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Comm 162 midterm study guide

by: Erica Evans

Comm 162 midterm study guide Comm162

Marketplace > Stanford University > Communication Studies > Comm162 > Comm 162 midterm study guide
Erica Evans
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A list of important terms and definitions with explanations -- and notes from student presentations on the readings.
Campaigns, Voting, Media
Shanto Iyengar
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Evans on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm162 at Stanford University taught by Shanto Iyengar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Campaigns, Voting, Media in Communication Studies at Stanford University.

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Date Created: 02/07/16
Comm162     Midterm  Study  Guide     2/6/2016       TERMS:       “Micro-­‐targeting”:  Today,  if  you  are  a  registered  party  member,  you  will  bombarded   by  contacts.  There  are  voter  files  and  these  are  mined  by  many  organizations.   People  see  what  kinds  of  products  you  buy  and  what  kind  of  media  you  consume.   Parties  figure  out  just  what  kind  of  message  they  should  send.       “Party  discipline”:  If  you  are  elected  as  a  Dem  or  Rep,  you  are  expected  to  vote  along   the  party  line.  You  cannot  vote  against  the  party  as  a  politician  who  has  been   elected.  (In  America,  you  are  not  legally  bound,  but  in  other  countries  you  could  be   expelled).         “Party/Member  identification.”  People  acquire  bonds  with  political  parties  early  in   life  –  as  early  as  kindergarten.  It’s  like  being  a  part  of  a  team.  This  passed  down  from   your  parents  and  stays  with  people  through  their  entire  lives.       “Free  agent  candidates”  Candidates  that  are  autonomous,  or  independent  of  the   party.  They  do  not  need  permission  to  declare  candidacy  from  the  party.  In  the  US   you  just  need  financial  resources;  you  don’t  need  any  experience.  In  fact  sometimes   that  is  preferred.  In  the  rest  of  the  world,  party  organizations  control  this  selection,   and  so  they  are  not  “free  agent  candidates.”       “Party  machines”  In  US  big  cities,  there  used  to  be  strong  party  organizations  that   came  to  be  known  as  party  machines.  They  doled  out  benefits  in  exchange  for  votes   and  mobilized  thousands  to  vote  on  the  basis  of  economic  benefits.       “Party  patronage”  When  immigrants  arrived  in  a  city,  the  political  party  machine   leaders  provided  short-­‐term  employment  and  subsistence  payments.  They  offered   financial  incentives  for  votes.     “Public  Financing  Rules”  You  can  use  tax  money  to  campaign.  But  this  caps  what  you   can  spend,  so  no  one  has  opted  for  this  since  2000.  Today,  this  is  more  academic.  All   American  candidates  rely  on  private  finance.       “Closed  Primary”  (most  common)  –  Eligibility  to  vote  is  based  on  registration  aka   It’s  basically  a  country  club.  You  have  to  pay  dues.       “Open  Primary”  –  Michigan  is  an  example  of  this.  The  problem  is  democrats  could  go   vote  for  a  weak  republican  candidate  and  there  is  possibility  for  sabotage.  So  all   party  leaders  are  against  this.  But  people  want  this  because  this  is  America  and   there  is  this  anti-­‐party  sentiment  and  people  want  freedom.       “Blanket  or  “top  two”  primary”  (CA  and  WA)  –  all  candidates  from  all  parties  are  on   the  same  ballot;  in  practice  outcomes  from  CA  and  WA  are  not  different  from  those   instates  with  a  closed  system.  But  technically  you  could  get  two  candidates  from  the   same  party.       “Front-­‐loading”  –  The  whole  campaign  strategy  is  squeezed  is  into  the  first  two   weeks  –  because  of  the  importance  of  early  primaries.  