Abnormal Psych Study guide for exam 1
Abnormal Psych Study guide for exam 1 PSY 341
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PSY341 EXAM 1 REVIEW SHEET Chapter 1 Learning Objectives How do we define abnormality and classify mental disorders Consider impairment severity distress and the cultural and developmental context of symptoms Dimensional versus categorical methods of classification What are the advantages and disadvantages of classification Allows for communication between practitioners Consider the role of stigma How common are mental disorders Which disorders are most prevalent Why do we need a researchbased approach in abnormal psychology How do we gather information about mental disorders What kinds of research designs are used to conduct research in abnormal psychology Correlation and the role of correlation in determining causation Terms 1 ABAB Design An experimental design often involving a single subject wherein a baseline period a is followed by a treatment b then to confirm that the treatment caused a change it is withdrawn a then reinstated b 2 Abnormal psychology Is a field of psychology concerned with the study assessment treatment and prevention of abnormal behavior 3 Acute Short in duration 4 Analogue studies Studies in which a researcher attempts to emulate the conditions hypothesized as leading to abnormality 5 Bias Preconceived ideas and expectations that in uence the observations he or she makes 6 Case studies An indepth examination of an individual or family that draws from a number of data sources including interviews and psychological testing 7 Chronic Long in duration 8 Comorbidity Used to describe the presence of two or more disorders in the same person 9 Comparison or control group The group of subjects who do not have the disorder being studied Or a group of subjects who re not given the condition or treatment that s being studied 10 Correlation The tendency of two variables to change together 11 Correlational research A research strategy that examines how amp whether variables go together without manipulating any variables 12 Correlational coefficient A statistic that ranges from 10 to 10 and re ects the degree of association between two variables 13 Criterion group The people with the disorder 14 Dependent variable Is the factor that is observed to change with changes in the manipulated independent variables in an experiment 15 Direct observation Is a method of collecting research data that involves directly observing behavior in a given situation 16 Direction of effect problem Refers to the fact that in a correlation research it cannot be concluded whether variable A causes variable B or vice versa 17 Doubleblind study Is when neither the subject nor the experimenter has knowledge about what specific experimental condition or drug the subject is receiving 18 Effect size Refers to the strength of the relationship between two variables in a statistical population 19 Epidemiology The study of the distribution of diseases disorders or healthrelated behaviors in a given population 20 Etiology The causes of disorders 21 Experiment research research that involves the manipulation of a given variable with everything else held constant 22 External validity The extent to which the findings from a single study are relevant to other populations contexts or times 23 Family aggregation Whether a disorder runs in the family 24 Generalizability Where the findings of one single study can be used to draw conclusions about other samples 2 5 Hypothesis an effort to explain predict or explore something 26 Incidence The number of new cases that occur over a given period of time usually a year 27 Independent variable The factor who s effects are being examined and manipulated in some way while other variables dependent are held constant 28 Internal validity The extent to which a study is free of confounds is methodologically sound and allows the researcher to have confidence in the findings 29 Labeling Assigning a person to a particular diagnostic category ex Schizophrenia 30 Lifetime prevalence The proportion of living persons in a population who have ever had a disorder up until the epidemiological assessment 31 Longitudinal analysis A research design where people are followed over time 32 Metaanalysis A statistical method used to combine the results of a number of similar research studies And then uses the effect size of each study to combine and analyze the studies 33 Negative correlation When the relationship between two variables causes one to go up and one to go down 34 Nomenclature A naming system 351year prevalence The total number of cases of a healthrelated state or condition in a population 36 Placebo treatment An inert pill aka neutral intervention that doesn t really produce any affects but the subject thinks it does 37 Point prevalence The estimated proportion of actual active cases of the disorder in a given population at a given point of time 38 Positive correlation When the relationship between two variables causes them to go up in the same direction 39 Prevalence The number of active cases in a population during any given period of time 40 Prospective research Is a method that often focuses on individuals who have a higher than average likelihood of becoming psychologically