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first exam study guide EBIO:1220 001-002 General Biology 2
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Exam one study guide Vocabularies Evolution The genetic compositions of species change over time Q A piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred an actual occurrence Hypothesis A testable falsifiable explanation for a phenomenon of interest Theory A framework of internally consistent ideas used for generating hypotheses natural selection the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring Phylogeny Evolutionary history of a group An evolutionary tree phylogenetic tree Homology Similarities that are attributable to common ancestry Analogy Similarities that are attributable to convergence evolution Convergence similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar analogous adaptations Even though organisms are from very different evolutionary lineages Terminology Prokaryote quotBefore nut or quotBefore nucleus Unlike Eukaryotes which have a true nucleus Study guide question and answers 1 Prokaryote biomass is 10x greater than eukaryote biomass 2 Henderson mine 2 mi Single handful of soil 10000 species But only 4500 described 3 Some statistics about abundance Your mouth contains more prokaryotes than the number of people who have ever lived Ever Human bodies have more prokaryotic cells than human cells Where are the most bacteria on your skin on the back of ear 4 According to the theory of natural selection what factor below contributed to the current variations in beak sizes of finch species on the Galapagos islands Seeds are a limited resource 5 Those are the four postulates of natural selection Variation in population heritable variation selection differential survival or reproduction 6 Those are an accurate combination of postulates 1 and 2 of natural selection Heritable variation exists for traits among individuals in a population 7 Those are accurate combination of postulates 3 and 4 of natural selection 0 Individuals experience differential success in their ability to survive or reproduce 8 Which of the following statements describes the evolution by natural selection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in their new environment The drugresistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin 9 In the United States today about half of the corn crop is genetically engineered with a protein that is toxic to corn borers an insect pest of corn Which of the following conditions would be necessary for evolution of resistance to the toxic protein to occur in the corn bore 0 The corn borer must have or generate by mutation heritable variation in resistance to the toxic protein The resistant corn borers must survive better or reproduce more than nonresistant corn borers 10Natural selection genetic drift and gene flow cause a population to evolve in different ways Natural selection is the result of differential survival and reproduction It is the only mechanism of evolution that consistently causes a population to become better adapted to its environment Genetic drift describes evolution due to chance events and causes unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies Genetic drift can have a particularly significant effect in a small population such as during a bottleneck or founder event 0 Gene flow results when alleles are transferred into or out of a population due to the migration of fertile individuals or their gametes Gene flow can bring new alleles beneficial harmful or neutral into a population 11Describe how natural selection and genetic drift lead to evolutionary change natural selection leads to evolution because the traits of those who are able to reproduce influence future generations genetics and gradually lead to these passed on traits becoming the normal state of being thus causing the species in question to evolve o If a group of people have predominantly brown hair genes and have children then by way of natural selection the dominant gene will increase with future generations meaning that slowly in time this group of people will evolve to have mostly brown hair genes 12Genetic changes a Mutation random introduction of new alleles 13Mechanisms of evolutionary changes are a Natural Selection nonrandom fixation of alleles that confer an advantage within an ecological context b Genetic Drift random fixation or loss of alleles in a population due to chance in small populations i eg Bottleneck effects in small populations 14what are important points about natural selection Natural selection does NOT create variants it only preserves or eliminates variants created through genetic changes The variants that are favored by natural selection depend upon the current environment What is adaptive in one situation may be useless or harmful in another Natural selection is not a teleological process Selection does not have a quotlongterm goal of favoring increasing complexity intelligence longlife or ethical behavior 0 Traits are favored if they increase reproductive output period 15Hypotheses theories and facts as used in the domain of SCIENCE a piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred