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AU / Anthropology / ANTH 1000 / What is the difference between apes and monkeys?

What is the difference between apes and monkeys?

What is the difference between apes and monkeys?


School: Auburn University
Department: Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Anthropology
Professor: Christopher berk
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Anthropology, 1000, notes, auburn, and Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: Anthro 1000 Unit 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide reviews what is supposed to be on the test that has been discussed in class as well as some of the chapters from the book.
Uploaded: 02/07/2016
4 Pages 152 Views 1 Unlocks

Anthropology: the holistic, scientific study of humankind

What is the difference between apes and monkeys?

Subfields: cultural, biological(aka physical), linguistic, archaeology • cultural: behavior and systems, encompases all aspects, patterns in behavior • biological/physical: studies humans as biological species. includes genetics,  evolution, primatology, forensics  

• linguistics: human languages and interaction

• archaeology: studies cultural past and reconstructs past cultural systems


cultural relativism: studying other culture from its point of view without  imposing our own values.  

ethnocentrism: judge other cultures based on your society.  

*all societies are ethnocentric

emic perspective: think like an insider

etic perspective: understand in scientific terms, compare cultures to other cultures  epistemology: study of knowledge  

How do we know they were bipedal?

pseudoscience: scientifically testable idea that tests false. ex) astrology, mental  telepathy, aliens

Occam’s Razor: least complex hypothesis is most plausible  

science: method of inquiry, requires generation, testing. good science is skeptical  and strives to be objective

belief system: taken on faith, cant test it. they explain meaning of life, higher  power

theory: general, overarching statement that explains large set of factual patterns,  they're never complete  

hypothesis: proposed explanation  

deduction: suggesting data that would be found if hypothesis were true induction: developing explanation from specific observations  genes: unit of hereditary information that determines physical characteristics alleles: variants of a gene

How does punctuated equilibrium occur?

If you want to learn more check out What is crime prevention?

homozygous: two of the same alleles ex) GG or gg

heterozygous: two different alleles ex) Gg  

phenotype: chemical or physical results of genetic code  

genotype: genetic code

speciation: evolution of a new species

mutation: a process of biological evolution

gene flow: exchange of genes among populations through interbreeding genetic drift: genetic change based on random changes within gene pool. ex)  fission, founders effect, gamete sampling  

prehensile: you can grasp with it ex) some monkeys tails are prehensile opposability: characteristic of primates thumbs  

taxonomy: science of classification

bipedalism: you walk on 2 feet  We also discuss several other topics like What are the challenges to church authority?

punctuated equilibrium: current view of how change occurs  


Franz Boas- father of american anthropology

James Usher- he had the idea of a young earth, calculated that Earth was around  6,000 years old…so obviously he was wrong  

Charles Darwin- Origin of Species, introduced natural selection, also wrote  Decent of Man, found the information he used for his ideas when he was on the  HMS Beagle  

Alfred Wallace- had the same ideas as Darwin, Darwin published first  Thomas Malthus- stated idea that organisms must compete for resources Jean Lamarck- thought organisms spontaneously generated new characteristics as  needed throughout their lives and then passed them to offspring George Cuvier- catastrophism We also discuss several other topics like What was watson and crick contribution to the discovery of dna?
If you want to learn more check out Who are examples of great leaders?

Hutton, de Buffon, Lyell- Uniformitarianism, gradual change

Gregor Mendel- Genetics with his pea plants

Types of Data Collection in Anthropology 

field work- living with the culture to learn, cornerstone of anthropology ethnography- document or documentary that describes cultural system, based on  field work

ethnology- study of different contemporary cultures throughout the world

Old World Monkeys 

-two premolars

-downward facing nostrils

-tail, but its not prehensile



-apes and humans

-asia and africa

New World Monkeys 

-three premolars

-nostrils open to the side

-prehensile tails

-north and south america


Difference between apes and monkeys? monkeys have tails

Linnaeus Classifying System 

-only expresses physical characteristics, no evolution

-humans place in it:  

Kingdom:   Animalia *multicellular and heterotrophs

Phylum:   Chordata *spinal chord

Subphylum:   Vertebrata *back bone

Class:   Mammalia *neocortex in brain, hair, mammary glands, ear bones Subclass: Theria

Infraclass:   Eutheria

Order:   Primates If you want to learn more check out How do i calculate a weighted average?

Suborder: Anthropoidea

Superfamily: Hominoidea

Family: Hominidae

Genus:   Homo

Species:   sapiens

*shes not going to ask order, she's only going to ask “are we _________?”


-brain: large, complex, ability to store, retrieve, and process information -vision: most can see in color, depth perception, binocular vision (means eyes are  on front of face)  

-face: flat, reduced sense of smell

-hands and feet: grasping, nails instead of claws

-limbs: flexible, well-developed collarbone

-reproduction: one offspring at a time, extended gestation, mothers nurture -behavior patterns: social, vocalization, facial expressions If you want to learn more check out What are the errors of diagnosis?

• humans are primates. they have the largest brain, flattest face, most generalized  teeth, sense of smell is same as other primates, longest thumbs, feet not  prehensile, arms are flexible but legs arent, longest dependency period for  children, structured groups, cultural values  



why bipedal? frees hands to carry offspring, aids in finding food and seeing  danger, exposes less to the sun, saves energy  

how do we know they were bipedal? the way the pelvis is shaped  -defining characteristics of the genus Homo = bigger brains, flatter faces, less  sloping foreheads

-Hominid Evolution:  

Sahelanthropus tchadensis- 6-7 mya, sahara desert

Australopithecus afarensis- 3 mya, Lucy, fossil found in Hadar Ethiopia,  bipedal, splits into 2 groups:  

Paranthropus: broad face, low jaw, large teeth

Homo: Homo habilis, Homo erectus  

-tool traditions:

Oldowan: scraping tools, pressure flake, bulb of percussion

Acheulian: Homo erectus; axes, cleavers, flake tools; bifacial tools Levallois: scrapers, points, knives

Mousterian: haft(attaching wooden handle to stone)

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