SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 1
SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 1 SOC 1003
Arkansas Tech University
Popular in Introductory Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by KBeard2 on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by J Stobaugh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.
Reviews for SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/16
SOC 1003: Intro to Sociology Dr. James Stobaugh Study Guide Exam 1 Major Concepts Major People Major Terms Sociology Terms Society – a group of people who share a culture and territory Sociology – systematic study of society and social interactions Common Sense – things everyone knows, universal knowledge and/or assumptions Theory vs theory o “theory” – civilian use, predictions, patterns o “Theory” – world view, perspective Early Sociology and Perspectives Perspective – theoretical models used to explain sociological phenomena o Macro Level – population or society wide, largescale patterns in society o Micro Level – individual behaviors, social interaction August Comte (17981857) o Termed “sociology” and began scientific approach Emile Durkheim (18581917) o Father of sociology o Functionalism – society functions as one unit, similar to an organism Society matters Social facts Patterns and structures (society dictates individual behavior) Suicide – personal act caused by society Anomie – social control becomes ineffective, results from loss of shared values and social purpose Individualistic societies have higher suicide rates then community based societies (example: Protestant vs Catholic countries) Karl Marx (18181883) – economist, not sociologist o Economic changes lead to capitalism (negative change) o Conflict Theory – clash of ideas, forces, class Bourgeoisie – capitalist class, factory owners Proletariat – labor class o Minimum wage – keep wages from plummeting from work demand Max Weber (18641920) micro perspective o Symbolic Interactionism – symbology in society How society gives meaning to and is influenced by objects and behaviors o Society is becoming more rational and efficient (e.g. chicken wings) o The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism – ties rise of Protestantism to rise of capitalism (positive change) W.E.B. Du Bois – 1 AfricanAmerican Harvard PhD, University of Atlanta sociology department C. Wright Mills o Sociological Imagination – ability to understand relationship between individual and societal experiences (personal troubles ⇌ social issues) Research Terms Falsifiability – can be proven wrong Validity – “Are you measuring what you think you’re measuring?”, uncompromised data Reliability – consistency Operationalize – transforming abstract ideas or concepts into physical data and attributed to variables, how the variable is measured, observed, manipulated Sample – small groups that represent a population (the group being studied) o Sampling What Not to Do 1936 Literary Digest presidential survey FDR vs. Landon Sampled by phone directories and vehicle catalogues (only upper class) 1948 Gallup presidential survey Truman vs. Dewey Based on 1940 census, predating WWII and 8 years of economic changes Independent Variable – variable that is being manipulated or changed Dependent Variables – variable that is being measured and may change depending on the independent variable Unit of Analysis – what or who is being studied Quantitative Research – numerical data, statistics Qualitative Research – data that cannot be assigned number value (e.g. ceremonies) Causality – the relationship between cause and effect Research Model Select topic Define problem Review literature Formulate Hypothesis (testable statement that predicts the nature or outcome of a situation) Research Method o Document Analysis o Experiment (e.g. subway – the drunk or the ill; job applications – black, white, or criminal) o Surveys o Participant Observation (Ethnography – observation of people and their behavior) (e.g. how people claim space) o Case Studies o Secondary Analysis o Unobtrusive Measures – the subjects are unaware they are being studied Collect data Analyze Results Share Results Ethical Issues Major Cases o Tuskegee Experiment 1932 – syphilis effects Black sharecroppers infected with syphilis offered free medical care from specific doctors. 1947 Penicillin developed, sharecroppers not treated 1972 Experiment publicized and shut down o Milgram Experiment 1974 – obedience to authority (“just following orders”) Americans directed by authority figures to administer increasingly dangerous shocks to and eventually killing other participants 60% of participants were willing to administer lethal shocks o Humphreys Experiment 1960s70s – homosexuality Humphreys posed as a watch queen (lookout for police) for homosexual men who met for sex, tracked license plates, and interviewed the men years later Male homosexual acts were illegal. Data eventually destroyed to protect the subjects Guidelines o Voluntary participation o Harm must be minimized o Confidentiality (identity kept hidden) or anonymity (identity never recorded/known) o Deception must be minimized (dependent on study) Culture Culture – ways of life (values, customs, language, etc.) passed through