disordered before abnormal behavior is observed 41 Random assignment A procedure used to create equivalent groups to create equal chance between all research participants being placed in a research group 42 Retrospective research A research approach that attempts to retrace earlier events in the life of a subject 43 Sampling The process of selecting a representative subgroup from a defined population of interests 44 Selfreport data Data collected directly 45Singlecase research design An experimental research design that involves only one subject 46 Statistical significance A measure of the probability that a research finding could have occurred by chance alone 47 Stereotyping Automatic beliefs concerning other people that are based on minimal info Ex People who wear glasses are more intelligent 48Stigma Negative labeling disgrace 49Third variable problem Refers to the problem of making casual inferences in correlation research where the correlation between the two variables is due to their shared correlation w an unidentified third party Chapter 2 Learning Objectives How has abnormal behavior been viewed throughout history Consider the 4 humors superstitions and the experiences of those at quotBedlamquot hospital What effect did the emergence of humanism have on abnormal psychology Movement away from superstitions and towards scientific studies What developments led to the contemporary view of abnormal psychology Development of a classification system by Kraepelin Increased knowledge in the fields of medicine during the 18th century Terms 50Asylums Sanctuaries or places of refuge meant solely for the care of the mentally ill 51 Behavioral perspective Is a theoretical viewpoint organized around the theme that learning is central in determining human behavior 52 Behaviorism The school of psychology that formerly restricted itself primarily to the study of overt behavior 53 Catharsis A discharge of emotional tension associated with something such as by talking about past trama 54 Classical conditioning A form of leaning in which a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditional stimulus that naturally elicits an unconditioned behavior 5 5 Deinstitutionalization A movement to close mental hospitals and treat people with severe mental disorder in the community 56 Dream analysis The method involving the recording description and interpretation of a patient s dreams 57 Exorcism Religiously inspired treatment procedure designed to drive out evil spirits or forces from a possessed person 58 Free association The method for probing the unconscious by having patients talk freely about themselves their feelings and their motives 591nsanity Legal term for mental disorders implying lack of responsibility for one s acts and inability to manage one s affairs 60 Lycanthropy A condition where people believed they were possessed by wolves and imitated the behavior 61Mass madness Is a historically widespread occurrence of group behavior disorders that were apparently cases of hysteria 62 Mental hygiene movement A movement that advocated a method of treatment focused almost exclusively on the physical wellbeing of hospitalized mental patients 63Mesmerism The theory of animal magnetism hypnosis formulated by Anton Mesmer 64 Moral management A wideranging method of treatment that focused on a patient s social individual and occupational needs 65 Nancy School A group of physicians in nineteenthcentury Europe who accepted the view that hysteria was a sort of selfhypnosis 66 Operant conditioning The form of learning where if a particular response is reinforced it becomes more likely to be repeated on similar occasions 67 Psychoanalysis The methods freud used to study and treat patients 68 Psychoanalytic perspective The theory of psychopathology developed by freud that emphasizes the inner dynamics of unconscious motives 69 Saint Vitrus s dance Is the name given to the dancing mania that spread from Italy to Germany and the rest of Europe in the middle ages 70 Tarantism A disorder that included an uncontrollable impulse to dance that was often attributed to the bite of a wolf spider 71 Unconscious The portion of the mind that contains experiences of which a person is unaware Chapter 3 Learning Objectives What are the causes and risk factors for abnormal behavior Necessary vs sufficient distal vs proximal causes Diathesisstress model of etiology What viewpoints can we take to help us understand the causes of abnormal behavior Integrative biopsychosocial approach What does the biological viewpoint tell us about abnormal behavior and what are the biological causal factors of abnormal behavior Genetic vulnerability neurotransmitters hormonal systems brain dysfunction etc Cortisol awakening response and its role in psychological symptoms Twin studies genetic studies Consider concordance rates and how much they tell us What are the psychological viewpoints on abnormal psychology Psychoanalytic theory attachment theory behavioral perspective cognitive perspective schemas cognitive behavioral perspective What are the psychological causal factors behind abnormal behavior ear1y social deprivation severe trauma inadequate parenting style etc How does the sociocultural viewpoint help us understand abnormal behavior What are the sociocultural causal factors