an actual occurrence Hypotheses a testable falsifiable explanation for a phenomenon of interest Theory a framework of internally consistent ideas used for generating hypotheses 16 Darwin s idea was representing about a revolution The Earth is young 1000 s of years old The environment is unchanging canyons mountains continents etc Species do not change all species have remained the same since creation Aristotle There is no such thing as a quotnewquot species 17The key ingredients of natural selection are Individuals within species vary Some of these variations are heritable More offspring are produced than can survive Survival and reproduction are nonrandom ie some traits help you survive and reproduce more than others 18challenges to survival and reproduction heritable variation in traits affecting survival and reproduction the traits that confer survival and reproductive advantages will increase in frequency in the population 19 variation come from genetic changes Mutation random introduction of new alleles 20Mechanisms of evolutionary changes Natural Selection nonrandom fixation of alleles that confer an advantage within an ecological context Genetic Drift random fixation or loss of alleles in a population due to chance in small populations o eg Bottleneck effects in small populations 21evolution is a fact evolution change over time in a population s genetic makeup Modern organisms differ from fossil organisms Many modern forms are not present in the early fossil record Pathogens and insects acquire drug resistance Species have gone extinct in our lifetimes 22 Evolution is a fact not a theory The characteristics of organisms have changed over time 0 These facts are a set of observations in need of explanation 23We use theories to generate hypotheses about how and why evolutionary changes have occurred Natural selection theory 0 We apply theories such as these to offer explanations in the form of testable hypotheses 24According to natural selection for bloodfeeding to increase in the finch population which of the following must be true a Blood feeding must be heritable b Individuals who blood feed must produce more offspring 25Earth probably formed 45 billion years ago and the first life evolved as early as 39 billion years ago Because fossils of bacterial communities have been discovered that are 35 billion years old it is reasonable to assume life originated around 39 billion years ago 26Which is NOT true about Eukaryote The answer is All They arose by the process of endosymbiosis They have membrane bound organelles They have nucleus animals fungi and plant arose from different lineages of unicellular eukaryotes 27nterpret and organize relationships among organisms Naming and classifying species i Taxonomy 28naming and classification of species and groups of species For example finding new species and giving them names i Hierarchical classification system b Phylogenies i What are they and how are they built ii Homology vs Analogy iii Potential pitfalls 29 statement about protests are They can be single celled or multicellular 0 They have organelles and a nucleus They can be autotrophs or heterotrophs Some can have both animals like and plant like characteristics 30Which statement about the genomes of prokaryotes is correct Prokaryotic genomes are composed of circular DNA 31Which of the following traits do Archaea and Bacteria share 1 composition of the cell wall 2 absence of membranebound organelles 3 lack of a nuclear envelope 4 linear DNA 2 and 3 is the answer 32The evolution of complex multicellularity in eukaryotes is occurred 0 independently in several different eukaryotic lineages 33Sympatric speciation is quotthe process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting THE SAME GEOGRAPHIC REGIONquot 34That is individuals from the diverging lineages have an opportunity to encounter each other as they typically move about but they segregate themselves when it comes to breeding 35Allopatric speciation occurs when populations take different evolutionary trajectories once they are separated by space That is they can not physically come in contact with each other 36n the case of the salamanders that make the ring complex the narrator says quotpopulation of these salamanders became separated GEOGRAPHICALLY Evolving over millions of years to adapt to their environmentquot That is as they migrated across the different mountain ranges they became separated physically from the other populations they left behind and adapted to their local conditions The only populations that actually come into contact are at the end of the chain in S CA where they produce hybrids However the ring is a result of a lot of physical separation between different lineages 37While the diverging salamander lineages may occasionally come into contact with each other and may potentially interbreed for the most part these breeding events appear to be rare enough that they keep the lineages separated genetically from each other I think the map does not do changes in topography justice and it is difficult to imagine the physical barriers such as drops in elevation to dry habitats bodies of water