SOC030 Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katrina Iobst on Friday February 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC030 at a university taught by Dr. Silver in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 390 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lesson 1 What is Sociolog De nitions Sociology the scienti c study of human social life with an interest in nding patterns Sociological imagination seeing how all parts of our life and others lives are in uenced by the cultural and historical contexts around us how our choices in uence these contexts in return 0 Private explanation characteristics of an individual person that explains successproblems most common Publicenvironmental explanation characteristics of environment contexts Culture the physical and emotional worlds of a distinct group of people 0 Physical culture objects tools work food behavior clothing 0 Cultural values beliefs attitudes religionspirituality stories thoughts and feeHngs Contexts 0 Home how you were raised what your parents are like family religion iHnesses 0 Community where you went to school amp daycare af uence amp safety 0 Nation what s the media amp pop culture like laws 0 Globe global economy amp prices wars climate change food supply Big Ideas Sociology focuses on the contexts and culture surrounding us Sociology looks for patterns Helps us understand 0 Our culturess 0 Its in uence on us 0 Our in uence on it Videos from Class 0 Hijab Niqab or Nothing women who wear Muslim head covering full body covering or nothing explain the reasons behind their actions 0 The Creator wants them to cover themselves it s a spiritualreligious choice 0 Covering face enables them to present themselves to the world as a sum of their personality not their beauty quotJudge me on who I am not how I lookquot 0 Honor oneself mark of an honorable Muslim woman 0 Multiple Husbands part of Himalayan Nepal where a woman takes on many husbands polyandry explains reasons why 0 Fewer families less splitting of farms more food for each family 0 More people can produce for each family 0 Birth control 0 Isolation from outside world amp no need for its values peaceful family atmosphere 0 Low need for romance amp sexual ownership Lesson 2 De ning Family Family Legal vs Emotional De nitions 0 Family general de nition a set of relationships de ned by emotional andor legal connection a set of social roles understood by society members Social Role a pattern of understood rights obligations and expectations for behavior associated with a speci c position in society 0 Legal De nition according to US Census quottwo or more individuals sharing a household related by blood marriage or adoptionquot 0 Marriage is only 2 heterosexual adults minimum age stated in state laws who are unrelated o Emphasizes form enforceable obligations care of children no domestic violence etc and shared experiences 0 Pros clearcut de nition 0 Cons doesn t account for emotions Emotional De nition a unit in which members are connected by love feel obligated to each other s longterm emotional amp economic welfare and are willing to make sacri ces for each other s welfare 0 Pros allows many forms individuals get to decide focuses on emotion o Cons very open amp changeable hard to count reliably over the years Videos from Class 0 2010 One Man Four Wives interview with the Brown family fundamentalist Mormons separate from FLDS Example of a different de nition of family 0 They see it as a lifestyle choice 0 He is only married to his rst wife the rest of the marriages were purely religious in nature 0 2 houses and an established schedule between all of them wives claim he is quotvery fairquot 0 Claim to get along well despite some jealousy YouTube Africa Uncovered Mauritania Fat or Fiction Mauritania West Africa where fat not skinny women are considered beautiful Example of social construction 0 Fat is beautiful leads to forcefeeding young girls as young as 7 to quotfatten them up for marriagequot 0 Obesity 14 people in the country causes heart amp other issues high BP heart disease etc 0 Fat desirable because food is scarce your family can afford to feed her to EXCESS Social Construction 0 Social Construction of Beliefs when groups decide what is true or quotrightquot and they live by teach and enforce these rules 1 Taught amp internalized from parents school religion peers socialization 2 Reinforced by society via laws that punish people with different beliefs or widespread group ideals of normalcy 3Becomes culturally accepted Socialization process by which we learn the ways of our group so that we can function successfully within it Example teaching children o If beliefs are socially constructed they 0 Change over time mixedrace marriage gay marriagefamilies attitudes on premarital sex 0 Change over place monogamous US vs multiple wives in Nepal 0 Changeability means that they are not quotfactquot or set in stone Reading quotThe Polygamistsquot De nitions of family are socially constructed created by social groups There are important differences in how people in the US de ne family 1 Why does the FLDS practice polygamy FLDS practices polygamy as fundamentalist Mormons quotto bear and raise as many children as possible to build up the quotcelestial familyquot that will remain together for eternityquot What is the de nition of polygamy Polygamy or quotplural marriagequot is a husband marrying more than one wife Why are the women in plural marriages why do they agree to it Women in plural marriages agree to it because quotthis is another test that God places before you the sin of jealousy of pride and that to be a godly woman I needed to overcome itquot It is part of their religion How does the FLDS group control its members Warren Jeffs is the man in charge of FLDS and makes all of its decisions Women aren t likely to leave because it is all they ve ever known and they hold limited power but power in the community What is the general US attitude toward polygamy according to this reading The US is generally