of abnormal behavior SES unemployment discrimination or experiences of prejudice etc Dodo bird hypothesis Terms 72Adoption method Is the comparison of biological and adoptive relatives with and without a given disorder to assess genetic versus environmental in uences 73Association studies Is the genetic research strategy comparing frequency of certain genetic markers known to be located on particular chromosomes in people with and without a particular disorder 74Attachment theory Is a contemporary developmental and psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of early experience w attachment relationships in laying the foundation for later functioning throughout life 75Attribution Is the process of assigning causes to things that happen 76 Behavior genetics Is the field that studies the heritability of mental disorders and other aspects of psychological functioning such as personality and intelligence 77 Biopsychosocial viewpoint Is a viewpoint that acknowledges the interacting roles of biological psychosocial and sociocultural factors in the origins of psychopathology 78 Castration anxiety Is the anxiety a young boy experiences when he desires his mother while at the same time fearing that his father may harm him by cutting of his penis this anxiety forces the boy to repress his sexual desire for his mother and his hostility toward his father 79 Chromosomes Are the chainlike structures within the cell nucleus that contain genes 80 Classical conditioning Is a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus that naturally elicits an unconditioned response after repeated pairings the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response 81 Cognitivebehavioral perspective A theory of abnormal behavior that focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior 82 Concordance rates Is the percentage of twins sharing a disorder or trait 83 Contributory cause A condition that increases the probability of developing a disorder but that is neither necessary nor sufficient for it to occur if X occurs then the probability of disorder Y increases 84 Cortisol Is a human stress hormone released by the cortex of the adrenal glands 85 Developmental psychopathology Is the field of psychology that focuses on determining what is abnormal at any point in the developmental process by comparing and contrasting it with normal and expected changes that occur 86 Developmental systems approach Is the acknowledgement that genetic activity in uences neural activity which in turn in uences the environment and that these in uences are bidirectional 87 Diathesis Is the predisposition or vulnerability to developing a given disorder 88 Diathesisstress models Is the view of abnormal behavior as the result of stress operating on an individual who has a biological psychosocial or sociocultural predisposition to developing a specific disorder 89 Discrimination Is the ability to interpret and respond differently to two or more similar stimuli 90 Ego In psychoanalytical theory the rational part of the personality that mediates between the demands of the id the constraints of the superego and the realities of the external world 91 Ego psychology Is the psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of the ego The executive branch of the personality in organizing normal personality development 92 Egodefense mechanism Is the psychic mechanisms that discharge or soothe anxiety rather than coping directly with an anxietyprovoking situation usually unconscious and reality distorting 93 Electra complex Is the excessive emotional attachment love of a daughter for her father the female counterpart of the Oedipus complex 94 Etiology Are the factors that are related to the development or cause of a particular disorder 95 Extinction Is the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when it is no longer reinforced 96 Family history method is the behavior genetic research strategy that examines the incidence of disorder in relatives of an index case to determine whether incidence increases in proportion to the degree of the hereditary relationship 97 Generalization Is the tendency of a response that has been conditioned to one stimulus to be elicited by other similar stimuli 98 Genes Is the long molecules of DNA that are present at various locations on chromosomes and that are responsible for the transmission of hereditary traits 99 Genotype Is a person s total genetic endowment 100 Genotypeenvironment interaction Is the differential sensitivity or susceptibility to their environments by people who have different genotypes 101 Hikikomori This is a disorder of acute social withdrawal where young people just remain in their room in their parents house and refuse social interactions for at least 6 months but often for many years 102 Hormones Is a chemical messenger secreted by endocrine glands that regulate development of and activity in various parts of the body 103 Hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal axis HPA axis Is the brain endocrine system involved in responding to stress in which the hypothalamus and pituitary send messages to the adrenal gland which releases a stress hormone that feeds back on the hypothalamus 104 Id In psychoanalytic theory is the reservoir of instinctual drives and the first structure