New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Tori Ruby


Marketplace > University of Florida > Biological Sciences > BSC 2010 > BSC2010 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
Tori Ruby

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

All cells material leading up to the February 10 exam
Integrated Principles of Biology 1
Study Guide
Biology, Science
50 ?




Popular in Integrated Principles of Biology 1

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tori Ruby on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 2010 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Integrated Principles of Biology 1 in Biological Sciences at University of Florida.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/06/16
January 6  Science is based on quantifiable observations and experiments  Observation is enhanced by technology  Inductive reasoning: general conclusions based on a limited observation o used to predict future results  Deductive reasoning: knowing laws and believing them to be true  Scientific method o Observation o Question o Hypothesis  Must be testable and falsifiable o Prediction o Experiments o Conclusion  Hypothesis based science often makes use of multiple hypotheses  Failure to falsify hypothesis does not prove hypothesis  Observations and results must be repeatable  Science does not apply to supernatural explanations January 8  Dalton- mass of 1 proton+ 1 neutron  Mass spectrometer to weigh protons/neutrons  In general, living things are made up of  Atomic number: number of PROTONS  Electrical neutrality: number of protons=number of electrons  Mass number: number of PROTONS+ number of NEUTRONS  Isotope: an atom in which the number of protons does not equal the number of electrons  Electron shells o First shell contains 2 electrons o Second shell contains 8 electrons o Third shell contains 8 electrons  Double bond: a pair of atoms share 2 pairs of electrons  Ion: charge on an atom that is not neutral o Cation is positive o Anion is negative January 11, 2016  Macromolecules: large molecules  4 biological macromolecules o Proteins o Nucleic acids o Carbohydrates o Lipids  Polymers: all biological macromolecules except lipids  Broken and formed by water o Condensation: removal of water creates covalent bonds between monomers  Endergonic (anabolic): takes energy to perform o Hydrolysis: addition of water breaks bonds  Exergonic (catabolic: releases energy  Carbohydrates o Some are small and called “simple carbohydrates” o Some are big and called “polysaccharides” o Ribose and deoxyribose are two types of carbohydrates o Glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose are four more o Monosaccharides are held together by covalent bonds o Sucrose is a disaccharide  Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides o Starch  Made of glucose  Found in plants o Glycogen  Made of glucose  Highly branched  Found in mammals o Cellulose  Contains carbons  Found in plant cell walls  Lipids are hydrocarbons o Van der Waals interactions o Store energy in C-C and C-H bonds o Play structural role in membranes o Fat in animal bodies serves as thermal reactions o Two types of lipids  Fats are solid at room temperature  Oils are liquid at room temperature o Little polarity, extremely hydrophobic o Triglycerides  3 fatty acids  Nonpolar  Phospholipids o Hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head o Form cell membranes  Two types of energy o Potential (stored) energy o Kinetic energy: energy of movement and change o Energy can be converted from one to the other Laws of thermodynamics o Energy cannot be created nor destroyed o Entropy (disorder) tends to increase January 13, 2016  Nucleic acids: polymers specialized for storage, transmission, and use of genetic information o DNA o RNA o Nucleotides  Oligonucleotides have 20 monomers, include small RNA molecules important for DNA replication o DNA and RNA are polynucleotides, the longest polymers in the living world o DNA: double stranded  Cytosine bonds with Guanine  Thymine bonds with Adenine o RNA: single stranded, sometimes folded into 3D structure by hydrogen bonds  Cytosine bonds with Guanine  Uracil bonds with Adenine o DNA replication  DNA→transcription→RNA→translation→polypeptide o Two functions  Replication  Gene expression o Genomes  Genes  DNA sequences that are transcribed into RNA and translated to specific proteins o DNA base sequences reveal evolutionary relationships  Closely related species have more similar base sequences  Ex. Apes and humans share 98% of DNA base sequences  Proteins o Major functions of proteins  Enzymes: catalyze reactions; lower activation