unaccepting of polygamy How do the experiences of the young people of the FLDS illustrate socialization The young people grow up with experience solely of plural marriage This is the first step of socialization exposure to social norms via the family Their surroundings reinforce this since everyone in their community lives the same way They are purposefully sheltered from the outside world 7 What are the bene ts that these polygamist communities have for adults and children quotMembers of the faith describe the life that the Jessops and other founding families have built as idyllic one in which oldfashioned devotion and neighborly cooperation are emphasized and children are raised in a wholesome environment free of television and junk food and social pressuresquot 8 How does the polygamists39 experience illustrate the enforcement of socially constructed beliefs by dominant or mainstream culture The majority of the US does not participate in polygamy and does not see it as an acceptable way of life This contributes to its illegality 9 How does the FLDS and the dominant culture us illustrate socially constructed beliefs about what a family is One man many wives vs one man one wife Lesson 3 Gender SexBiology Sex vs Gender Sex label put on us by a doctor at birth based on external appearance of genitals part of biological makeup male or female BIOLOGY o lntersex variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn t seem to t the typical de nitions of female or male 0 Appearing female on outside but internally no uterus but testes o Genitals quotin between male and female 0 Mosaic genetics both XX amp XY chromosomes throughout body lntersex babies were normally assigned as girls because it is easier to make someone female via plastic surgery and hormone therapy Today parents are told to wait and see which gender the baby gravitates toward Gender a culture s de nitions of the appropriate behaviors attitudes and beliefs for females and males socially constructed CULTURAL INSTRUCTION KIT Biology with cultural overlay o Transgender physically male or female but feel internally opposite still work under 2 gender system 0 The US still typically recognizes only 2 traditional genders Gender binary 0 Evidence quotIt s a boyquot or quotIt s a girl when a baby is born ls Gender Socially Constructed or Biological Case Study quotAs Nature Made Himquot byJohn Calapinto David Reimer born midsixties lost his penis in a botched circumcision ojohn Money ofJohn Hopkins suggested he be raised as a girl believed babies were quotblank slatesquot in regards to gender 0 Parents never told him raised him as a girl 0 David felt more like a boy and questioned his parents until they told him This case suggests that gender is part biology as well Gender Expectations Traditional Expectations for Men Dominant con dent powe breadwinner hardworker cap Traditional Expectations for Women Nice loving gentle interest in homemaking amp children emotional Wellliked submissive Modern Expectations for Men Communicative nurturing do housework Modern Expectations for Women Career before home or at least balance home and career competitive Traditional 1960 Modern 1960 now 0 Gender expectations are beginning to shift from traditional beliefs even ip Change over time shows that gender roles are socially constructed Lesson 2 o Masculinity ll Feminity is a continuum There are combinations not quotone or the otherquot 0 Why 4 Public Explanations 1 Economic Change 0 More opportunities for women 0 Fewer opportunities for young less educated men 2 Increased Education 0 More education obtained by women 50 of law amp medical students 45 dental some disciplines are virtually all women 3 Social Movements 0 Women s Rights Civil Rights Hippie 4 Changes in Law 0 1920 Right to vote 0 1964 Job discrimination by sex illegal 1972 Equal athletics Title IX 0 1996 First female Secretary of State 0 2013 45 of attorneys 39 supreme court justices 98 in House amp Senate Reading quotOn Praising Tomboys and Rejecting Feminine Boysquot Addresses issues of gender identity gender socialization and the role of parents in teaching gender expectations to their children 1 What experience is this woman describing Her daughter is praised for loving traditional quotboyquot toys but she notices boys who love traditional quotgirlquot toys are looked down on 2 What does the author mean by reverse sexism39 Traditional sexism says that boys can do whatever they want but women are shackled to traditional roles However in the author s experiences and observations the opposite is true 3 Is there clear evidence that kids are hardwired39 to prefer toys associated with their own sex No There is quotlittle solid evidence of sex differences in children39s brainsquot and she explains that until the age of one kids prefer dolls over other toys and by preschool children learn which toys are socially acceptable for their gender mainly by watching older children play 4 What does she think adults should be doing related to the issue of children39s gender and toys She thinks adults should let their children play with whatever toys they want and avoid pushing genderspeci c toys to t their own preconceived noUons 5 What stage of the socialization process is occurring when a child is complimented for her interest in boy39 things Rewardspunishment from Lesson 4 6 What does the author mean when she says people reject feminine boys39 People assume that feminine boys are gay or have something wrong with them Lesson 4 Gender Socialization The Socialization Process 0 Gender Socialization The process of learning the gender rules the expectations and behaviors considered apprOpriate for women and men in our culture 0 The Socialization Process not completely linear happening all at the same time 1 Observation children are always watching quotcameras that never turn offquot Imitation want to do what they see Instruction explicit quotdo this don t do thatquot RewardsPunishment feedback on actions lnternalization automatically doing learned social concepts autopilot Socialize