New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam One Cognitive Psychology Study Guide

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Jaya Brown

Exam One Cognitive Psychology Study Guide Psyc 3330

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psyc 3330 > Exam One Cognitive Psychology Study Guide
Jaya Brown
GPA 3.61

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here is a study guide for exam one. These are notes and examples from the lecture not the textbook
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Alley
Study Guide
psychology cognitive
50 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Jaya delivered. Shoutout Jaya, I won't forget!"
Catalina Kautzer

Popular in Cognitive Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jaya Brown on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


Reviews for Exam One Cognitive Psychology Study Guide

Star Star Star Star Star

I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Jaya delivered. Shoutout Jaya, I won't forget!

-Catalina Kautzer


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/06/16
Exam 1: Review Guide CHAPTER 1 Cognitive Psych? - Study of how people learn, structure, store, and use knowledge - Study of attention, perception, memory, psycholinguistics, decision-making, and other higher mental processes - Everyday mental activities History of Cognitive Psych - Philosopher have pondered cognition (Plato, Aristotle, Locke, etc. - Many of the first KNOWN scientific studies in psychology were cognition  E.g., Donder (1898), Ebbinghaus (1885), Wundt (the first to create AND USE a psychology lab - Behaviorism (early 1900s)  Attempted to shift psychology to the study of observable behavior and stimulus-response association  Led to the decline in cognitive psychology - Decline of behaviorism (1945-1970)  Tolman (1948) – Spatial behavior due to “cognitive maps” rather than learned sequences of behavior  Chomsky (1959)- language learning is NOT a matter of reinforcement and punishment, as claimed by Skinners Verbal Behavior o kids say things that they’ve have never heard, use incorrect grammar, etc.  Brelands Misbehavior od Organisms (1961) o Behavior reflects evolution -1950s  Development of ‘thinking machines” (computers) and the processing approach  First text on cognitive psychology (Neisser 1967) -1980s  Cognitive approach becomes dominant in most areas of psychology  Development of Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Model and cognitive neuroscience  Gradual replacement of IP (information processing) approach with ideas of embodied cognition, PDP models, and evolution psychology -IP Approach  Generally uses a (serial) computer analogy & o Serial processing, limited capacity ‘CPU’, output of one series as the input for the next  Goal: identify and analyze sequence of distinct step processes 5 Key distinctions in cognitive psychology 1. Serial vs Parallel processing  Serial: doing one thing at a time vs. processing: doing more than one thing at a time  Can be difficult to differentiate (task-switch vs. simultaneous) o May appear to do things at the same time but actually switching rapidly between the tasks 2. Intentional (fully conscious) vs. Automatic Process  Playing an oboe vs. reading a word; a new driver vs. an experienced driver 3. Data- Driven (bottom-up) vs. conceptually driven (top-down) processing  Bottom-up: determined by sensory processes  Top-down: understanding or perception is guided by stored knowledge (memory) o We can never identify anything as strictly one or the other: always incorporates both  Ex: reading is second nature but if something is misspelled we can identify what the word is 4. Implicit (hidden) vs. Explicit knowledge  Explicit knowledge: knowledge that can be easily verbalized  We know more than we can describe or explain o Ex: you cannot accurately explain to someone how to turn a corner on a bike, but you fully know how to do that  Much procedural knowledge is implicit 5. Cognition vs. Metacognition  Metacognition- knowledge about cognition including awareness, understanding, and/or monitoring of ones own cognitive state and cognitive activities o Ex: knowing whether or not you have a bad sense of direction.. if so rely more on GPS, maps, etc. CHAPTER 2 Theories of visual Recognition 1. Template Matching Models  Compare a stimulus w/ a set of specific patterns (templates) in memory o Ex: we can recognize an “s” because there is an image in our brain that matches that letter  Problems: o Size matching: ( A= A); in theory they must be the same size o Orientation matching (alignment): tilting the projection=no match o Configuration matching  Ex: different variations in the letter A; such as lowercase, uppercase, bubble letters, etc.  This is why they have letters in the box to tell if you are human, because computers cannot identify the letter if they are distorted o Memory load (huge number of templates required) o Incomplete figures  Ex: the top left corner of an A being covered 2. Feature analysis (detection) theory)  Register sensory input  Detect features: detect lines, curves, etc. not just the overall product  Compare detected features to stored info (memory)  Decide on the best match  Ex: Letter R.. 1 horizontal line, two vertical lines, 3 right angles, 0 acute angles, one discontinued curve, 0 continued curves. Then go through the entre alphabet to determine the letter R  Evidence for feature detection: o Letters have distinctive features o Confusion errors (e.g. C vs G vs H)  We confuse things that share features o Feature detectors in the visual cortex  The brain is wired to detect feature of anything in the world around us  Problems: o Top down processing is important  This process is entirely bottom up but top down is just as important for perception  Feature detection seems important by bottom-up all by itself is insufficient o Holistic (gestalt) effects:  Complexity effects: when its easier to find what you are looking for when it is more difficult  E.g. word superiority effect: letters are identifies much quicker and accurately when apart of a word  Meaning our brains can work on more than one letter at a time  Context effects: some features and responses can vary o Special complex: (e.g. {A 13 C} & {11 12 13} o Perceptual set: a readiness to perceive things in a certain way, usually due to expectations CHAPTER 3 Attention -Benefits  Accuracy: in perceptual judgments and actions o If you are attending to something your speed and accuracy will improve o Ex: when driving a car you are more likely to hit the brakes at the right moment when attending to the correct region  Speed: in perceptions in reactions (e.g. a speeded response)}  Memory: conscious retrieval of memories o Some skills and info may be acquired without attention or awareness - What captures your attention?  