to appear in infancy 105 Instrumental operant conditioning Is reinforcement of a subject for making a correct response that leads either to receipt of something rewarding or to escape from something unpleasant 106 Interpersonal perspective An approach to understanding abnormal behavior that views much of psychopathology as rooted in the unfortunate tendencies we develop while dealing with our interpersonal environments it thus focuses on our relationship past and present with other people 107 Intrapsychic con icts Is the inner mental struggles resulting from the interplay of id ego and superego when the three subsystems are striving for different goals 108 Learning Is the modification of behavior s a consequence of experience 109 Libido In psychoanalytical theory it is a term used to describe the instinctual drives of the id the basic constructive energy of life primarily sexual in nature 110 Linkage analysis Is the genetic research strategy where occurrence of a disorder in an extended family is compared with that of a genetic marker for a physical characteristic or biological process that is known to be located on a particular chromosome 111 Necessary cause A condition that must exist for a disorder to occur if disorder Y occurs then cause X must have preceded it 112 Neurotransmitters Is a chemical substance that are released into a synapse by the presynaptic neuron and that transmit nerve impulse from one neuron to another 113 Objectrelations theory In psychoanalytic theory this viewpoint focuses on an infant or young child s interactions with objects real or imagined people as well as how they make symbolic representations of important people in their lives 114 Observational learning Learning through observation alone without directly experiencing an unconditioned stimulus for classical conditioning or a reinforcement for instrumental conditioning 115 Oedipus complex Is the desire for sexual relations with a parent of opposite sex specifically the desire of a boy for his mother with his father a hated rival 116 Phenotype Is the observed structural and functional characteristics of a person that results from interaction between the genotype and the environment 117 Pituitary gland Is the endocrine gland associated with many regulatory functions 118 Pleasure principle Is the demand that an instinctual need be immediately gratified regardless of reality or moral considerations 119 Polygenic Is caused by the action of many genes together in an additive or interactive fashion 120 Primary process thinking Is gratification of id demands by means of imagery or fantasy without the ability to undertake the realistic actions needed to meet those instinctual 121 Protective factors Is the in uences that modify a person s response to an environmental stressor making it less likely that the person will experience the adverse effects of the stressor 122 Psychosexual stages of development According to Freudian theory there are five stages of psychosexual development each characterized by a dominant mode of achieving sexual pleasure the oral stage the anal stage the phallic stage the latency stage and the genital stage 123 Reality principle Is the awareness of the demands of the environment and adjustment of behavior to meet these demands 124 Reinforcement Is the process of rewarding desired responses 125 Resilience Is the ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances 126 Schema Is an underlying representation of knowledge that guides current processing of information and often leads to distortions in attention memory and comprehension 127 Secondary process thinking Are realityoriented rational processes of the ego for dealing with the external world and the exercise of control over id demands 128 Self aka ego is integrating the core of a personality that mediates between needs and reality 129 Spontaneous recovery Is the return of a learned response at some time after extinction has occurred 130 Stress Is the effects created within an organism by the application of a stressor 131 Sufficient cause A condition that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder if cause X occurs then disorder Y will also occur 132 Superego Is the conscience ethical or moral dimensions attitudes of personality 133 Synapse Is the site of communication from the axon of one neuron to the dendrites of or cell body of another neuron a tiny filled space between neurons 134 Temperament Is the pattern of emotional and arousal response and characteristic ways of selfregulation that are considered to be primarily hereditary or constitutional 135 Twin method Is the use of identical and nonidentical twins to study genetic in uences on abnormal behavior 136 Zar Is a person who believes heshe is possessed by a spirit may experience a dissociative episode during which shouting laughing singing or weeping may occur Chapter 4 Learning Objectives What are the basic elements in assessment Type of measure used validity and reliability of measures What is involved in the assessment of the physical organism What is psychosocial assessment 0bjective vs projective tests Clinical interview structured vs semi structured vs unstructured Neuropsychological testing How do practitioners integrate assessment data What is the process for clarifying abnormal