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SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 1

by: KBeard2

SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 1 SOC 1003

Marketplace > Arkansas Tech University > Sociology > SOC 1003 > SOC 1003 Study Guide Exam 1
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Introductory Sociology
J Stobaugh
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by KBeard2 on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by J Stobaugh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 02/06/16
SOC 1003: Intro to Sociology  Dr. James Stobaugh Study Guide Exam 1       Major Concepts            Major People             Major Terms Sociology Terms   Society – a group of people who share a culture and territory  Sociology – systematic study of society and social interactions   Common Sense – things everyone knows, universal knowledge and/or assumptions  Theory vs theory o “theory” – civilian use, predictions, patterns o “Theory” – world view, perspective Early Sociology and Perspectives  Perspective – theoretical models used to explain sociological phenomena o Macro Level – population or society wide, large­scale patterns in society o Micro Level – individual behaviors, social interaction  August Comte (1798­1857) o Termed “sociology” and began scientific approach  Emile Durkheim (1858­1917)  o Father of sociology o Functionalism – society functions as one unit, similar to an organism  Society matters  Social facts  Patterns and structures (society dictates individual behavior)  Suicide – personal act caused by society  Anomie – social control becomes ineffective, results from loss of  shared values and social purpose  Individualistic societies have higher suicide rates then community­ based societies (example: Protestant vs Catholic countries)  Karl Marx (1818­1883) – economist, not sociologist o Economic changes lead to capitalism (negative change) o Conflict Theory – clash of ideas, forces, class  Bourgeoisie – capitalist class, factory owners  Proletariat – labor class o Minimum wage – keep wages from plummeting from work demand   Max Weber (1864­1920)  micro perspective o Symbolic Interactionism – symbology in society  How society gives meaning to and is influenced by objects and behaviors o Society is becoming more rational and efficient (e.g. chicken wings) o The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism – ties rise of Protestantism to  rise of capitalism (positive change)  W.E.B. Du Bois – 1  African­American Harvard PhD, University of Atlanta sociology  department   C. Wright Mills  o Sociological Imagination – ability to understand relationship between individual  and societal experiences (personal troubles ⇌ social issues) Research  Terms  Falsifiability – can be proven wrong  Validity – “Are you measuring what you think you’re measuring?”, uncompromised data  Reliability – consistency  Operationalize – transforming abstract ideas or concepts into physical data and attributed      to variables, how the variable is measured, observed,  manipulated  Sample – small groups that represent a population (the group being studied) o Sampling ­ What Not to Do  1936 Literary Digest presidential survey FDR vs. Landon  Sampled by phone directories and vehicle catalogues (only upper  class)  1948 Gallup presidential survey Truman vs. Dewey  Based on 1940 census, predating WWII and 8 years of economic  changes  Independent Variable – variable that is being manipulated or changed  Dependent Variables – variable that is being measured and may change depending on the  independent variable  Unit of Analysis – what or who is being studied  Quantitative Research – numerical data, statistics  Qualitative Research – data that cannot be assigned number value (e.g. ceremonies)  Causality – the relationship between cause and effect Research Model  Select topic  Define problem  Review literature  Formulate Hypothesis (testable statement that predicts the nature or outcome of a  situation)  Research Method o Document Analysis o Experiment (e.g. subway – the drunk or the ill; job applications – black, white, or  criminal) o Surveys o Participant Observation (Ethnography – observation of people and their behavior)  (e.g. how people claim space) o Case Studies o Secondary Analysis o Unobtrusive Measures – the subjects are unaware they are being studied  Collect data  Analyze Results  Share Results Ethical Issues  Major Cases o Tuskegee Experiment 1932 – syphilis effects  Black sharecroppers infected with syphilis offered free medical care from  specific doctors.   1947 Penicillin developed, sharecroppers not treated   1972 Experiment publicized and shut down o Milgram Experiment 1974 – obedience to authority (“just following orders”)  Americans directed by authority figures to administer increasingly dangerous  shocks to and eventually killing other participants  60% of participants were willing to administer lethal shocks o Humphreys Experiment 1960s­70s – homosexuality  Humphreys posed as a watch queen (lookout for police) for homosexual men  who met for sex, tracked license plates, and interviewed the men years later  Male homosexual acts were illegal. Data eventually destroyed to protect the  subjects  Guidelines o Voluntary participation o Harm must be minimized o Confidentiality (identity kept hidden) or anonymity (identity never recorded/known) o Deception must be minimized (dependent on