or other barriers that keep them apart 38To avoid being eaten the coloration of the populations on the Pacific Coast match that of different poisonous newts while in the interior where newts are not present populations diverge to best camouflage within their habitats 39A phylogeny is a hypothesis of how organisms are related and its topology can change with the use of new characters or the addition of new taxa The more characteristics and taxa that are used to construct a phylogeny the more confidence one may have in its conclusions Convergent characteristics lead one to conclude that the trait was shared by a common ancestor thus grouping taxa when in fact the trait arose independently 40new species come from Allopatric and sympatric 41how do we get new species Need reproductive incompatibility to develop 1 Allopatric Speciation Populations of a single species become spatially separated Over time genetic changes cause the populations to diverge into separate species Reproduction becomes impossible even if species are reunited Examples speciation on islands across a canyon in different lakes etc 2 Sympatric Speciation Speciation in the absence of geographic separation Less common at least to demonstrate A Local habitat differentiation Use of different tree species within a forest B Sexual selection Females are selective for male color song behavior etc 0 C Polyploidy change in number of chromosomes Tetraploid 4N offspring cannot mate with diploid 2N ancestors 42What is the definition of life 1 Accurate replication reproduction 2 Response to stimuli 3 Metabolism use and production of energy 4 Capable of information storage Human definition 43Fossils have revealed important trajectories of life on Earth Fossils records not perfect 44Problems with using fossils Slanted in favor of species that had shells or hard skeletons Longlived or widespread organisms Only preserved in certain kinds of rocks Difficult to find most haven t been found 45ntermediate stage between Teeth and claws Bony tail Feathers why feathers evolved Insulation Flight 46Australia has among the most unique mammal species on Earth What might you predict to therefore be true Australia has long been relatively isolated 47How many species exist on earth About 10000000 not sure but around 87 million species are describe 48Naming and classifying species Taxonomy is naming and classification of species and groups of species a For example finding new species and giving them names Hierarchical classification system 49Phylogenies 0 What are they and how are they built 0 Homology vs Analogy Potential pitfalls 50How are new new species found By exploring new areas or more carefully looking at old areas Potentially new species compared with those already known If new then they are given a new name by the discoverer New species are being found ALL THE TIME a Estimated 20000 new species described last year b Indonesian quotLost World found in December 51How do we organize these different groups of animals plants and microorganisms A hierarchical classification 52Hierarchical Classification of the leopard 1 Domain 2 Kingdom 3 Phylum 4 Class 5 Order 6 Family 7 Genus 8 Species 53f monkeys and foxes belong to the same class they must also belong to the same phylum 54What are eukaryotes 55Where did eukaryotes come from Endosymbiosis 56How did eukaryotes arise from Prokaryotes 57All eukaryotes almost have mitochondria whereas only some groups especially plants have plastids chloroplasts What might you infer from this observation Plastid endosymbiosis occurred after more recently than the endosymbiosis event leading to mitochondria Mitochondria are homologous within Eukaryote 58Diversification of the Eukaryotes and origin of the protists Originally 4 kingdoms Not monophyletic 59Prokaryotes are in the domains Bacteria and Archaea Remember that quotMoneraquot is not a domain 60 Given the 3 domain system of classification Prokaryotes are not monophyletic because Archaea share a more recent common ancestor with the Eukarya than with the Bacteria 61Assuming the first Eukarya gave rise to all the lineages of quotProtistaquot Protista could be made monophyletic if It included the plants fungi and animals 62What is TRUE about cyanobacteria Some entered into an endosymbiotic relationship with other cells a relationship that led to what we call plants today 63Which cells or organelles were the earliest contributors to increasing oxygen availabilitin the atmosphere Cyanobacteria 64Place the following terms in the correct sequence of events in the evolution of life on Earth from earliest to most recent Cyanobacteria mitochondria chlorophlasts plant symbioses with fungy 65You are infected with an organism that has the following characteristics nucleus no cell wall no different cell types Which of the following could it be Toxopasmaapicomplexan 66All of these are examples of evidence used to support the hypothesis of endosymbiosis EXCEPT Mitochondria and plastids like prokaryotes only contain genetic material in the form of RNA 67According to the endosymbiosis theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells how did mitochondria originate from engulfed