child about deathwhat is helpful in explaining death 3 Describe the ways currently available for the disposal of the dead 4 Before Elizabeth KublerRoss described ve stages of dying in her book quotOn Death and Dyingquot she describes what dying is often like today and what it should be like what does she tell us 5 Explain how hospice functions include home and inpatient care 6 Near death experiences are commonly reported What are the explanations given by scientists as to what is happening 0 describe what is considered to be the evidence and arguments against the near death experience as proof of survival after death 7 What is disenfranchised grief and the forms it can take 8 Describe the three dying trajectories of Glaser and Strauss 9 How and why is an autopsy carried out 10 Identify and describe the stages of children s understanding of death 11 de ne bereavement grief and mourning BE careful to distinguish clearly among them using examples 12 Describe the founding of the modern day hospice by Dame Cicely Saunders and its transition to the United States including the services that are provided 13 Kastenbaum s evaluation of KublerRoss 14 The objective study of grief began in 1942 with Eric Lindemann following the Coconut Grove re in Boston WHat did Lindemann learn from his interviews with the 101 survivors 15 Describe in detail the more unusualnontraditional ways that we currently dispose of a body after death 16 explain the grief work theory introduced by Sigmund Freud 17 Brie y identify 0 The Little Match Seller 0 unexpected quick trajectory O depression stage in the dying patient 0 mausoleum O testatrix O hospiceprogramme to assist the terminally ill to have a good quality of life until death home care or inpatient care delayed grief reaction living will cryonics postmortem bereavement shadow grief Type A and E Pedestrian harvesting the dead at need vs Pre need lntestate restorative art done by a funeral director Albert Heim Leonardo da Vinci Dame Cicely Saunders MD death notice death is a wall death is a door Out of body experience OBE procedure for autopsy movementstasis death certi cate lingering trajectory funeralization in ancient iraq spontaneous memorializationsomeone dies from accident or from murder people don t even know the dying person But the put owers candles people feel moved to bring owers Princess Diana died people bring thousands of owers This life mattered and it s a horrible thing that happened OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO


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