This  has  changed  though,   because  they  have  spread  out  the  primaries  more.  Ex:  Whereas  McCain  had  won  by   Feb.  6,  Romney  didn’t  win  until  May  22.       Party  Lists  and  GOTV  –  The  main  role  of  parties,  is  getting  people  to  get  out  and   vote.    Data  shows  this  works.  More  people  vote  when  they  are  directly  contacted  by   these  organizations.       Elite  polarization  –  Polarization  among  party  elites  and  politicians.  This  is  un-­‐ debated.     Mass  polarization  –  Polarization  among  normal  citizens.  People  debate  whether  or   not  this  exists.       Proportional  representation  system  -­‐-­‐  In  Europe,  you  might  get  new  political  parties   every  cycle  because  it  is  a  proportional  representation  system.  If  you  get  10  percent   of  the  votes,  you  get  10%  of  the  seats  in  parliament.  In  the  US,  it  is  much  harder  to   start  a  new  party.  Even  if  you  get  20%  of  the  vote,  you  will  have  0  representation  in   the  national  government.  This  is  why  we  have  a  2  party  system.       Partisan  realignment  –  When  the  party  system  and  what  each  party  stands  for   changes  in  a  big  way.  The  last  partisan  realignment  was  the  Great  Depression.   Before  this,  the  working  class  was  dominated  by  republicans.  Then,  FDR  was  elected   on  the  basis  of  the  expansion  of  social  welfare  state.    This  created  the  divide   between  the  working  class  (democrat)  vs.  wealthy  people  (republican).     Public  Sphere  –there  is  an  ongoing  debate  about  issues  and  policy  in  a  democratic   state.       A  Marketplace  of  ideas  –  The  theory  that  news  should  tune  you  into  a  variety  of   positions  and  ideas.       Watchdog  function  –  Media  is  meant  to  hold  government  and  other  institutions   accountable.  But  this  function  has  been  weakened.  Ex:  Bush’s  claims  about  Iraq’s   nuclear  weapons  were  totally  backed  up  by  the  press,  even  though  they  turned  out   to  be  totally  false.       There  is  a  distinction  now  (starting  after  1984)  that  U.S.  reporting  is  more   “mediated”  rather  than  “descriptive,”  there  is  no  more  unedited  coverage  of  political   actors.  Instead,  journalists  attempt  to  contextualize  what  was  said.     Sound  bytes  –  these  are  shrinking;  you  don’t  get  to  hear  extended  clips  of  candidates   speaking  on  the  news  anymore.  In  1968,  you  would  have  seen  like  5  minutes  of   politicians  speaking  in  their  own  words.  Today,  it  is  10  seconds.       “Motivated  reasoning”  –  Even  when  you  try  to  correct  people’s  misperceptions,  it   just  reinforces  their  beliefs,  because  they  feel  defensive.       “Knowledge  gap”  –  Is  education  correlated  with  knowledge?  In  the  U.S.  it  is  highly   correlated.  The  more  educated  people  know  much  more  about  world  affairs.  In   other  similar  countries  however,  even  uneducated  people  manage  to  have  a   relatively  good  understanding  of  politics.       “Inadvertent  audience”  –  In  other  countries  there  is  public  broadcasting  that   requires  brief  news  bulletins  to  be  shown  during  peak  watching  hours.  People  end   up  viewing  news  inadvertently  Ex:  BBC  runs  news  during  halftime  of  premier  soccer   games.       Conclusion:  U.S.’s  market-­‐oriented  deregulated  news  media  leads  to  lack  of  “civic   news”  and  more  “soft  news”.    European  system  with  both  public  (paid  for  by  tax   payers/subsidized  by  the  state)  and  private  broadcasting  is  most  effective  at   informing  citizens  about  civic  affairs.     Equal  time  provision:    When  the  FCC  required  that  equal  time  be  given  to  all   candidates  on  the  air.  (was  repealed)       Fairness  doctrine  –  A  rule  that  media  companies  had  to  counter  any  negative   commentary  equally  with  the  opposing  view  (was  repealed)     The  fairness  doctrine:  must  have  balanced  treatment  of  controversial  issues  (was   repealed)       “Polemics”  This  is  a  European  tradition  –  newspapers  follow  different  parties       Types  of  media  systems:     • 1)  Liberal  model  –    US,  UK,  Australia     • 2)  Democratic  Corporatist  Model  –  Scandinavia,  Germany     • 3)  “Polarized-­‐Pluralist”  –  Italy,  Spain     Nielson  ratings:  The  major  ratings  system  for  media  viewership.  Their  rating  system   uses  units  of  Gross  Rating  Point,  GRP  =  1.1  million  viewers       “Sweeps”  –  4  times  a  year,  there  is  a  two-­‐week  period  when  Nielson  ratings  are   measured.  Then  advertising  rates  are  based  on  those  audience  numbers.  The   networks  pull  out  all  the  stops  to  get  people  to  watch  during  this  time.       “Mirror  image”  The  idea  that  news  reflects  reality.  News  is  anything  that  is   newsworthy.  This  is  a  reliable  and  unbiased  sample  of  the  news  of  the  day.  (But  this   idea  is  totally  false)       “Market  model”  Theory  that  news  is  simply  whatever  sells.  Soft  news  will  drive  out   hard  news.  Eventually  news  networks  will  reach  equilibrium  between  hard  news  for   political  junkies  and  soft  news  for  everyone  else.       Beats  –  reporters  are  assigned  to  report  on  a  specific  subject,  or  location.  “The   golden  triangle”  =  the  area  between  the  White  House,  the  State  Dept.  and  the   Pentagon.       Pack  Journalism:  there  are  leaders  and  there  are  followers.  There  are  high  prestige   outlets:  The  NYT,  Washington  post.    If  the  NYT  puts  something  on  the  front  page,   ABC,  CBS  CNN  will  surely  talk  about  that  thing  that  night.       Ad-­‐watching  –  Journalists  start  analyzing  and  critiquing  political  ads.     Fact-­‐checking  –  CNN  was  the  first  network  to  have  a  dedicated  correspondent  for   fact-­‐checking.       Indexing  –  (Paper  by  Bennett  –  Journalists  invariably  rely  on  someone  who  has  an   official  position.  Government  officials  are  favored  as  journalistic  sources.  Because   the  American  tradition  is  rooted  in  idea  of  objectivity,  a  good  way  to  translate   objectivity  is  to  simply  index  the  content  of  the  report  to  the  debate  that  is  going  on   in  Washington.  The  debate  that  is  going  on  in  the  elite  strata  will  be  reflected  in   reporting.  Point  counter-­‐point  reporting.       Selective  exposure:  people  select  the  content  of  news  they  want  to  encounter  on  a   regular  basis.       “The  Daily  Me”  –  customized  news  consumption       The  attentive  public  hypothesis:  these  people  are  interested  in  news  b/c  they  are   political  junkies  and  everyone  else  is  looking  for  entertainment.  The  people  that   know  a  lot  will  know  more  and  others  will  know  nothing.  The  rich  get  richer  idea.       Polarization  hypothesis:  if  you  have  political  preferences,  you  will  seek  information   that  supports  your  party.     Issue  public  hypothesis:    People  are  interested  in  specific  policy  areas.  People  who   own  guns  or  are  members  of  the  NRA  have  an  overriding  interest  in  gun  control  etc.   There  are  compartmentalized  areas  of  interest.  They  just  seek  out  information  that   applies  to  them.       Negativity  Bias:  people  are  talked  more  about  by  blogs  that  hate  them  than  blogs   that  support  them.       De  facto  selectivity  (or  accidental  exposure):  Ex:  Businessmen  read  the  Wall  Street   Journal.  They  do  not  read  it  because  they  are  republican,  but  there  is  a  correlation   between  being  a  businessman  and  being  conservative,  so  more  conservatives  read   the  Wall  Street  Journal.         Free  rider  problem:  a  problem  in  all  social  organizations.  You  know  that  other   people  are  going  to  show  up  to  the  protest,  so  why  go?  