originally freeliving prokaryotes 68The main characteristics that define a Metazoan animal but are not necessarily all unique to them include 1 they are composed of Eukaryotic cells like all organisms in the Eukarya 2 they are multicellular organisms with distinct tissue types like the plants and fungi see red lines below that highlight multicellular organisms but with a unique muscle and nervous system 3 they are heterotrophs like fungi and some other quotprotistsquot 4 they lack cell walls found in plants and fungi 5 and they have a unique characteristic in their early development 69Pants fungi and animals all have EUKARYOTIC cells This is due to a Homology 70Pants fungi and animals are all MULTICELLULAR organisms Based on the phylogeny above this is due to a Convergent evolution 71Describe how life s diversity including humans has been shaped over time by key evolutionary innovations and by interactions with each other 72Describe how key evolutionary innovations influenced the diversification of life and are used to define major groups of organisms 73Evaluate hypotheses about how evolutionary changes at the genetic cellular and organstructure level led to key innovations 74dentify influential interactions between humans and a diversity of microbes protests invertebrates and other vertebrates 75Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all animals 0 They all have tissues organs and organ systems 76The most recent common ancestor of all animals was probably a 0 Flagellated protest 77Which of the following statements about animals is FALSE 0 Kingdom Animalia includes all of the eukaryotes 78Describe how life s diversity has been shaped over time by key evolutionary innovations and by interactions with each other 0 Porifera sponges Cnidaria jellyfish sea anemones corals Platyhelminthes flatworms flukes tapeworms Mollusca snails bivalves octopi squid Annelida earthworms and leeches Arthropoda insects spiders crustaceans Echinodermata sea urchins starfish sand dollars 79 You become parasitized by a bilaterally symmetric protostome Which of the following is most likely involved Schist soma fluke 80Both octopi and squid exhibit similarly complex eyes This similarity is most likely an example of what 0 Homology 81n which of the following organisms would you expect to find spiral cleavage all Octopus Leech Spider 82What kind of symmetry does the sea urchin exhibit Bilateral 83Which of the following isare true of segmentation All is the answer Segmentation helps explain arthropod success and diversity Segmentation facilitates specialization Segmentation is found in annelids 84Prokaryotic features are Singlecelled Small microbes Single circular chromosome Plasmids no membranebound nucleus no membrane enclosed organelles Cell wall peptidoglycan move with flagella or pili pili also allow conjugation 85Why are prokaryotes so successful 0 1Exponential population growth Binary fission asexual 1 to 3 hours Mutation rate 2 Endospores resistant stages Survive for centuries 3 Conjugation bacterial quotsex Plasmids conjugation Important for gene transfer 860xygen catastrophe 24 billion years ago Accumulation of atmospheric oxygen 1 Extinction event anaerobic bacteria 2 Glaciation event 87 domain archaea No nucleus 0 Singlecelled No peptidoglycan 0 DNA sequences are more similar to eukaryotes than bacteria 0 No known pathogens Can live in places most organisms can t quotExtremophilesquot 88Hydrothermal communities Archaea Chemosynthesis Use of hydrogen sulfide for energy Heat tolerant 0 Form only nonlight based food chain Discovered in 1970s 89Domain Bactria 0 No nucleus Singlecelled Cell walls contain peptidoglycan a carbohydrate This allows us to stain and see them with certain dyes o Grampositive lots of peptidoglycan o Gramnegative little peptidoglycan I more resistant to antibiotics penicillin Most prokaryotes are Bacteria 90Bacteria cause half of all known human diseases resulting in millions of deaths year tuberculosis plague salmonella anthrax meningitis botulism cholera diphtheria strep throat leprosy pneumonia scarlet fever typhoid urinary tract infections Lyme Disease 91MRSA and antibiotic resistances Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 0 Emerging epidemic o 1999 127000 cases 0 2005 278000 cases 0 More deaths than AIDS in US Pussfilled boils skin rash 0 Schools and hospitals 0 Gyms prisons nursing homes 92Most antibiotics come from bacteria 0 But 99 of bacteria can t be 0 New method to culture bacteria in soils 0 Effective against MRSA and TB 93Prokaryotes are singlecelled organisms with no nucleus Bacteria Archaea 94Play incredibly important roles in all ecosystems Without them all other life would disappear Also cause their share of problems and disease 95Humans and other species depend on bacteria for a range of physiological and ecosystem services 96Phyum Chordata 52000 species A Notochord Invertebrate chordates 97Subphyum Vertebrata Jawless fishes Cartilaginous and bony fishes Amphibians Reptiles and birds Mammals 98What is so cool about a notochord rigid structure for muscle attachment yet flexible enough to allow more movement than invertebrate exoskeleton Embryos of all