generations Society’s personality Toolkit for navigating the world, necessary for survival Cultural Universals – element of that is common to every culture worldwide Material Culture – physical objects that help define a group (e.g. art, machines, clothing) Nonmaterial Culture – a culture’s ways of thinking, their values, beliefs and assumptions Components Symbols – representatives, dual meanings o Gestures – motions that convey messages o Language – symbols that enable thought and communication (verbal and nonverbal) Values – collective ideas, morality, desired and undesired behavior o How we evaluate behaviors, ideas, etc. o American Values contradiction Success Democracy Equality Individualism Group superiority Education Hard work Religiosity Romantic love Efficiency and practicality Science and technology Material comfort Freedom Norms – rules of behavior and conduct o Folkways – unenforced (which side of the sidewalk to walk on) o Mores – core values, some formal, difficult but possible to change o Taboos – violation is met with revulsion o Subculture – group within dominant culture with unique language, dress, etc. A minor culture that coexists with the dominant culture Based on occupation, interest, religion, politics, etc. e.g. geek culture, sports o Counterculture – minor culture that conflicts with dominant culture e.g. gangs, white supremacists, hippies o Sanctions – expression given in response to norms Upholding norm = positive approval Violating norm = negative disapprove High Culture vs Pop Culture High – requires knowledge and/or money o e.g. polo, opera, art Pop – requires little to no knowledge or money o e.g. sports, pop music, craft beers Stepping Outside Ethnocentrism – evaluating another culture based one’s own o Culture shock – disorientation that occurs when culture (method for navigating the world) doesn’t work o One view, tunnel vision Culture Relativism – evaluating another culture based on that culture o Better understanding of causation and meaning of aspects of the culture o Often challenges morality/standards Socialization Socialization – lifelong process of learning to function or find “place” in society (social location) o Essential link between individual and society Social Theory – bases of evidence used to study and interpret social patterns and behaviors Social Context – physical and social setting of an event Social Interaction – what people do when they are in another’s presence Human Development Feral Children – children raised outside of society in the wild, possibly by other animals Consequences of Isolation – no language, no thought, no connection with others Selfconcept (“selfesteem”) o Physical, active, social, and psychological sense of self Cooley and the LookingGlass Self concept o Perception of others’ evaluation of one’s self o “How we think others think about us” practice Meade and RoleTaking o Process of mentally taking place of others to understand their point of view Roletaking (becoming that person) Rolemaking (create what we think that person expects) Playing the role (acting out what we think that person expects) o Significant others – people with influence over behavior o Generalized Other – perception of how others see us Agents of Socialization Social Institution – ways a society meets its needs o Family – initial development of self, influence decreases as socialization broadens o School Manifest functions – skills and knowledge Latent functions – prepare for world outside of family, learn universality (rules apply to everyone, regardless of how special the family may be) Hidden Curriculum – “cultural message,” stories and examples that teach implicit lessons Corridor Curriculum – what students teach each other outside of the classroom o Peer Group – individuals of roughly the same age linked by common interest “conformity or rejection,” group standards tend to dominate individual lives o Mass Media – method of spreading information to large amounts of people; shapes values, perception, behavior Resocialization – learning the new norms, values, beliefs, and attitudes of a new situation in life Total Institution – subjects cut off from outside society and totally under control of officials within institution o Degradation ceremony – stripping individual’s current identity o e.g. military boot camps, prisons Socialization through the Life Course Transitional Adulthood – “neither psychological adolescents nor sociological adults,” transitional stage between adolescent and adult, college years Social Structure and Interaction Social Groups – people who interact and believe what they have in common is significant Reference Group – groups used as a standard evaluation of self (e.g. family, coworkers, church members) Dramaturgical Analysis – the idea that life is performed as a drama on a stage dictated and directed by society o Front Stage – performing, the places where roles are acted and interaction occurs o Back Stage – privacy, the places no role or interaction occurs (e.g. bathroom, bedroom) Social Construction of Reality – ways of interpreting experiences learned through interactions with others o concepts of reality that are based on social influence and formed internally
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'