This  problem  also  applies  to   voting:  we  know  plenty  of  other  people  will  vote  so  we  don’t  need  to.       Freedom  FROM  the  press:  There  is  direct  candidate  to  voter  communication.   Candidates  don't  need  the  press  to  get  their  message  out.     Opinion:  A  more  concrete  position  on  one  issue,  more  dynamic  and  subject  to   change  with  new  information.     Attitude:  Broader,  more  diffuse,  deep-­‐seated,  not  likely  to  change  over  time       Cognitive:  refers  to  beliefs  that  people  have       Affective  (evaluation):  the  emotional,  liking  component       Behavioral  (action):  are  people  going  to  actually  act  on  their  opinions?  It  turns  out   that  attitudes  and  behaviors  are  only  weakly  affected  in  reality.       Intensity/salience–  how  much  do  you  care?  Evangelicals  might  care  a  lot  because   their  salvation  is  at  stake,  but  most  Americans  don’t  feel  very  intensely  about   politics.       Connectivity  –  does  this  person  prescribe  to  a  certain  ideology?  Conservative   ideology  encompasses  abortion,  immigration,  terrorism  etc.  It  is  a  package;  opinions   are  predictable.  But  for  most  Americans,  connectivity  is  minimal.       Informational  content  (or  just  stereotypes)  –  representative  government  relies  on   an  informed  voting  public.  But  most  people  do  not  research  policies  in  order  to   make  an  educated  vote,  They  just  base  their  opinions  on  stereotypes.       Psychological  short-­‐cuts  =  heuristics       Popkin’s  “gut  rationality”  Ex:  Gerald  Ford  in  1966:  tried  to  eat  a  tamale  with  the   corn  husk  on  it,  but  this  showed  that  he  did  not  care  about  Latinos.  People  make   sweeping  generalizations  from  specific  actions.       Popkin’s  “fire  alarms”:  people  have  2  gears.  Normally  they  don’t  care,  but  when   there  is  a  huge  tragedy  or  crisis,  people  become  more  motivated  to  acquire   information.       Police  patrolling  model:  the  opposite  of  fire  alarm.  The  press  is  always  reporting  and   monitoring  what  is  going  on  in  the  world.     Voters  administer  “rough  justice”  (Fiorina)  –  if  you  screw  up  as  an  elected  official,   you  will  get  thrown  out       Egocentric  voting:  What’s  in  it  for  me?       Sociotropic  voting:  How  has  this  candidate  helped  society  as  a  whole?       Achen  and  Bartels  “blind  retrospection”  No  matter  what  happened,  if  people  are   upset  they  will  blame  the  government.  For  example:  blaming  a  government  for   shark  attacks  or  a  drought.       Political  socialization.  There  is  a  gradual  political  learning  process  that  starts  when   you  are  very  young.  The  persistence  of  early  learning:  what  happens  at  age  5  stays   with  you  for  the  rest  of  your  life.  Once  a  democrat,  always  a  democrat.       Generational  model:  Bennington  study  à  People  who  became  adults  in  1930,  when   the  world  is  thrown  into  economic  crisis.  The  depression  generation’s  political   views  were  profoundly  impacted.  Today  those  people  are  very  elderly,  but  they  are   probably  still  strongly  democrat.       Socialization  agents:  family-­‐parents,  peer  groups,  civic  education-­‐schooling,  mass   media,  direct  experience       Priming  effect  –  a  logical  extension  of  agenda  setting.  The  media  primes  us  what  to   think  about  and  what  to  judge  candidates  on  based  on  what  issues  they  are   reporting.     Framing:  The  way  you  interpret  a  picture  is  based  on  the  frame  around  it.  How  do   the  news  media  present  issues  and  outcomes?                         READINGS/PRESENTATIONS:       Reading:  Zaller     • Reforms  of  party  elections,  party  bosses  are  gone,  but  Zaller  claims  that  parties   still  have  a  strong  voice  in  the  election  process.  