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GEOL 1100 Exam 1 Study Guide - Hawkins

by: Hannah Rowlett

GEOL 1100 Exam 1 Study Guide - Hawkins GEOL 1100 - 002

Marketplace > Auburn University > Geology > GEOL 1100 - 002 > GEOL 1100 Exam 1 Study Guide Hawkins
Hannah Rowlett

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About this Document

Covers everything from minerals to igneous rocks and bodies. Includes simple Bowens Reaction Series diagram.
Dynamic Earth
John F Hawkins
Study Guide
Geology, Dynamic Earth, Exam 1, test, Study Guide, Hawkins, au, Auburn University, igneous rocks, minerals, bowens reaction series
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Rowlett on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1100 - 002 at Auburn University taught by John F Hawkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
GEOL 1100 – Test 1 Study Guide – Hawkins  Lithosphere: earth’s layers; inner, outer, mantle, crust o Crust  Inorganic, thin, solid, brittle, rigid, cool  Continental crust:  Low density  Felsic: SiO2rich.  Silica, aluminum, oxygen  White, pink, light colors  Oceanic crust:  Higher density  Mafic:  Iron, magnesium, calcium  Green, black, deep, dark colors MINERALS How To Be a Mineral 1. SOLID: even if a mineral is melted down, it is no longer considered a mineral 2. INORGANIC: not living; not made of organic compounds 3. NATURAL: must occur in nature FIRST and not in a lab; however a lab created quartz is still a mineral because it does occur naturally 4. SPECIFIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION: always the same (H O) 2 5. CYSTAL-LIKE PATTERNS: mineral always has this structure – if its structure changes it becomes a different mineral  Ice is a mineral!  8 Elements in Minerals o silicon silicate minerals have these elements o oxygen o aluminum o magnesium o iron o sodium o potassium o calcium Tetrahedrals o Tetrahedral base for all silicates o Silica tetrahedral has 1 silica and 4 oxygens  Negative 4 charge  In order to balance the negative charge and make it neutral, must add positively charged elements  Fe +2; Mg +2; Al +3; K +1; Na +1; Ca +2 1400 C Bowens ReaK-Feldspar Muscovite Mafic Series Quartz Pyroxene – single continuous Calcium-rich Felsic 800 C Olivinechainttpforoldiscontinuouset Sodium-rich Plagioclase Bowen’s Reaction Series o Lava cools, forms mafic minerals o As temp drops, there is less energy, which means more bonding occurs o The discontinuous side changes structures when cooling, changing its minerals  This side uses iron and magnesium to satisfy the negative charge o When all of Fe and Mg is used, Aluminum and Potassium are next  K-Feldspar  Muscovite o Quartz uses just Silica and Oxygen – SiO 2 o The continuous side uses Calcium and Sodium – molecules are too large to hold with just one tetrahedral – becomes 2 tetrahedrals (Si 2 8 – charge is now -8  Continuous because structure remains same – still plagioclase Mineral Properties o Luster – reflected light  Metallic, dull/earthy, sub-metallic  Unreliable; need fresh surface o Hardness  Moh’s Scale of Hardness 1-10 Talc 1, Diamond 10 o Cleavage – breaks along planes; mineral should have one or more flat surfaces  Weak bonding yields planar cleavage Single, double chain o Fracture – breaks in pieces  3-D framework o Crystal form or habit – how crystal will grow if there is room to grow o Color – often unreliable; ex: quartz o Streak – color of a mineral in its powdered form  Nullify impurities  Accurate color  Less variable ROCKS 3 Types  Igneous  Sedimentary  Metamorphic Igneous Rocks  Solidifies from molten materials  Intrusive and extrusive rocks Intrusive Rocks  Crystallization of magma – cooled inside earth’s surface  Cool at different rates o Phaneritic texture – large crystals visible to the naked eye  Cools slowly because they are deeper in the earth and therefore hotter  Slower it cools, the more time the crystals have to grow  Can see color variations in rock o Aphanitic texture – fine grain texture – crystals not visible  Cools faster than phaneritic  Intrudes closer to earth’s surface – more shallow  Crystals have less time to grow o Porphyritic texture – mixing of textures  Mixed cooling rates  Combination of phaneritic and aphanitic texture Extrusive Rocks cool above the surface volcanic rocks glassy texture – rapid cooling – no time for crystals to form o obsidian – occurs when lava is ejected from volcano  vesicular – fast cooling o pressure drops, gases expand and escape creating holes in rock o examples  pumice – felsic  scoria – mafic  pyroclastic o occur when smaller fragments of rock explode from volcano and weld together o known as tuff or welded tuff Viscosity  is the resistance to flow  high viscosity = more resistance; thicker  silica is the controlling factor in viscosity  in regards to Bowens Reaction Series, silica increases as you travel down o low silica = low viscosity – Mafic is less viscous o high silica = high viscosity – Felsic is more viscous Intrusive Rock Bodies  cut through existing rock  Plutons: melt their way through crust and cools at surface – cools slowly – phaneritic texture o Batholiths: huge – surface exposure over 100 km; ex: Yosemite o Laccoliths: smaller – ex: Stone Mountain o Dikes: shallow intrusions with aphanitic texture  cut across layers of rock  cool quickly  could be felsic or mafic o Sills: run parallel to layers of current rock; “sills fill”  Dikes are always the source of sills o Volcanic Neck: shallow intrusions that form when magma solidifies in throat of volcano  was inside of the volcano, but volcano eroded  columnar jointing: magma cools and forms grooves on sides  cools slowly, contracts, creates a polygonal feature  varies in sides – 3-7 o Xenolith: rock fragment incased by intrusive rock  Older than surrounding rock


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