Goal-Directed Selection (top-down, central)- We intentionally deploy attention to something specific o Voluntary and requires effort o Feature distinctiveness (red dot in a blue field)  Stimulus-driven capture (bottom-up, direct) involuntary rapid response, quickly dissipates  Important factors: abrupt onset of objects, distinctiveness changes - Research and findings  Failure of Divided Attention o Seen in “cocktail party phenomenon  We can selectively attend to 1 conversation but not to several at once o Listening to one story while reading another- cannot comprehend both (e.g. dichotic listening)  Dichotic Messages o Altered (message)  (+) Often easy to shadow one message  (-) couldn’t follow 2 messages o Unattended Message  (-) could report almost nothing about rejected message  (+) notice if the sex of the speaker changes  (+) often notice if ones own name is in the unattended message -Themes of selection attention  filter, bottleneck themes of attention o all assume limited capacity ‘CPU’ o Early selection models- sensory inputs are selected on the basis of physical properties such as loudness or pitch  Problems:  How do we switch “channels” o Ex: we may hear parts of a conversation even if we are :ignoring” it  Words in an unattended messages can be inserted into message is they fit  Feature integration theory- a current theme of attention and pattern recognition involving 2 success processes: o sometimes process all parts of a scene in parallel (at the same time) o sometimes process parts of the scene serially (one at a time) respectively, testing two types of processing o processing that involves divided attention (automatic registration of features in parallel) o processing that requires focused attention (a more demanding kind of processing that is required when objects are more complex) o Support: o Pop out- targets that distract o Illusory correlation- mistakenly thin k that two component go together  E.g. 9(red)x, (blue)y, (green)z) one may report (green)x or (red) z Consciousness - Cognitive cognition: some cognition occurs without conscious awareness o Blindsight: patients with visual disorders causing in some “blindness may show knowledge of stimuli presented in “blind” portions of visual field. Detection without conscious awareness o Automatic Processes o Implicit learning- knowledge can be acquired w/out a conscious attempt to learn without explicit knowledge about what was learned o Subliminal Perception  Behavior and physiological responses can be influence by stimuli below threshold of awareness  Responses in some dichotic listening tasks o E.g. hearing and shadowing an ambiguous sentence like “he went over to the bank” we can interpret depending on whether river or money is presented in the unattended ear  Very brief, masked or low intensity stimuli o Subliminal exposure to sexual images increased the motivation of volunteers to continues working on boring tasks  Priming (readiness to respond)- can even occur it primes cannot be ID’d  Effects seem limited to significant changes in arousal, positive or negative affect and other non- specific responses  No evidence for subliminal perception of complex messages, especially in the form of backwards speech: o E.g. hidden messages in vocal music Memory - Require 3 processes: o Acquisition/encoding: info places in memory o Retention: info stored in memory o Retrieval: info stored in memory is found as needed -Types of memory tasks o Explicit: concerns facts and experiences can be recalled by conscious effort and reported verbally o Recall  Cued vs. uncued  Free vs. serial (in order)  Clustering (subjectively reorganizing) in a free recall o Recognition o Multiple choice o Relearning- measure savings in time or trial for remastery o Takes less time to relearn things each time you relearn it ( weeks t o days to hours to minutes)  Implicit- memories without awareness; previous experience influence performance on task that do not require and may not have explicit memory; generally long term memory o Factors affecting explicit memories (e.g. certain drugs) may have little effect on implicit memory and visa versa (dissociation) - Ebbinghaus (1885) o First scientific study of memory o Tested himself o Findings  A short list could be mastered in one trial  Spacing effect: better memory from distributed than massed studying  Increased retention interval: less retention but decreasing rate of forgetting - Traditional stage model of memory o Stage theory: persistence of memories depend on which memory is used  Sensory memory: very fragile form of memory  Short term:  Long term  Sensory memory o Believed to be the initial repository of info from the senses o Allows us to hold unprocessed info for a moment until we have tome to process or attend to it  Iconic memory: visual sensory memory o Required for matching of info received in different eye  Echoic memory: auditory sensory memory o Longer than iconic  Distinction between LTM and STM o o STM o LTM o Duration o 18-25 sec o years/permanent o Capacity o 7 plus or o unlimited minus 2 o maintenance o rehearsal o use o retrieval o rapid and o slower and subject immune to to retrieval failures failure o Findings:  Recall (stm) declines quickly without rehearsal  Given a series of letters and then asked to count backwards by 3s to avoid rehearsal  Serial position curve: better memory for items at the beginning and end of a list (primacy effect and recency effect)  Primacy: rehearsal  Recency: fragile and brief form of memory; short delay causes loss of info in STM so the last items in lists retrieved from LTM o Problems: some distinctions between stm and ltm are NOT clear cut o Duration for ltm it seems to be continuously variable o Capacity (7 plus or minus 2)  Can be increased by practice, and chunking - Working memory o Limited capacity, temporary memory system able to simultaneously store and manipulate info o Activated memory o Has high correlation with IQ and predicts ability to learn o Impaired WM is correlated with dyslexia and is a major part of cognitive aging effects o Components of WM: 2 Independent subsystems and an executive controlled  Phonological loop: repeating something to oneself  Provides articulation  Specialized system evolved for language acquisition  Memory span= amount one can pronounce quickly in 15-2 sentences  Visuospatial sketch pad: example would be meeting someone new that you must identify later. One would identify tall, mole on left cheek, dark hair o Can hold and manipulate visual and spatial images o Disrupted by concurrent visual or spatial images  Central Executive: a common and control center o Integrates information from phonological loop and visospatial sketchpad- link them to LTM o Attention controller


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.