behavior Structure and relationships between disorders Contributions of Achenbach amp Krueger disorder relationships What is the benefit of examining how disorders cluster together Terms 137 Actuarial procedures Is the methods whereby data about subjects are analyzed by objective procedures or formulas rather than by human judgements 138 Aphasia Is the loss or impairment of the ability to communicate and understand language symbols involving loss of power of expression by speech writing or signs or loss of the ability to comprehend written or spoken language resulting from brain injury or disease 139 Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale BPRS Is the objective method of rating clinical symptoms that provides scores on 18 variables ex somatic concern anxiety withdrawal hostility and bizarre thinking 140 Clinical diagnosis Is the process through which a clinician arrives at a general summary classificationquot of the patient s symptoms by following a clearly defined system such as DSM4TR or ICDlO 141 Comorbidity Is the occurrence of two or more identified disorders in the same psychologically disordered individual 142 Computerized axial tomography CAT scan Is the radiological technique used to locate and assess the extent of organic damage to the brain without surgery 143 Cultural competence Refers to a psychologist s need to be informed of the issues involved in multicultural assessment 144 Dysrhythmia Is the abnormal brain wave pattern 145 Electroencephalogram EEG Is the graphical record of the brain s electrical activity obtained by placing electrodes on the scalp and measuring the brain wave impulses from various brain areas 146 Forensic Is pertaining or used in the court of law 147 Functional MRI fMRI Is an internal scanning technique that measures changes in local oxygenation blood ow to specific areas of brain tissue that in turn depend on neuronal activity in those specific regions allowing the mapping of psychological activity such as sensations images and thoughts 148 Intelligence test Is a test used in establishing a subject s level of intellectual capacity 149 Magnetic resonance imaging MRI Is an internal scanning technique involving measurement of various in magnetic fields that allows visualization of the anatomical features of internal organs including the central nervous system and particularly the brain 150 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI Is a widely used and empirically validated personality scale 151 Neuropsychologicalassessment Is the use of psychological that measure a person s cognitive perceptual and motor performance to obtain clues to the extent and locus of brain damage 152 Objective personality tests Are structured tests such as questionnaires selfinventories or rating scales used in psychological assessment 153 Personality tests Are structured tests such as objective and projective personality tests 154 Positron emission tomography PET scan Is the scanning technique that measures metabolic processes to appraise how well an organ is functioning 155 Presenting problem Are major symptoms and behaviors the client is experiencing 156 Projective personality tests Are techniques that use various ambiguous stimuli that a subject is encouraged to interpret and from which the subject s personality characteristics can be analyzed 157 Psychological assessment Is the use of psychological procedures such as behavioral observations interview and psychological tests to obtain a picture of a client s mental health symptoms and personality 158 Rating scales Are formal structures for organizing information obtained from clinical observation and selfreports to encourage reliability and objectivity 159 Reliability Is the degree to which a measuring device produces the same result each time it is used to measure the same thing or when two or more different raters use it 160 Roleplaying Is the form of assessment where a person is instructed to play a part enabling a clinician to observe a client s behavior directly 161 Rorschach Inkblot Test Is the use of 20 inkblot pictures to where a subject responds with associations that come to mind Analysis of these responses enables a clinician to infer personality characteristics 162 Selfmonitoring Is observing and recording one s own behavior thoughts and feelings as they occur in various natural settings 163 Sentence completion test Is a projective technique utilizing incomplete sentences that a person is to complete analysis of which enables a clinician to infer personality dynamics 164 Signs Objective observations that suggest to a diagnostician a patient s physical or mental disorder 165 Standardization Is the procedure for establishing the expected performance range on a test 166 Structured assessment interview An interview with a set introduction and that follows a predetermined set of procedures and questions throughout 167 Symptoms Are patient s subjective description of a physical or mental disorder 168 T score distribution Is a standard distribution of scores that allows for a comparison of scores on a test by comparing scores with a group of known values 169 Thematic apperception test TAT Use of a series of simple pictures about which a subject is instructed to make up stories Analysis of the stories gives a clinician clues about