vertebrates have notochords today In most animals they eventually develop into intervertebral discs 99Subphylum Vertebrata Jawless Fishes Lamprey Head and vertebrae Lamprey o Cartilaginous vertebrae No jaws Bloodsuckers and scavengers Sea lamprey 100 Cartilaginous Fishes 1000 species Cartilaginous skeleton Jawed fishes o Jaws o Feeding strategies 3Types 101 102 o Sharks 0 Rays 0 Skates What fraction of fishes are found in the ocean as opposed to freshwater a 40 is the answer Examine the following phylogenetic tree of fishes alive today What might you reasonably conclude B is the answer 103 104 105 106 A Fish originated in marine habitats and spread subsequently to freshwaters B Fish originated in freshwater and subsequently invaded the oceans c The rate of speciation is much higher in oceans than in freshwaters D There are roughly 2x as many freshwater groups than there are marine groups Bonnyhes 0 Claim to fame 0 Most numerous vertebrate 0 35000 species 0 Traits o Bony skeleton 0 Lung derivatives I Swim bladderlungs 0 Some have limblike fins Lungfishes tagnant swamps Breathe air Lobefinned fishes Limblike fins quotWalkquot on ocean bottom The waking fish mudskipper o Amphibious o Mudflats Adaptations to land 0 breath through skin and enlarged gill chamber 0 Modified fins and skeleton mating rituals 0 Jump 2 feet in air 107 In which groups would you expect to find a swim bladder or lungs Use the tree D is the answer L Shark II Sea lamprey III Whale IV Barracuda bony fish a I b N c Iand IV dHandIV e All of the above I II III and IV 108 Amphibian 6400 species 3 types 0 Frogs amp toads o Salamanders amp newts o Caecilians 3 traits 0 Usually 4 legs 0 Usually metamorphose o Shellless egg 109 Metamorphosis called quottwo lives 110 Metamorphosis also Diversity of breeding strategies Gastricbrooding frogs Larvae develop inside mother Parentalcare 6 weeks she doesn39t t eat any thing EXTINCT quotConservation crisis OOO 111 Key adaptation amniotic egg 0 Private pond Specialized membranes to protect egg 0 Allow fully terrestrial existence 0 Prevent water loss 0 Reptiles birds and mammals usually internal eggs 112 Reptiles 8240 species 5 types 0 Turtles 0 Crocodilians o Snakes o Lizards 0 Birds 3 traits 0 Usually 4 legs 0 Egg with a shell 0 Dry scaly skin 0 Snakes crocodilians lizards turtles 113 The group formerly known as Birds 8600 species 0 Traits o Hardshelled egg 0 Wings and flight o Endothermic I Convergence with mammals Adaptations for flight o Feathers o Hollow light bones o No urinary bladder o Welldeveloped heartlungs 114 What traits would you expect the most recent common ancestor of amphibians and reptiles to exhibit The answer is quotcquot 0 Vertebrate Notochord Limbs Amniotic egg 0 l 0 land Ill 0 I II and Ill 0 Ill 0 III and IV 115 All of the following apply to homeostasis 0 Maintenance of physiological stability 0 Highly regulated in endotherms Relatively constant internal conditions Seen in blood pressure body temperature and blood pH 116 Which of the following is not an example of homeostasis regulation of body temperature in a fish 117 Countercurrent heat exchange helps maintain a constant internal body temperature through all of the following transferring heat between arteries and veins 0 lowering the temperature of the extremities to prevent heat loss blood in arteries flowing in the opposite direction as blood in veins warming blood returning to the body from the extremities 118 One of the main disadvantages of being an endotherm is need a large supply of food 119 parts of food processing in animals are absorption digestion ingestion elimination 120 The primary function of the small intestine is absorption of nutrients 121 The accessory digestive organ that produces enzymes that break down all food groups is pancreas 122 in the deuterostome lineage only adult echinoderms exhibit radial symmetry statements about deuterostomes are All deuterostomes have a coelom All deuterostomes are triploblastic and have three tissue layers All deuterostomes have a similar pattern of early embryonic development 123 Bone jaws amniotic egg are the structure are an innovation that occurred during vertebral diversification 124 Exoskeletons are present in groups other than the vertebrates including some in the protostome lineage 125 statements about vertebrates is The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilizatilt allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water 126 Reptiles and their descendants reproduce on land via an amniotic egg which prevents the embryo from drying out 127 About chordates Are Eukaryotes they are in the Metazoans they are in the Bilateral and They all have a notochord 128 The notochord is A homologous characteristic that arose in the chordates And a flexible rodlike structure that is present at least in the embryotic stage of chordates 129 Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment 130 During chordate evolution what is the sequence from earliest to most recent in which the following structures arose 1 amniotic egg 2 paired fins 3 jaws 4 swim bladder 5 fourchambered heart the answer is 23415
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