FAD3343 Study Guide
FAD3343 Study Guide FAD3343
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FAD3343SECTION 1 W DR JETER TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE Lecture Notes Adulthood vs Aging Responsibilities Dependent assisted living Selfdependency Physical changes 0 Physical growth Psychological changes Maturity dementia Selfdiscipline Health risks Selfesteemselfconcept Adapting Finances Standards eg double standard 0 Being responsible for others for beauty 190039s Adulthood 1617 yearolds D 50 yearolds Present Adulthood 1878 yearolds D 103 yearolds Work from age 2375 42 years of work but you39re living until 100 therefore you need for 35 more years after retirement Chapter 1 AGING IN AMERICA The Aging Population 0 The population of older adults is rapidly growing 0 A child born in 2011 could expect to live to be 787 years old which is 30 years longer than a child born in 1900 Aging in Context 0 Individuals and groups of people experience adulthood and aging differently based on Don t need to memorize these RaceEthnicity Gender Religion Relationships Educann PhysicalMentalEmotiona Health Occupation Number of children Experiences of Aging Population 0 The aging population experiences some of the same issues that the younger population experiences Mental health disorders Divorce marital discard Poverty nancial hardships 0 However they39re likely to experience some issues more so than the younger population Retirement Widowhood Chronic health problems Death of family friends peers Young Adulthood O O 0 Ages 2040 Emerging adulthood is a subset of time in the early 20 s Characterized by a time for personal growth and development with career identity and intimate relationship formation Find a jobcareer Find a partner with whom to share life Physical health Leading cause of death accidents Generally healthy but may have poor health habits including drinking smoking poor diet lack of exercise lack of sleep Middle Adulthood O O 0 Ages 4065 Characterized as a time of review amp re ection of the life as individuals approach the midpoint of their lives Being quotgenerativequot to leave a legacy Shift focus from career to relationships Gender crossover Men focus more on relationships 0 Women become more independent Physical health Generally healthy but beginning to see physical signs of aging as well as preliminary stagessymptoms of heart disease cancer diabetes hypertension Cancer is the leading cause of death Later Adulthood O 0 Ages 65 Characterized as time to accept one s mortality and come to terms w how one has lived hisher life YoungOld 6574 years old OldOld 7584 years old OldestOld 85 Most older adults report that they are in quotgood healthquot despite struggling with chronic health issues such as hypertension diabetes arthritis osteoporosis Primary Aging things you can39t control eg hair skin etc Secondary Aging can control eg diet lifestyle Chapter 2 STEREOTYPES amp IMAGES Stereotypes o Are thoughts amp beliefs that may or may not accurately re ect reality about a group of people 0 They are often based upon one s individual experience or What one was taught 0 Based upon our need to create structure order and relationships in this world 0 Stereotypes can be positive or negative Eg positive stereotype quotYou39re good at math because you39re Asianquot Negative Stereotypes of Aging 0 Illness o Uselessness o Impotency unable to 0 Isolation reproduce 0 Poverty 0 Ugliness 0 Depression 0 Mental illness 0 Mental decline Positive Stereotypes of Aging 0 quotGolden Agers lively adventurous active sociable witty independent wellinformed successful welltraveled 0 quotPerfect Grandparents kind loving familyoriented generous grateful supportive understanding wise knowledgeable From where do stereotypes from 0 Our own experiences 0 From what we are taught 0 From media Generational Changes 0 Average life expectancy of someone in the late 180039s 48 years old for men 51 years old for women What do those ages lookmean now 0 The 65yearold today in US is not the same as the 65yearold in 1935 o Healthier bettereducated more intimately connected to the world Social Construction of Aging 0 Social Construction an invention of society that becomes a quotrealityquot because people agree to behave as if it exists or is true Ex language agreeing on what a word means Symbols eg a quotSTOPquot sign 0 Aoino is a social construction We quotadherequot to society s rules amp expectations of us based upon our age This is based upon our self concept or how we see ourselves Many older individuals do not see themselves as being old They see themselves as quotthemselvesquot but with certain limitations changes or adaptations Ageism o Ageism is the prejudiced behaviors of individuals and systems within the culture against older adults which can result from negative stereotypes Ageism in language quotYou can39t teach an old dog new tricksquot Ageism in media commercials of old people falling Differential effect on males and females 0 Ex men age like ne wine whereas women age 39uglier39 Reversed stereotype of aging as a comedy gimmick Ageism in advertising 0 Products to quotfixquot aging Doritos commercial 1993 Youtube Ageism in movies eg young adults acting high schooler aged roles o Theories to explain Ageism Authoritarian personality lesseducated rigid untrusting insecure persons hold prejudices