study) Culture Culture – ways of life (values, customs, language, etc.) passed through generations  Society’s personality  Toolkit for navigating the world, necessary for survival  Cultural Universals – element of that is common to every culture worldwide  Material Culture – physical objects that help define a group (e.g. art, machines, clothing)  Nonmaterial Culture – a culture’s ways of thinking, their values, beliefs and assumptions Components  Symbols – representatives, dual meanings o Gestures – motions that convey messages o Language – symbols that enable thought and communication (verbal and  nonverbal)  Values – collective ideas, morality, desired and undesired behavior  o How we evaluate behaviors, ideas, etc. o American Values contradiction  Success  Democracy  Equality  Individualism  Group superiority  Education   Hard work  Religiosity  Romantic love  Efficiency and practicality  Science and technology  Material comfort  Freedom  Norms – rules of behavior and conduct o Folkways – unenforced (which side of the sidewalk to walk on) o Mores – core values, some formal, difficult but possible to change o Taboos – violation is met with revulsion o Subculture – group within dominant culture with unique language, dress, etc.  A minor culture that coexists with the dominant culture  Based on occupation, interest, religion, politics, etc.   e.g. geek culture, sports o Counterculture – minor culture that conflicts with dominant culture  e.g. gangs, white supremacists, hippies  o Sanctions – expression given in response to norms  Upholding norm = positive approval  Violating norm = negative disapprove High Culture vs Pop Culture  High – requires knowledge and/or money o e.g. polo, opera, art  Pop – requires little to no knowledge or money o e.g. sports, pop music, craft beers Stepping Outside  Ethnocentrism – evaluating another culture based one’s own o Culture shock – disorientation that occurs when culture (method for navigating  the world) doesn’t work o One view, tunnel vision  Culture Relativism – evaluating another culture based on that culture o Better understanding of causation and meaning of aspects of the culture o Often challenges morality/standards Socialization  Socialization – life­long process of learning to function or find “place” in society (social  location) o Essential link between individual and society  Social Theory – bases of evidence used to study and interpret social patterns and  behaviors  Social Context – physical and social setting of an event  Social Interaction – what people do when they are in another’s presence Human Development  Feral Children – children raised outside of society in the wild, possibly by other animals  Consequences of Isolation – no language, no thought, no connection with others  Self­concept (“self­esteem”) o Physical, active, social, and psychological sense of self  Cooley and the Looking­Glass Self concept o Perception of others’ evaluation of one’s self o “How we think others think about us”  practice  Meade and Role­Taking o Process of mentally taking place of others to understand their point of view  Role­taking (becoming that person)  Role­making (create what we think that person expects)  Playing the role (acting out what we think that person expects) o Significant others – people with influence over behavior  o Generalized Other – perception of how others see us Agents of Socialization  Social Institution – ways a society meets its needs o Family – initial development of self, influence decreases as socialization broadens o School   Manifest functions – skills and knowledge   Latent functions – prepare for world outside of family, learn universality  (rules apply to everyone, regardless of how special the family may be)  Hidden Curriculum – “cultural message,” stories and examples that teach implicit lessons  Corridor Curriculum – what students teach each other outside of  the classroom o Peer Group – individuals of roughly the same age linked by common interest  “conformity or rejection,” group standards tend to dominate individual  lives o Mass Media – method of spreading information to large amounts of people;  shapes values, perception, behavior Resocialization – learning the new norms, values, beliefs, and attitudes of a new situation in life  Total Institution – subjects cut off from outside society and totally under control of  officials within institution o Degradation ceremony – stripping individual’s current identity o e.g. military boot camps, prisons Socialization through the Life Course  Transitional Adulthood – “neither psychological adolescents nor sociological adults,”  transitional stage between adolescent and adult, college years Social Structure and Interaction  Social Groups – people who interact and believe what they have in common is significant  Reference Group – groups used as a standard evaluation of self (e.g. family, coworkers,  church members)  Dramaturgical Analysis – the idea that life is performed as a drama on a stage dictated  and directed by society o Front Stage – performing, the places where roles are acted and interaction occurs o Back Stage – privacy, the places no role or interaction occurs (e.g. bathroom,  bedroom)  Social Construction of Reality – ways of interpreting experiences learned through  interactions with others o concepts of reality that are based on social influence and formed internally


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