others use above methods to convey beliefs to others 9915quot OO 0 Gender Identity our understanding of ourselves as male or female reciprocal process with gender socialization Videos from Class 0 Princess Boy Loves to Wear Dresses 5 year old boy that loves to wear dresses Example of Socialization o 5 year old boy named Dyson Started when he was 2 years old 0 Loves to wear dresses quotthey make me feel happyquot 0 Mother tried to steer him towards quotboyquot things but he refused to let go of dresses 0 Dyson s older son said quotJust let him be happyquot which made her accept him 0 She wrote a book My Princess Boy about it the book spoke to gender activists o Discomfort in inability to categorize people who cross gender lines 0 Friends joey turns into a woman Example of Informal Social Control Deviant Joey arranging owers showing interest in womanly things Social Control Friend reprimanding Joey quotYou re turning into a womanquot Common social control involves questioning someone s masculinityfemininity or sexuality 0 Friends Male NannyExample of Informal Social Control 0 Deviant Male nanny thinks that taking care of a child is quotthe most satisfying thing you can do with your lifequot cries talking about the last child he nannied amp when he gets hired 0 Social Control quotAre you gayquot Thinks that it s weird to have a caring male quotYou gotta be at least biquot Texas Parents Battle School Over Son 5 Long Locks Example of Formal Social Control 0 Boy suspended from school because his hair is too long threatened to be expeHed 0 Any hair below earlobes and longer than collar is distracting o The legitimate authority of the school is punishing him to change his behavior Social Control Informal Social Control rewards and punishments that regular people use to change others behavior from deviant to normal as de ned by that culture 0 People around us sending us feedback on how we act if it s in the status quo Formal Social Control rewards and punishments mostly punishments used by peoplegroups with legitimate authority 0 Police prison schools Perspective 0 Individual Perspective 0 Individual choicehappiness o If it harms no one let it go 0 Usually opinion of the quotliberalquot minded Group Perspective 0 Tradition religious teaching function of culturesociety o Is this harming the culture 0 Individual happinesswellbeing and lack of personal harm acknowledged but focus on quotgreater goodquot 0 Usually opinion of the quotconservativequotminded Case Study Opinions of quotIf we don t have traditional manly men who will do the hardest work such as military construction etcquot Freedom for some doesn t mean end of traditional gender Modern men may not be choosing traditionally masculine jobs anyway quotLess traditionalquot man can still do masculine things More support for women doing masculine jobs if they choose Less division on gender more choices based on preference OOOOO Parents Impact on Gender Identitv 0 Buying things for baby girls 0 Example The Pink and Blue Project by jeongmee Yoon Bought baby girl all pink everything baby boy is all blue everything The parents buy their toys amp clothes the children are too young to asking for it As they grow older they can say what they wants Pink amp Blue stays Girl gets picture in princess dress sits primly and submissively Boy dresses in Superman shirt and poses stronglyheroically As we grow older we start quotwearing genderquot a 3 year old girl wears pink boys refuse to wear pink 0 Adults can reject this notion tough men wear pink to rebel against the norm etc o Is boys gender expression more rigidly controlled than girls Study quotNo Way My Boys Are Going to be Like Thatquot Study on buying things for boy children 0 Parents try to steer boys away from pink clothing amp Barbies o Fears of quotsexual orientation being screwed upquot Media s Impact on Gender Identity YouTube Sexism Strength and Dominance Masculinity in Disney Films 0 Heterosexual relationship between hero amp heroine 0 Message to boys women exist for men s pleasure they are objects 0 Body type chisled abs barrel chest large arms Others are subservient Gaston vs Lefeu o Mulan told that the measure of a man is physical prowess 0 Men are pitiful if they don t ght for a woman or dominance the winner of the ght is a better man Reading quotGlares of Contempt although girls do not physically ght or hurt one another as often as boys do they are still just as aggressive They are not always nice 1 What are the characteristics of girls39 aggression according to this aticle Girls aggression is not often physical like boys Girls aggression has a social focus and is often called quotsocial aggression It is de ned as quothurting someone by harming friendships and social status and includes behaviours such as social exclusion malicious gossip and friendship manipulation Who are generally the victims of social aggression The victims of social aggression are typically girls though boys can be involved as well How does girls aggression affect the victims Girls aggression not only hurts the victims but also confuses them Many young girls don t know how to respond to social aggression Why this form of aggression is effective when used on girls This form of aggression is effective because it comes with few social consequences Girls are often reprimanded for physical aggression especially more so than boys A mean face is often not punished and is much easier to hide from adults Females use gazes more so than males so quotwielding power via facial expression is more effective against girls How does gender socialization explain this kind of aggressive behavior by girls Females are taught to be nonphysically aggressive beings See answer to 4 What does the author feel is needed from adults to deal with this kind of aggression The author feels that adults should not teach girls that they always need to act happy Girls should be able to express their emotions openly and even be able to discuss them with each other both good and bad
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