Candidates  are  being  judged  by  a   pool  of  their  peers.  Elites,  politicians.       • It  is  important  to  receive  a  formal  endorsement  from  elites.       • The  endorsements  are  highly  indicative  of  who  will  win  in  the  end.  This  is   evidence  that  the  party  still  has  sway.     • BUT  2016  IS  GOING  AGAINST  THIS!  Jeb  Bush  has  the  most  endorsements.  On  the   Dem  side,  Hilary  has  the  most  endorsements  by  a  landslide.   • Endorsements  as  a  form  of  “peer  review”  –  Zaller  says  this  is  preferable.  Their   ensorsements  should  count  for  something.  Better  than  “beauty  contests”  of  the   populace.       Sound  Byte  Democracy   • Media  is  changing  in  terms  of  technology     • Not  many  Sound  bytes  early  in  the  60’s     • During  the  Nixon  campaign,  Nixon  had  a  coach  to  get  him  better  Sound  bytes  for   television.     • Sound  bytes  then,  35  sec.  would  have  been  short.  Now,  15  seconds  is  long!     • There  has  been  more  critical  journalism  along  with  shorter  sound  bytes     • Reinforces  the  idea  that  we  cannot  trust  politicians.     • Increase  ratings  for  local  news  –  you  must  have  fast-­‐paced  reporting.   Candidates  get  coaching  to  produce  good  sound  bytes,  especially  in  debates,   candidates  tend  to  end  with  a  sound  byte.       More  on  Sound  bytes:     • It  is  a  huge  contrast  between  the  70’s  and  now.  Sound  bytes  used  to  be  so  long!     • The  press  does  not  like  to  be  manipulated.  The  culture  of  journalism   emphasizes  independence.       • Start  more  to  explain  the  strategy  behind  a  candidate’s  campaign       Polls  vs.  Pols:  Cohen  et  al     • Does  money  predict  presidential  nominations?     • What  are  the  biggest  predictors  of  party  nominations?     • Party  insiders  actually  have  retained  as  significant  amount  of  control  in  party   nominations.  (This  is  a  counter-­‐argument  to  the  assumption  that  party  elites   have  lost  power)     • Polls  taken  before  the  presidential  primary  very  accurately  predict  the  winner.     • Endorsements  also  play  a  big  role  –  polls  and  endorsements  are  equally   important  predictors  of  the  primary  result.     • If  polls  were  the  primarily  significant  factor,  then  you  would  expect  endorsers   to  select  a  front-­‐runner  and  endorse  them.  But,  if  it  was  the  other  way  around,   you  would  see  party  leaders  making  independent  judgments  from  the  polls   because  their  endorsements  mean  more.       • This  study  found  that  change  in  either  polls  or  endorsements  early  on  led  to   changes  in  the  other.     • BUT:  endorsements  influence  polls  3x  more  than  polls  influence  endorsements.     • The  support  of  party  insiders  does  not  guarantee  primary  success.  Party   insiders  still  pay  attention  to  what  the  public  wants  –  this  candidate  has  to  be   viable.  Party  insiders  constitute  their  own  party  within  the  party.     • The  invisible  primary:  there’s  also  a  battle  inside  the  party  amongst  the  party   insiders.    Candidates  try  to  build  support  from  party  insiders.     • Party  insiders  are  familiar  with  who  is  running,  and  probably  more  informed.     • Does  money  predict  presidential  nominations?  Cohen  says  no!     • Problems  with  this  article:  If  the  argument  is  that  endorsements  affect  polls,   how  do  people  find  out  about  the  endorsements?  In  reality,  normal  people  don’t   hear  about  or  care  about  endorsements.     • Today,  Trump  has  no  endorsements  but  he  has  a  lot  of  popularity.     • Trump  is  a  really  interesting  counter-­‐example  to  this  because  he  has  no   endorsements.  But  this  is  a  signal  of  a  mistrust  of  the  party  system:  if  you  have  a   lot  of  endorsements,  you  must  not  be  a  good  guy,  too  political  etc.     • Bernie  also  has  few  endorsements  but  a  lot  of  young  people  want  him  to  be   president.  Bernie  is  playing  off  of  this:  What  state  hates  you  most?  Washington   D.C.       Zaller:     • Product  substitution:  the  harder  presidential  campaigns  try  to  control  what   journalists  say,  the  more  adversarial  the  journalists  will  be     • Theory  of  media  politics:  journalists,  media  and  voters  all  have  different  voters.     • Candidates  want  to  control  the  media  through  strategic  campaigning     • Journalists  want  to  say  something  new  and  original,  have  their  voice  heard.     When  candidates  try  to  control  the  news  it  makes  this  difficult.     • The  rational  voter  wants  to  make  informed  vote,  but  put  in  the  least  amount  of   effort.  Time-­‐saving  heuristics     • Journalists  use  controversy  to  put  their  own  spin  on  stories     • Journalists  used  to  report  news  more  directly  without  analysis     • Open  news  strategy  –  relatively  free  access  to  the  candidate,  interviews  or   opening  events  to  the  press.    Idea  is  that  if  you  give  enough  information  upfront,   journalists  won’t  snoop  around  for  more  negative  news.     • Closed  news  strategy  –  try  to  restrict  access  to  the  candidates.  Leave  journalists   with  only  the  information  the  campaign  provides.  The  journalist  will  substitute   their  own  thoughts  (probably  negative)  to  substitute  the  information  they  didn’t   receive.     • Horserace  coverage:  use  sound  bytes  and  analyze  them.     • So  why  pursue  closed  news  strategy  if  it  just  produces  more  negativity?  Maybe   the  candidate  thinks  this  is  worth  the  risk,  or  that  criticism  is  not  important.     • Polls  standing  is  a  critical  barometer:  If  you  are  leading  in  the  polls,  you  will   probably  pursue  a  closed  strategy,  but  if  you  are  behind,  you  will  probably  be   open  because  any  coverage  will  be  good.     • Ex:  Trump  is  pursuing  a  closed  strategy  –  he  kicks  out  journalists,  doesn’t   answer  questions  he  doesn’t  like  etc.         Political  blogosphere  and  the  2004  U.S.  Election:  divided  they  blog   • How  do  political  bloggers  interact?     • Are  blogs  more  liberal  or  conservative?     • Cyberbalkanization:  people  are  only  exposed  to  news  that  they  are  already  in   agreement  with.  They  seek  out  sources  that  align  with  their  opinions.     • Analyzed  40  influential  blogs  two  months  before  the  election     • Conservative  bloggers  cite  each  other  more  than  liberal  bloggers.  Very  little   Cross-­‐citing  between  conservative  and  liberal  blogs.     • Conservative  bloggers  were  not  “echo  chambers”   • Many  bloggers  support  their  positions  by  criticizing  the  other  party     • Conservatives  and  liberals  focus  on  different  issues  –  focus  on  issues  that   they  ‘own’     • There  was  no  analysis  of  independent  blogs  though     People  have  the  ability  to  construct  their  own  media  environment.  This  was  not  true   in  the  old  days.  People  thought  that  the  internet  would  lead  to  a  huge  diversity  of   perspectives…  but  this  didn’t  happen.  Now  we  have  all  these  conservative  and   liberal  bloggers,  but  they  hardly  interact  with  each  other.       Googlearchy   • Information  cost  is  central  to  political  organization  (very  old  theory).  The   information  cost  has  been  lowered  with  the  web,  but  this  has  not  translated   into  wider  points  of  view.     • With  the  advent  of  the  web,  this  strain  of  democratic  theory  (information   costs)  was  applied  assuming  1)  the  web  generates  easily  accessible  content   2)  because  of  this  condition,  citizens  will  tend  to  get  information  from  certain   media  outlets  and  their  attention  will  be  dispersed  across  all  the  different   sources     • Citizens  want  political  information  (but  this  might  not  necessarily  be  the   case!)     • Political  information  and  collective  action  –  may  not  be  very  closely  related.     • The  web  has  an  egalitarian  structure     • Web  structure  matters  –  how  many  sites  you  link  to  and  how  many  sites  link   to  you  –  affects  how  easily  your  site  &  your  information  can  be  reached.     • The  author  chose  200  seed  sites  and  looked  at  what  they  linked  to.  How   many  of  the  links  had  information  related  to  the  seed  site?     • So…  the  web  is  very  big,  but  the  sites  you  can  reach  are  very  few  because  of   the  power  law  distribution.  A  few  very  big  sites  dominate  the  Internet.       The  big  providers,  the  aggregators  are  where  people  are  getting  information.  It’s  not   like  there’s  a  million  points  of  view  out  there.       Going  without  Data:  Information  shortcuts:   -­‐ Chapter  3  from  the  Reasoning  Voter  (Popkin)     -­‐ For  voters  without  all  of  the  information  on  policy,  they  will  look  for  short-­‐ cuts     -­‐ Uncertainty  about  policies  is  pervasive  among  voters.  Campaigns  are   designed  to  address  this  uncertainty.  But  campaigns  are  limited  by  short-­‐cuts   voters  are  using  like  party  identity.     -­‐ Mass  communication:  hypodermic  needle  theory  à  will  inject  into  all  people   and  everyone  will  believe  the  same  thing.  People  were  worried  about  this.   -­‐ 1940’s  they  realized  that  the  hypodermic  needle  theory  doesn’t  happen.  The   mass  media  delivers  information  to  opinion  leaders  who  disseminate  the   information  to  others.  Today,  these  opinion  leaders  might  be  journalists  who   interpret  and  analyze  the  information.     -­‐ Relying  on  opinion  leaders  or  experts  is  another  heuristic.     -­‐ Party  identification:  the  major  shortcut  for  voting  decisions.       -­‐ Default  values:  used  to  figure  out  what  your  party  ID  is.  Evaluate  ideology  à   what  does  this  party  stand  for?     -­‐ Also,  past  performance  and  the  economy  are  used  to  evaluate  parties     -­‐ Party  image  and  comparative  assessment:  during  a  campaign,  candidates   stress  the  things  their  party  is  known  for.  Republicans  are  tough  on  crime  etc.   -­‐ ^  Theory  of  issue  voter-­‐ship     -­‐ Are  they  competent?  à  Campaign  behavior  is  a  shortcut  to  assess   competence.     -­‐ What  are  the  demographics?  à  Gender,  religion,  ethnicity,  where  are  they   from?     -­‐ What  about  their  character  or  sincerity?  à  How  is  their  family/private  life?     -­‐ When  do  voters  use  heuristics?  All  the  time!       Elite  Party  Polarization:  affects  on  public  opinion  formation     -­‐ Elite  polarization:  high  levels  of  homogeneity  within  parties,  distance   between  parties.     -­‐ Framing  –  how  a  speaker  chooses  to  emphasize  a  subject     -­‐ Partisan  cues:  motivated  reasoning  theory  à  people  seek  out  information   that  confirms  their  prior  beliefs.  Dismiss  evidence  that  is  inconsistent  with   their  beliefs.       -­‐ Experiment:  survey  about  drilling  for  oil  and  gas  and  the  DREAM  act.  People   were  asked  to  identify  their  party.  Then  they  were  presented  with  different   frames  of  an  issue  and  asked  to  choose.     -­‐ In  a  polarized  partisan  environment,  partisan  motivated  reasoning   overwhelms  all  substance   -­‐ When  presented  with  opposing  frames  of  the  same  strength,  opinions  are  not   affected.   -­‐ When  no  polarization  is  present,  opinion  moves  in  the  direction  of  how   strong  the  framing  is.     -­‐ Polarization  intensifies  the  impact  of  party  endorsements  on  opinions.     -­‐ People  are  less  inclined  to  consider  ‘strong’  arguments  when  party   polarization  is  present.      


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