the person s con icts traits personality dynamics and the like 170 Unstructured assessment interviews Are typically subjective interviews that do not follow a predetermined set of questions Has a general beginning statement the content of the interview questions are usually based on the habits or theoretical views of the interviewer 171 Validity Is the extent where a measuring instrument actually measures what it claims to measure Chapter 13 Learning Objectives What is the historical background of schizophrenia dementia praecox and Kraepelin schizotypy and Meehl What are the symptoms of schizophrenia DSM criteria both the symptoms and the required duration of symptoms Differentiate between delusions and hallucinations most common type of hallucinations Understand what is meant by disorganized speech Differentiate between positive and negative symptoms Epidemiology of schizophrenia Prevalence course and gender Age of onset Factors that affect the course of disorder Etiology of schizophrenia Role of genetics increases risk for development The dopamine hypothesis 0ther biological factors Exposure to u prenatally maternal stress perinatal birth complications frontal lobe lesion Environment factors the role of SES and sociogenic vs socialdrift hypotheses Family factors communication styles schizophrenogenic mother How is the brain affected in schizophrenia textbook How do characteristics of the family affect a person with schizophrenia High vs Low expressed emotion EE Treatment of schizophrenia Different types of antipsychotics Psychotherapy Other psychotic disorders EMPHASIS WILL BE ON SCHIZOPHRENIA Diagnostic symptoms Terms 172 Alogia Is a term referring to poverty of speech a symptom that often occurs in schizophrenia 173 Antipsychotics neuroleptics Are medications that alleviate or diminish the intensity of psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions 174 Attenuated psychosis syndrome Is characterized by psychoticlike symptoms that are less severe and more transient and that lie below the threshold for a full psychotic disorder 175 Avolition Refers to a psychological state that is characterized by a general lack of drive or motivation to pursue meaningful goals 176 Brief psychotic disorder Are brief episodes lasting a month or less of otherwise uncomplicated delusional thinking 177 Candidate genes Are genes that are of specific interest to researchers because they are thought to be involved in processes that are known to be aberrant in that disorder ex serotonin to depression 178 Catatonic schizophrenia Is a type of schizophrenia where the central feature is pronounced motor symptoms of either an excited or a stuporous type which makes it hard to differentiate this condition from a psychotic mood disorder 179 Cognitive remediation Are training efforts designed to help patients improve their neurocognitive skills 180 Delusion Are false beliefs about reality maintained in spite of strong evidence to the contrary 181 Delusional disorder Are nurturing giving voice to and sometimes taking action on beliefs that are considered completely false by others formerly called paranoia 182 Disorganized schizophrenia Is a type of schizophrenia that usually begins at an earlier age and represents a more severe disintegration of the personality than in the other types of schizophrenia 183 Disorganized symptoms Are symptoms such as bizarre behavior or incomprehensible speech 184 Dopamine A hypothesis that schizophrenia is the result of an excess of dopamine activity at certain synaptic sites 185 Endophenotypes Is discrete measurable traits that are thought to be linked to specific genes that might be important in schizophrenia or other mental disorders 186 Expressed emotion EB Is the type of negative communication involving excessive criticism and emotional over involvement directed at a patient by family members 187 Flat affect Is the lack of emotional expression 188 Glutamate Is an excitatory neurotransmitter that is wide spread throughout the brain 189 Hallucination Are false perceptions such as things seen or heard that are not real or present 190 Negative symptoms Are symptoms that re ect an absence or deficit in normal functions 191 Paranoid schizophrenia This type of schizophrenia is where a person is increasingly suspicious has severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships and experiences absurd illogical and often changing delusions 192 Positive symptoms Are symptoms that are characterized by something being added to normal behavior or experience Includes delusions hallucinations motor agitation and marked emotional turmoil 193 Prodromal Is considered to be an early stage of schizophrenia characterized by very lowlevel symptoms or behavioral idiosyncrasies 194 Psychosis Is a severe impairment in the ability to tell what is not real 195 Schizoaffecive disorder Is a form of psychotic disorder in which the symptoms of schizophrenia co occur with symptoms of a mood disorder 196 Schizophrenia Is a disorder characterized by hallucinations delusions disorganized speech and behavior as well as problems in selfcare and general functioning 197 Schizophreniform disorder Is a category if schizophreniclike psychosis less than 6 months in duration Chapter 15 Learning Objectives How does maladaptive behavior appear