energy, therefore speeding up a reaction  Defense (ex. Antibodies)  Hormonal and regulatory proteins  Receptor proteins  Storage proteins store amino acids  Structural proteins  Transport proteins  Genetic regulatory proteins o Protein monomers are amino acids  Amino and carboxyl acid groups January 25, 2016  Plant and algae cells contain plastids that can differentiate into organelles  Chloroplast has double membrane o Stack of thylakoids is called a granum o Light energy is converted to chemical energy o Carbohydrate synthesis occurs in the stroma o Stroma: aqueous fluid in chloroplast  Peroxisomes collect and break down toxic by-products of metabolism using specialized enzymes  Vacuoles: mainly in plants and fungi o Store waste and toxins o Provide structure in plant cells called turgor pressure o Reproduction- colors attract insects o Catabolism: hydrolyze stored food for growth o Contractile vacuoles get rid of extra water  Enlarge as water enters, quickly contract to dispel water  Cytoskeleton o Supports o Hold organelles in position o Move organelles o Involved in cytoplasmic streaming o Interacts with extracellular structures to anchor cell o 3 types  Microfilaments: 7 nm  Intermediate: 10 nm  Microtubules: 25 nm  Plant cell wall: semi-rigid structure o Polysaccharide cellulose o Gel-like matrix contains cross-linked polysaccharides and proteins o Support o Barrier to infection January 27, 2016 Membrane structure o Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates contained in membrane o Called the fluid mosaic model o Phospholipids form a bilayer in which a variety of proteins “float” o Lipids form the hydrophobic core of the membrane  Hydrophilic head interacts with water  Hydrophobic tail o Lipid composition: types of fatty acids can increase or decrease fluidity (cholesterol is long-chain, saturated fat vs. unsaturated fat) o Temperature- cold decreases fluidity o Carbohydrates play a role in communication and adhesion  Glycolipid  Glycoproteins  Proteoglycan  How to cross membrane o Selective permeability: allows some substances to pass o 3 ways  Passive transport does not require energy  Simple diffusion  Facilitated diffusion: channel or carrier proteins  Active transport requires metabolic energy  Vesicles transport large molecules o Diffusion: process of random movement toward equilibrium  Diameter  Temperature  Concentration  High concentration to low concentration  Small nonpolar and uncharged molecules o Osmosis: diffusion of water across membranes  Depends on concentration of structure molecules on either side  Passes through aquaporins  Isotonic: equivalent concentration of solute on either side of a bilayer  Hypertonic: higher solute concentration on the outside of a cell  Hypotonic: lower solute concentration on the outside of a cell o Facilitated diffusion for charged substances  Channel proteins: used for ions, water  Carrier proteins: used for sugars and amino acids o Active transport  Primary active transport involves direct ATP hydrolysis  Secondary active transport involves indirect ATP hydrolysis  Macromolecules are too large  Endocytosis  Phagocytosis “cellular eating”  Pinocytosis “cellular drinking”  Receptor-mediated: specific molecules January 29, 2016  Cells can respond to many signals if they have specific receptors  Signal transduction pathway Different responses o Autocrine: signals diffuse and affect same cells o Paracrine: signals diffuse and affect nearby cell o Hormones: signals reach distant cells  Signal to receptor to response o Specific receptors for each signal o No signal can activate non specific receptors o No receptors respond to non specific signal  Allosteric regulation: alteration in a protein’s shape as a result of bonding  Ligand: signal molecules that fits in a 3D site on receptor proteins  Ligands generally do not metabolize further. Binding may change the binding cite. o Change is reversible o An inhibitor can bind in place of a ligand  Classified by location o Cytoplasmic receptors have ligands diffuse across membrane o Membrane receptors located through the membrane  Classified by activity o Ion channel: gated ion channels, change 3D shape of a receptor o Protein kinase: change shape when ligand binds  Can be activators or inhibitors  Ex. Insulin o G protein-linked: partially inserted in bilayer, partially exposed on cytoplasmic surface  Activated G protein- linked receptor exchanges GDP to GTP  Ex. Fight or flight  Second messenger: is intermediary between the receptor and the cascade of responses o Cyclic AMP o Distribute signal to activate more than one target


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.