Frustrationadoression hypothesis frustrated individuals take out aggression on others Ex of car stopping for you to cross quotyou better runquot Selective perception see what we expect to see and selectively ignore what we do not expect to see eg young vs old people asking questions young are perceived as ignorantinexperienced and old are dismissed for being old and quotcan39t learn new thingsquot Negative Effects of Stereotypes amp Ageism O 0000 Ageism affects the labor market Ageism affects professional objectivity Negative stereotypes foster fear of aging in both young amp old Negative stereotypes sti es the potential of old people Ageism amp negative stereotypes affect who we interact with and how Chapter 3 SOCIAL amp PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES IN LATER LIFE Metaphors for Aging 0 O O Mechanistic development is directed by biology your body is a machine Organic potential to develop lies win ourselves Information processing one person39s ability to function cognitively different from another based on internal amp external sources Narrative writing our own stories shaped by experiences Changing your story39s outcome changes the characters in the story Emergent self internal choices amp motivations Transcendent self spiritual meaningmaking Theories of Development 0 Theories are an organized interrelated set of concepts principals amp assumptions that explain a phenomenon Theories provide a quotlensquot in which we can view a phenomenon ie human development amp explain how why amp in what fashion that phenomenon happens Many theories of child amp adult development 1 Sigmund Freud Father of Psychoanalytic Perspective 0 Unconscious psychological forces that affect our thought amp behavior not conscious reason We are driven by instincts such as hunger sex amp aggression 0 The in uences that shape us occur win our rst 810 years 2 Carl Jung 0 A young contemporary of Freud 0 One of the rst to focus on adult personality development 0 0 0 Shadow First 30 yrs of life consumed w repressed childhood desires After 40 adults develop their internal selfpotential through balancing of competing opposites ie love amp need for power Gender crossover as people age their focus begins to shift on things they were missing out on Men relationships instead of career Women independence instead of mothering Balance of extroversion self in society amp introversion interiority 3 Erik Erikson 0 0 0 00000000 Developed a full stagebased model of development throughout the entire lifespan Focused on the development of identity Developed the epigenetic principle interactions bt environment amp genetics 8 Stage Model of Development Each stage describes a developmental task or challenge to be accomplished Can be positive or negative resolution of each stage What we gain or don39t gain is carried onto the next stage Infancy 01 Trust vs Mistrust Toddlerhood 12 Autonomy vs Shame Preschool 35 Initiative vs Guilt Childhood 611 Industry vs Inferiority Adolescence 1219 Identity vs Role Confusion Young Adulthood 2040 Intimacy vs Isolation Middle Adulthood 4165 Generativity vs Stagnation Late Adulthood 65 Integrity vs Despair We revisit stages again through remembering 4 Daniel Levison 0 0 0 Focused on development in adulthood Life is a series of eras each of which has its own biopsycho social character Eras partially overlap called crossera transitions lasting 5 yrs Eras form the lifestructure the underlying pattern or design of a person39s life at a given time 0 Life structures are formed by a person39s relationships w others in the external world 0 Life structure helps us identify quotWhat is my life like nowquot vs what kind of person am I in a personality theory Examined the role of gender gender splitting in uencing the seasons of men39s amp women39s lives Eras Phases or Stages 0 3 broad stages of the life cycle young adulthood middle adulthood amp late adulthood o The distinctions bt these life periods are somewhat blurred based upon life experiences 0 Generations or cohorts may help to de ne sociocultural identi cations adults may have w language music experiences amp memories 1 Young Adulthood Ages 183540 depending on source Physical amp psychological separation from family of origin Have more friends than any other age group Tasks include to establish an identity occupation education intimate relationshipsmarriage home amp kids Goal is to become an independent autonomous person 2 Middle Adulthood Ages 354065 Large controversy over the term quotmidlife crisisquot by Gail Sheeny in late 1970 s No scienti c research to con rm an actual quotcrisisquot More accurate to call it a midlife transition A time of review amp re ection marked by uncertainty amp instability that results in adaptation Adaptation may be based upon ego resiliency Tasks may include launching of children amp taking care of aging parents 3 Late Adulthood Ages 65 Least studied portion of the life course Physical amp mental decline are not necessarily part of quotnormalquot aging Compensations are made not complete losses Nari39s gma walking a cart around the store everyday instead of walking outside in the snow Differences bt youngold oldold and oldestold Tasks include adjusting to physical changes retirement reduced income amp death of familyfriends Transitions in Late Life 0 Activity theory the more physical mental amp