Anthro 1000 Unit 1 Study Guide
Anthro 1000 Unit 1 Study Guide ANTH 1000 - 002
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Waters on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1000 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Christopher David Berk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Anthropology: the holistic, scientiﬁc study of humankind Subﬁelds: cultural, biological(aka physical), linguistic, archaeology • cultural: behavior and systems, encompases all aspects, patterns in behavior • biological/physical: studies humans as biological species. includes genetics, evolution, primatology, forensics • linguistics: human languages and interaction • archaeology: studies cultural past and reconstructs past cultural systems Vocab cultural relativism: studying other culture from its point of view without imposing our own values. ethnocentrism: judge other cultures based on your society. *all societies are ethnocentric emic perspective: think like an insider etic perspective: understand in scientiﬁc terms, compare cultures to other cultures epistemology: study of knowledge pseudoscience: scientiﬁcally testable idea that tests false. ex) astrology, mental telepathy, aliens Occam’s Razor: least complex hypothesis is most plausible science: method of inquiry, requires generation, testing. good science is skeptical and strives to be objective belief system: taken on faith, cant test it. they explain meaning of life, higher power theory: general, overarching statement that explains large set of factual patterns, they're never complete hypothesis: proposed explanation deduction: suggesting data that would be found if hypothesis were true induction: developing explanation from speciﬁc observations genes: unit of hereditary information that determines physical characteristics alleles: variants of a gene homozygous: two of the same alleles ex) GG or gg heterozygous: two different alleles ex) Gg phenotype: chemical or physical results of genetic code genotype: genetic code speciation: evolution of a new species mutation: a process of biological evolution gene ﬂow: exchange of genes among populations through interbreeding genetic drift: genetic change based on random changes within gene pool. ex) ﬁssion, founders effect, gamete sampling prehensile: you can grasp with it ex) some monkeys tails are prehensile opposability: characteristic of primates thumbs taxonomy: science of classiﬁcation bipedalism: you walk on 2 feet punctuated equilibrium: current view of how change occurs People Franz Boas- father of american anthropology James Usher- he had the idea of a young earth, calculated that Earth was around 6,000 years old…so obviously he was wrong Charles Darwin- Origin of Species, introduced natural selection, also wrote Decent of Man, found the information he used for his ideas when he was on the HMS Beagle Alfred Wallace- had the same ideas as Darwin, Darwin published ﬁrst Thomas Malthus- stated idea that organisms must compete for resources Jean Lamarck- thought organisms spontaneously generated new characteristics as needed throughout their lives and then passed them to offspring George Cuvier- catastrophism Hutton, de Buffon, Lyell- Uniformitarianism, gradual change Gregor Mendel- Genetics with his pea plants Types of Data Collection inAnthropology ﬁeld work- living with the culture to learn, cornerstone of anthropology ethnography- document or documentary that describes cultural system, based on ﬁeld work ethnology- study of different contemporary cultures throughout the world Old World Monkeys -two premolars -downward facing nostrils -tail, but its not prehensile -catarrhines -hominoids -apes and humans -asia and africa New World Monkeys -three premolars -nostrils open to the side -prehensile tails -north and south america -platyrrhines Difference between apes and monkeys? monkeys have tails Linnaeus Classifying System -only expresses physical characteristics, no evolution -humans place in it: Kingdom: Animalia *multicellular and heterotrophs Phylum: Chordata *spinal chord Subphylum: Vertebrata *back bone Class: Mammalia *neocortex in brain, hair, mammary glands, ear bones Subclass: Theria Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Primates Suborder: Anthropoidea Superfamily: Hominoidea Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens *shes not going to ask order, she's only going to ask “are we _________?” Primates -brain: large, complex, ability to store, retrieve, and process information -vision: most can see in color, depth perception, binocular vision (means eyes are on front of face) -face: ﬂat, reduced sense of smell -hands and feet: grasping, nails instead of claws -limbs: ﬂexible, well-developed collarbone -reproduction: one offspring at a time, extended gestation, mothers nurture -behavior patterns: social, vocalization, facial expressions • humans are primates. they have the largest brain, ﬂattest face, most generalized teeth, sense of smell is same as other primates, longest thumbs, feet not prehensile, arms are ﬂexible but legs arent, longest dependency period for children, structured groups, cultural values Hominids -bipedal why bipedal? frees hands to carry offspring, aids in ﬁnding food and seeing danger, exposes less to the sun, saves energy how do we know they were bipedal? the way the pelvis is shaped -deﬁning characteristics of the genus Homo = bigger brains, ﬂatter faces, less sloping foreheads -Hominid Evolution: Sahelanthropus tchadensis- 6-7 mya, sahara desert Australopithecus afarensis- 3 mya, Lucy, fossil found in Hadar Ethiopia, bipedal, splits into 2 groups: Paranthropus: broad face, low jaw, large teeth Homo: Homo habilis, Homo erectus -tool traditions: Oldowan: scraping tools, pressure ﬂake, bulb of percussion Acheulian: Homo erectus; axes, cleavers, ﬂake tools; bifacial tools Levallois: scrapers, points, knives Mousterian: haft(attaching wooden handle to stone)
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