Biology 301 Biology 301 002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 301 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Robert Friedman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Biology 301- Ecology and Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide Exam 1 Date: February 9, 2016 30 Questions total Multiple choice questions True and false questions Bring calculator to make basic calculations How to employ the scientific method o Observe and describe natural phenomena o Develop the hypothesis o Test the predications of the hypothesis Define ecology terms on power point o See my website for all of the definitions Definition and examples of natural variation o Variation in each measurement exhibits a characteristic scale, which is the dimension in time or space over which variation is perceived o Nothing in nature is static: anything we measure exhibits variation 2 types of variation: 1. Temporal Variation- o Cyclical variations (daily, seasonal) o Irregular variations ( when the temperature is 65 degrees in January) o * the more extreme the condition, the less it ocurs 2. Spatial Variation o Occurs at very small and very large scales o Scale of variation importance is a function of the organism The role of physical laws in ecological system o Ecological systems are physical entities: Life builds on physical properties and chemical reactions of matter All processes obey the laws of thermodynamics Adaptations by organism to their physical environment Understand how freshwater and marine fish satisfy water demands o Freshwater fish Hypo-osmotic body fluids- have a higher salt concentration than the surrounding water 1. Fish replace salts to the water through diffusion from the gills and eliminate excess water absorbed from eating food 2. The gills and kidneys actively retain solutes to maintain salt balance in their bodies 3. Produce large volumes of dilute urine, which is low in salt o Marine Fish hyperosmotic body fluids- have a lower salt concentration than the surrounding water so they tend to lose water to the surrounding sea water and must drink seawater to replace it 1. Fish must drink salt water to replace lost fluids and then eliminate the excess salts 2. Kidneys produce small volumes of fluid containing high concentrations of salt 3. The gills and kidneys actively exclude solutes to maintain salt balance Mechanism of seasonal variation of Earth *temporal patterns are predictable (example: winter and summer seasons) * the earth’s tilt leads to seasons o The earth’s tilt toward the sun causes: Seasonal variation in latitude Increase in seasonal variation from equator toward the poles Mechanism of how suns energy is redistributed across Earth as heat o Solar energy is redistributed by winds and ocean currents Movement of heat energy affects the water cycle Warm air holds more moisture than cooler air o Ocean currents redistribute heat and moisture Understand the basics of photosynthesis o Plants reduce the carbon atom in carbon dioxide using energy from the light o Equation: Energy + 6CO2 + 6H20 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Water is an electron donor (reducing agent) Respiration o All organisms, including plants, undo the results of photosynthesis by oxidizing organic carbon back to carbon dioxide ->respiration o Equation: C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> energy + 6CO2 + 6H20 Oxygen is an electron donor (oxidizing agent) Examples of correlation between spatial and temporal variation o Moving organisms experience spatial variation as temporal variation The faster an individual moves: 1. The smaller the scale of spatial variation 2. The more quickly it encounters new environments 3. The shorter the temporal scale of variation Spatial and temporal scales are correlated Influence of habitat fragment on populations (one square divided into 10 little squares) o Less square footage in one area o any particular location is closer to the habitat edge “The Edge Effect” o Very harmful to the environment o Increase of parasitism- as you get closer to the edge parasitism increases o With habitat fragmentation there are less species over small areas Result: loss of genetic diversity Estimate population size from a sample o Important elements of a populations: Space Time Number Number / Space = Density Calculate population size for an area given a population density o Equation: Number (population size) = area * density Understand the met population and source- sink models o Meta population- a set of local populations linked by dispersal Source-sink model- recognizes differences in quality of suitable habitat patches 1. Source patches- where resources are abundant o Individuals produce more offspring than needed o Surplus offspring disperse to other patches *births are greater than deaths (overpopulations) 2. Sink patches- where resources are scarce o Populations are maintained by immigration of individuals from elsewhere *Births are less than deaths (more deaths = population will go extinct) Understand the different kinds of dispersion o Dispersion- spacing of individuals in a population 1. Clumped- Aspen trees in Colorado 2. Random 3. Spaced- desert shrubs in Mexico Understand exponential and logistic population growth, including equations Equation for exponential population growth: Nt = No*e^rt Or Nt = No* ʎ^ t Nt= number of individuals after t time units No = initial population size R = exponential growth rate E = base of the natural logarithms (2.72) T = time ʎ = growth rate Equation: dN / dT = rN Friedman said in class that you do not have to know logistic population growth equation Equation for geometric population growth: N (t + 1) = N (t) ʎ Or ʎ = N (t + 1) / N(t) Calculate a future population size using the equation for geometric population growth o Equation for geometric population growth over many time intervals : N(t) = N (0) ʎ^t Calculate a future population size of a particular age class o Understand the role of age structure in populations o Age structure reflects births and death o Age structure determines population growth rate Birth and death rate can vary with the age of individuals in a population Life tables enable us to project the populations age structure and size into the future In a stable age distribution, the relationships between the different age classes and growth of the overall population o All age classes grow or decline at the same rate, ʎ o The population also grows or declines at this constant rate as well, ʎ Each age class represents a constant percentage of the total population ****the population growth rate is the sum of growth rates for each age class, weighted by their proportion in the population Density- dependent and density-independent factors in population growth o Density- dependent The effects of density- dependent effect increases with crowding, which can bring a population under control Book definition: Has an influence on the individuals in a population that varies with the degree of crowding within the population Is described by the logistic equation, which describes a sigmoid curve o Density- independent May influence the growth rate of a population but do not regulate its size Book definition: Have an influence on the individuals in a population that does not vary with the degree of crowding within the population Understand example of Table with observations of mites dispersing among leaves; the expectations of the mites dispersing; and comparing these two distributions, observations and expectations, by a chi-square test o Look at chapter 4
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