social activity the better adjusted people are Research supports this theory for successful aging life satisfaction 0 Disengagement theorv normal amp inevitable to reduce their activity amp seek passive roles as they age 0 Geotransendence theorv selective investment in some relationships over others 0 Continuity theory the personality formed in early life continues throughout life w no basic changes Chapter 4 PHYSICAL HEALTH amp WELLBEING Aging amp Life 0 Aging begins at birth amp death 0 Death is inevitable as there is an absolute human life span For humans thought to be 120 years 0 Longevity how long an individual lives is a complex trait in uenced by genes environment amp chance 0 Life expectancy projection of how long we expect people to live Currently 78 yrs women live longer Normal Aging 0 As early as 30 s or 40 s most people develop presbyopia which is dif culty w near vision amp reading ne print 0 Hair thins skin thins skin wrinkles body becomes less erect gain fat amp lose muscle 0 Loss of bone mass due to aging poor diet lack of exercise 0 Dental issues 0 Returning to homeostasis is more dif cult especially after sickness o Organs operate at reduced ef ciency 0 Immune system decreases its protection ability 0 Although these take place we re not sure why 0 Chronology is different from functionality Health Status 0 In general health status of people has 65 has improved greatly in last 50 years 0 Activity of Daily Living ADL bathing feeding ourselves dressing 0 Instrument Activities of Daily Living IADL light housework preparing food shopping managing money To live independently Chronic amp Acute Aging 0 Acute conditions short term illness w known causes amp treatments 0 often affect young people Chronic conditions long term causes are unknown profoundly affect life Can be in uenced by lifestyle choices such as smoking drinking poorovereating amp lack of exercise The quotPower 9 Pyramidquot O O Developed by Dan Buettner from a Global Study of Centenarians He asked quotWhy have you lived this longquot Exercise do not eat too much amp eat mostly fruits amp veggies Drink red wine don39t drink excessively Do something you love Have a meditation practice Belong to a spiritual community Surround yourself w supportive family amp friends and make these people a priority wwwlinoinotolOOcom Major Health Problems 0 Poor living habits of early life can cause diseases of old age 0 75 of deaths are caused by heart disease cancer amp stroke Coronary artery disease is now the most deadly Blood ow cut off from heart tissue it dies amp can cause heart attack Atherosclerosis hardening of arteries Hypertension increased blood pressure 0 Cancer 0 Arthritisosteoarthritis o Obesity amp Diabetes Theories of aging o Damage theory aging is the result of accumulated error through sources such as free radicals Wear amp Tear theory you age bc you are roughcareless with yourbody o Proorammed theorv aging has a strong genetic component driven by genetically regulated processes Biological clock Immune system theory The Role of Diet Exercise amp Mental Health 0 Diet Calorie restriction related to longevity Poor diet contributes to disease Factors can affect diet amp nutrition 0 Exercise amp Physical Fitness Even some exercise is better than none quotUse it or lose itquot Strength training amp aerobic exercise 0 Mental Health Various traits amp activities associated w happiness Stress medications coping physical health Chapter 5 MENTAL HEALTH Mental Health amp Aging 0 As individuals age they can experience a wide range of mental health issues such as Stress Depression Cognitiveintellectualdecline Dementia Organic brain disorders Depression 0 Recognizing that older adults can be depressed o 4 major groups for causes of depression 1 Physical factors predisposition to depression body pain major health issues 2 Psychological factors increased fear of death lingering feelings of guiltsadness over unaccomplished goals 3 Personality factors dif culty w becoming dependent loss of selfesteemselfcon dence 4 Medications medicine to solve one problem like decrease risk of heart attack or stroke may have a side effect of depression Memory 0 Older adults may complain about memory issues but not actually show issues in their memory performance 0 Metamemory our understanding of how much amp how well we remember can be more related to selfevaluation rather than actual performance 0 Older adults may incorporate society s stereotypes that they are losing their memory or have intellectual decline 0 Slowing of CNS may slow down info Processing 0 Sensory semantic amp procedural memory may appear nearly ef ciently as in older adults 0 Working memory amp ability to recall speci c events or recently learned info is less ef cient o Drastic loss or change in memory in any person is a precursor to something larger eg death it39s caused by something else eg severe illness Cognitive Processes 0 Cognitive processes include our senses our arousal attention information processing reaction time amp motor performance Memory moves from sensory memory to shortterm memory to long term memory Sensation taking in information through the 5 senses which can be used for sensory memory Shortterm memory processingelaboration of our sensory memory Longterm memory activeythinking about amp sorting shortterm items 0 ln marriageany relationship you must