BSC2010 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
BSC2010 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BSC 2010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tori Ruby on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 2010 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Integrated Principles of Biology 1 in Biological Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
January 6 Science is based on quantifiable observations and experiments Observation is enhanced by technology Inductive reasoning: general conclusions based on a limited observation o used to predict future results Deductive reasoning: knowing laws and believing them to be true Scientific method o Observation o Question o Hypothesis Must be testable and falsifiable o Prediction o Experiments o Conclusion Hypothesis based science often makes use of multiple hypotheses Failure to falsify hypothesis does not prove hypothesis Observations and results must be repeatable Science does not apply to supernatural explanations January 8 Dalton- mass of 1 proton+ 1 neutron Mass spectrometer to weigh protons/neutrons In general, living things are made up of Atomic number: number of PROTONS Electrical neutrality: number of protons=number of electrons Mass number: number of PROTONS+ number of NEUTRONS Isotope: an atom in which the number of protons does not equal the number of electrons Electron shells o First shell contains 2 electrons o Second shell contains 8 electrons o Third shell contains 8 electrons Double bond: a pair of atoms share 2 pairs of electrons Ion: charge on an atom that is not neutral o Cation is positive o Anion is negative January 11, 2016 Macromolecules: large molecules 4 biological macromolecules o Proteins o Nucleic acids o Carbohydrates o Lipids Polymers: all biological macromolecules except lipids Broken and formed by water o Condensation: removal of water creates covalent bonds between monomers Endergonic (anabolic): takes energy to perform o Hydrolysis: addition of water breaks bonds Exergonic (catabolic: releases energy Carbohydrates o Some are small and called “simple carbohydrates” o Some are big and called “polysaccharides” o Ribose and deoxyribose are two types of carbohydrates o Glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose are four more o Monosaccharides are held together by covalent bonds o Sucrose is a disaccharide Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides o Starch Made of glucose Found in plants o Glycogen Made of glucose Highly branched Found in mammals o Cellulose Contains carbons Found in plant cell walls Lipids are hydrocarbons o Van der Waals interactions o Store energy in C-C and C-H bonds o Play structural role in membranes o Fat in animal bodies serves as thermal reactions o Two types of lipids Fats are solid at room temperature Oils are liquid at room temperature o Little polarity, extremely hydrophobic o Triglycerides 3 fatty acids Nonpolar Phospholipids o Hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head o Form cell membranes Two types of energy o Potential (stored) energy o Kinetic energy: energy of movement and change o Energy can be converted from one to the other Laws of thermodynamics o Energy cannot be created nor destroyed o Entropy (disorder) tends to increase January 13, 2016 Nucleic acids: polymers specialized for storage, transmission, and use of genetic information o DNA o RNA o Nucleotides Oligonucleotides have 20 monomers, include small RNA molecules important for DNA replication o DNA and RNA are polynucleotides, the longest polymers in the living world o DNA: double stranded Cytosine bonds with Guanine Thymine bonds with Adenine o RNA: single stranded, sometimes folded into 3D structure by hydrogen bonds Cytosine bonds with Guanine Uracil bonds with Adenine o DNA replication DNA→transcription→RNA→translation→polypeptide o Two functions Replication Gene expression o Genomes Genes DNA sequences that are transcribed into RNA and translated to specific proteins o DNA base sequences reveal evolutionary relationships Closely related species have more similar base sequences Ex. Apes and humans share 98% of DNA base sequences Proteins o Major functions of proteins Enzymes: catalyze reactions; lower activation energy, therefore speeding up a reaction Defense (ex. Antibodies) Hormonal and regulatory proteins Receptor proteins Storage proteins store amino acids Structural proteins Transport proteins Genetic regulatory proteins o Protein monomers are amino acids Amino and carboxyl acid groups January 25, 2016 Plant and algae cells contain plastids that can differentiate into organelles Chloroplast has double membrane o Stack of thylakoids is called a granum o Light energy is converted to chemical energy o Carbohydrate synthesis occurs in the stroma o Stroma: aqueous fluid in chloroplast Peroxisomes collect and break down toxic by-products of metabolism using specialized enzymes Vacuoles: mainly in plants and fungi o Store waste and toxins o Provide structure in plant cells called turgor pressure o Reproduction- colors attract insects o Catabolism: hydrolyze stored food for growth o Contractile vacuoles get rid of extra water Enlarge as water enters, quickly contract to dispel water Cytoskeleton o Supports o Hold organelles in position o Move organelles o Involved in cytoplasmic streaming o Interacts with extracellular structures to anchor cell o 3 types Microfilaments: 7 nm Intermediate: 10 nm Microtubules: 25 nm Plant cell wall: semi-rigid structure o Polysaccharide cellulose o Gel-like matrix contains cross-linked polysaccharides and proteins o Support o Barrier to infection January 27, 2016 Membrane structure o Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates contained in membrane o Called the fluid mosaic model o Phospholipids form a bilayer in which a variety of proteins “float” o Lipids form the hydrophobic core of the membrane Hydrophilic head interacts with water Hydrophobic tail o Lipid composition: types of fatty acids can increase or decrease fluidity (cholesterol is long-chain, saturated fat vs. unsaturated fat) o Temperature- cold decreases fluidity o Carbohydrates play a role in communication and adhesion Glycolipid Glycoproteins Proteoglycan How to cross membrane o Selective permeability: allows some substances to pass o 3 ways Passive transport does not require energy Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion: channel or carrier proteins Active transport requires metabolic energy Vesicles transport large molecules o Diffusion: process of random movement toward equilibrium Diameter Temperature Concentration High concentration to low concentration Small nonpolar and uncharged molecules o Osmosis: diffusion of water across membranes Depends on concentration of structure molecules on either side Passes through aquaporins Isotonic: equivalent concentration of solute on either side of a bilayer Hypertonic: higher solute concentration on the outside of a cell Hypotonic: lower solute concentration on the outside of a cell o Facilitated diffusion for charged substances Channel proteins: used for ions, water Carrier proteins: used for sugars and amino acids o Active transport Primary active transport involves direct ATP hydrolysis Secondary active transport involves indirect ATP hydrolysis Macromolecules are too large Endocytosis Phagocytosis “cellular eating” Pinocytosis “cellular drinking” Receptor-mediated: specific molecules January 29, 2016 Cells can respond to many signals if they have specific receptors Signal transduction pathway Different responses o Autocrine: signals diffuse and affect same cells o Paracrine: signals diffuse and affect nearby cell o Hormones: signals reach distant cells Signal to receptor to response o Specific receptors for each signal o No signal can activate non specific receptors o No receptors respond to non specific signal Allosteric regulation: alteration in a protein’s shape as a result of bonding Ligand: signal molecules that fits in a 3D site on receptor proteins Ligands generally do not metabolize further. Binding may change the binding cite. o Change is reversible o An inhibitor can bind in place of a ligand Classified by location o Cytoplasmic receptors have ligands diffuse across membrane o Membrane receptors located through the membrane Classified by activity o Ion channel: gated ion channels, change 3D shape of a receptor o Protein kinase: change shape when ligand binds Can be activators or inhibitors Ex. Insulin o G protein-linked: partially inserted in bilayer, partially exposed on cytoplasmic surface Activated G protein- linked receptor exchanges GDP to GTP Ex. Fight or flight Second messenger: is intermediary between the receptor and the cascade of responses o Cyclic AMP o Distribute signal to activate more than one target
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