in different life periods Have we always focused on the special problems of children the way we do now What is the difference between internalizing and externalizing disorders What are some common childhood disorders in each group What are the clinical features of attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD Symptoms Treatment and medication How the disorder looks beyond adolescence What are the clinical features of oppositional defiant disorder ODD and conduct disorder What is the difference between the two Treatments What are the clinical features of childhood anxiety disorders eg separation anxiety disorder reactive attachment disorder Causal factors Does depression appear in children and adolescents Causal factors of childhood depression Possible treatments Features of elimination disorders sleepwalking and tics What are the clinical features of autism spectrum disorder Causal factors of the disorder Treatments What is a learning disorder What is an intellectual disability Different levels mild moderate severe profound Causal factors What are the organic retardation syndromes Down syndrome Phenylketonuria PKU Cranial anomalies How can we plan better programs to help children and adolescents Terms 198 Adderall Is a habitforming drug comprised of a combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine 199 Attentiondeficithyperactivity disorder ADHD Is a disorder of childhood characterized by difficulties that interfere with taskoriented behavior such as impulsivity excessive motor activity and difficulties in sustaining activity 200 Autism spectrum disorder Is a pervasive developmental disorder beginning in infancy and involving a wide range of problematic behaviors including deficits in language perception and motor development defective reality testing and social withdrawal 201 Conduct disorder Is a childhood and adolescent disorder that can appear by age 9 and are marked by persistent acts of aggressive or antisocial behavior that may or may not be against the law 202 Developmental psychopathology Is a field of psychology that focuses on determining what is abnormal at any point in the developmental process by comparing and contrasting it with normal and expected changes that occur 203 Down syndrome Is a form of moderatetosevere mental retardation associated with a chromosomal abnormality and typically accompanied by characteristic physical features 204 Dyslexia Is an impairment of the ability to read 205 Echolalia Is a parrotlike repetition of a few words or phrases 206 Encopresis A disorder in children who have not learned appropriate toileting for bowel movements after age 4 207 Enuresis Is a bedwetting involuntary discharge of urine after the age of expected continence age 5 208 Hydrocephaly Is a relatively rare condition in which the accumulation of an abnormal amount of cerebrospinal uid within the cranium causes damage to the brain tissue and enlargement of the skull 209 Intellectual disability Is a disorder with onset during the developmental period that includes intellectual and adaptive functioning 210 Juvenile delinquency Is a legal term used to refer to illegal acts committed by minors 211 Learning disorders Are a set of disorders that re ect deficits in academic performance 212 Macrocephaly Is a rare type of mental retardation characterized by an increase in the size and weight of the brain enlargement of the skull visual impairment convulsions and other neurological symptoms resulting from abnormal growth of glial cells that form the supporting structure for brain tissue 213 Mainstreaming Is a placement of mentally retarded children in regular school classrooms for all or part of the day 214 Neurodevelopmentaldisorders Is a group of disorders in DSMS that are typically manifested in early childhood 215 Oppositional defiant disorder ODD Is a childhood disorder that appears by age 6 and is characterized by persistent acts of aggressive or antisocial behavior that may or may not be against the law 216 Pemoline Is a drug similar to Ritalin used to treat ADHD perception Interprets sensory imput 217 Phenylketonuria PKU Is a type of mental retardation resulting from a baby s lack of a liver enzyme needed to break down phenylalanine an amino acid found in many foods 218 Ritalin Is a central nervous system stimulant often used to treat ADHD 219 Separation anxiety disorder Is a childhood disorder characterized by unrealistic fears oversensitivity selfconsciousness nightmares and chronic anxiety 220 Sleepwalking disorder Is a disorder of childhood that involves repeated episodes of leaving the bed and walking around without being conscious of the experience or remembering it later Aka somnambulism 221 Strattera Is a medication used in the treatment of ADHD 222 Tic Is a persistent intermittent muscle twitch or spasm usually limited to a localized muscle group often of the facial muscles 223 Tourette s disorder Is an extreme tic disorder involving uncontrollable multiple motor and vocal patterns Chapter 5 Learning Objectives What is stress How does the body respond to stress the role of cortisol immune functioning What role does our emotional state play in our physical health What mental disorders are explicitly recognized as being triggered by stress What are the clinical features of posttraumatic