activey study your spouse bc they39re important Intelligence 0 O Crvstallized intellioence a measure of knowledge acquired through experience amp education No one way to measure intelligence many different types athletically or musically intelligent good with peoplespeaking Remains the same or even increases with age Fluid intelligence innate ability of info processing ability to deal with novel ideasproblems Does appear to decline with age Example young vs old people learning to use technology Mental Health Disorders 0 Schizophrenia more complicated severe amp incapacitating that disorders like depression amp anxiety Hard time communicating Hard time distinguishing reality from not Serious disturbances in thinking amp communication impaired contact w reality Dementia deterioration in cognitive amp behavioral functioning due to physiological causes Recent memory loss Dif culty performing familiar tasks Problems w language Poor judgement Changes in mood amp personality Misplacing things Alzheimer s Disease most common form of chronic organic brain disease 70 of all diseases Shrinking of brain in size amp weight loss of neurons twisting of neuron bers abnormal mass development Gradual memory loss declines in cognitive functioning declines in selfcare inappropriate social behavior Parkinson39s Disease More common among men than women Increasing incidences in developed countries Tremors amp rigidity of movement Progressive disease that may con ne sufferers to a bed or wheelchair May also develop dementia FAD 3343 EXAM 1 Book Notes ch15 Chapter 1 Aging in America 0 With advances in medical science and technology and an increased awareness of taking care of our bodies we can all anticipate long lives Senescence agerelated loss of function Gerontology the study of the human aging process from maturity to old age as well as the study of the older adult as a special population Geriatrics the study of health and disease in later life 0 O O is concerned with the comprehensive health care of older people plus the wellbeing of their caregivers adds a dimension to the broad understanding of what it means to physically grow older its concern is how we develop personally socially and globally aging progressive changes during adult years not necessarily negative nor do they necessarily reduce an individual39s viability 0 mutations that may accumulate over time in certain genes in cells in the reproductive system demonstrates age related loss of function senescence gerontologists de ne aging in terms of o chronical aging number of years since birth 0 biological aging the changes reducing ef ciency of organ systems 0 psychological aging includes memory learning adaptive capacity personality and mental functioning 0 social aging refers to social roles relationships and the overall social context in which we grow old genes determine about 14 of our longevity sociological perspective examines the structure of society its norms and values and their in uence on how a person perceives and reacts to the aging process sociology focuses on groups of individuals and the cultural context in which they age psychological locus of inquiry is on the individual cultural competence refers to the ability to honor and respect styles attitudes behaviors and beliefs of individuals families and staff that receive and provide services geriatricians are physicians who have specialized in internal medicine and family medicine for the physiological health of care of older adults generalized problems associated with aging and with a society that is aging lie with large numbers of people macro level a personenvironment approach views the environment as a continually changing context to which individuals adapt as they also adapt to the personal psychological and physical changes inherent in the aging process 0 as aging people adjust to life39s changes this adaptation impacts the environment which cyclelike further changes the individuals as well as the social context the extent to which individuals are able to adapt to the changing environment or adjust the environment to their changing physical and social needs home safety food preparation other assistance is a re ection of adaptation to the aging process 0 the reciprocity of change is the personenvironment model individuals change thereby impacting their context and changing the environment eventually an individual39s ability to adapt or change will be exhausted the way in which aging people are treated is closely tied to the culture of their society social status among Americans is related to education wealth and health historical cohort the age of a person during a historical event of major proportion cultural variations in the form of changing values and norms come about through historical events ranging from epidemics and wars to scienti c breakthroughs and social change historically the status of older people was related to property ownership which resulted in the control of political resources modernization theory cultural shift in the status of elders 0 growing emphasis on impersonality equality and ef ciency through individual effort further contributed to the status shift of older people in classic articulation of modernization theory characteristics of modernization that continued to lower status for elders health technology reduced infant mortality and prolonged adult