stress disorder Consider the prevalence of PTSD and the range of severity of symptoms after a traumatic event occurs What are the risk factors for PTSD gender degree of social support baseline cortisol levels What treatment approaches are used for PTSD medication and therapy Terms 224 Acute stress disorder Is a disorder that occurs within 4 weeks after a traumatic event and lasts for a minimum of 2 days and a maximum of 4 weeks 225 Adjustment disorder A disorder in which a person s response to a common stressor is maladaptive and occurs within 3 months of the stressor 226 Allostatic load The biological cost of adapting to stress Under conditions of high stress our allostatic load is high When we are calm our allostatic load is low and our bodies are not experiencing any of the physiological consequences of stress 227 Antigens Are foreign bodies ex viruses or internal threats that can trigger an immune response 228 Bcells Is a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow that is along with T cells very important to the immune system 229 Behavioral medicine Is a broad interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of physical disorders thought to have psychological factors as major aspects in their causation or maintenance 230 Coping strategies Are efforts to deal with stress 231 Correlational research study Is a study that examines whether and how variables go together without manipulating any variables 232 Cortisol Is a human stress hormone released by the cortex of the adrenal gland 233 Crisis Is a stressful situation that approaches or exceeds the adaptive capacities of an individual or a group 234 Crisisintervention Is a provision of psychological help to an individual or a group in times of severe and special stress 235 Cytokines Is a small protein molecule that enable the brain and the immune system to communicate with each other Cytokines can augment or enhance an immune system response or cause immunosuppression depending on the specific cytokine that is released 236 Debriefing sessions A psychological debriefing is a brief directive treatment method that is used in helping people who have undergone a traumatic situation Usually conducted with small groups of trauma victims shortly after the incident 237 Distress Is a negative stress associated with pain anxiety or sorrow 238 Essential hypertension Is high blood pressure with no specific known physical cause 239 Health psychology Is a subspecialty within behavioral medicine that deals with psychology s contribution to diagnosis treatment and prevention of psychological components of physical dysfunction 240 Hypertension Is high blood pressure defined as a persisting systolic blood pressure of 140 or more and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 or greater 241 Hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal HPA system Is a brain endocrine system involved in responding to stress in which the hypothalamus and pituitary send messages to the adrenal gland which releases a stress hormone that feeds back on the hypothalamus 242 Immune system Is the body s principal means of defending itself against the intrusion of foreign substances 243 Immunosuppression Is a downregulation or dampening of the immune system This can be short or long term and can be triggered by injury stress illness and other factors 244 Leukocytes Lymphocytes A generalized term for white blood cells 245 Positive psychology Is a new field that focuses on human traits and resources that are potentially important for health and wellbeing 246 Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD Is a disorder that occurs following an extreme traumatic event Where a person reexperiences the event avoids reminders of the event and exhibits persistent increased arousal 247 Prolonged exposure Is a behaviorally oriented treatment strategy where the patient is asked to vividly recount the traumatic event over and over until there is a decrease in their emotional response 248 Psychoneuroimmunology Is the study of the interactions between the immune system and the in uence of these factors on behavior 249 Resilience Is the ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances 250 Stress Is the effects created within an organism by the application of a stressor 251 Stressinoculation training Is a preventive strategy that prepares people to tolerate an anticipated threat by changing the things they say to themselves before the crisis 252 Stress tolerance Is a person s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired 253 Stressors Are adjustive demands that require coping behavior on the part of an individual or group 254 Sympatheticadrenomedullary SAM system Is a system designed to mobilize resources and prepare for a fight or ight response 255 Tcell Is a type of white blood cell that when activated can recognize specific antigens They play an important role in the immune system 256 Type A behavior pattern Is an excessive competitive drive even when it is unnecessary impatience or time urgency and hostility 257 Type D personality Type D for distressed personality is characterized by high levels of negative emotions and social anxiety Research suggests that type D personality is linked to heart attacks
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