life scienti c technology creating jobs that do not depend on skills and knowledge accumulated over decades of experience and education targeted toward the young older American today are more educated than previously and live longer with the industrialization of the late 18005 problems associated with growing old became reconceptualized not just on a physical level but on social economic and psychological levels the US has always been a youthoriented nation however increased longevity and lowered birthrates have transformed the population to an older one during the last half of the 20th century a social problem is a widespread negative social condition that people both create and solve ageism a social problem de ned as the prejudiced behavior of individuals and systems within the culture against older adults including the negative consequences of inaccurate stereotyping of the elderly 0 limits the potential development of individuals on the basis of age oppressive 0 can be oppressive to the young as well as the old 0 gerontologists believe that ageism can be ameliorated through education and the changing health and lifestyle of the quotnewquot elderly who are more healthy and vigorous than previous population of elders o ageism is a complex phenomenon affected by technology industrialization changing family patterns increased mobility demographic changes increased life expectancy and generational differences 0 Detroit syndrome describes older people in terms of obsolescence of cars The speed of industrial technological and social change tends to make skills and knowledge rapidly obsolete Younger stronger faster workers with newly acquired knowledge are hired more than older workers 0 Social change can create a generation gap different values and views 0 Fear of aging can damage psychological wellbeing and lead us to shun older people two kinds of aging 0 physical natural biologic process o sociogenic no physical basis imposed on elders by the folklores prejudices and stereotypes about age that prevail in our society age prejudice is institutionalized in many sectors of our society 0 ageism in our laws employment nancial matters and legal de nitions relating to mental competency cumulative disadvantage the negative effects on inequality in wealth status and opportunity over the life span some historians believe the status of older people was elevated in the colonial period 0 power and old age were deeply rooted in these times 0 age not youth was exalted the older population grew rapidly during the 18005 and 19005 because of advances in the medical sciences 0 shift to youth cult replacing age cult 16001800 an era of growing gerontophilia old age was exalted venerated sometimes hated and feared but more often honored and obeyed 1800 to present an era of growing gerontophobia Americans increasingly glorifying youth instead of age and older people often became victims self victims as well as social victims of prevailing attitudes and social arrangements The aging revolution demographics of aging o Populations are aging requiring massive cultural social and political changes 0 Longevity increased decline in birthrates increasing numbers of aged 0 social implications health care consumption housing family structure and transportation are impacted o as the population grows older it grows more diverse 0 baby boom generation those born 19461964 represent a demographic bulge that has remodeled society through the decades 0 the world is at the threshold of a global aging revolution global aging can be attributed to modernization in medicine and technology thereby leading to increased life expectancy and a declining birthrate 0 increased life expectancy women live longer than men the longer a person has lived the greater that person39s statistical life expectancy selection for survival members of a population are selected for survival based on their resistance to common causes of death could be intrinsic or environmental being near an idea weight low blood pressure and cholesterol not smoking or drinking moderately exercising 35week healthy diet and living a relaxed and unstressed lifestyle are central to a long life heart disease is leading cause of death for older Americans social implications families will be increasingly comprised of 4 generations instead of 2 or 3 as longevity rises over time people spend more time in retirement the population pyramid is an effective way to take a snapshot of the distribution of various age groups over time show the effects of a population s age and gender composition on the structure of a nations population 0 horizontal bars rep birth cohorts o as national economies become more global so too do population pyramids begin to approximate each other 0 af uence education health awareness and longevity are inseparably intertwined with the global economy as a nation the US clearly identi es as youthoriented o respect by the young for the old in our society is not a given not deeply embedded in the fabric of our society 0 increased longevity and declining birthrates have transformed the population to an older one during the last half of the 20th century old age dependency ratio the number of people 65 and older relative to the working population ages 1864 0 if the population age 65 and older grows faster than the working population the cost to taxpayers of providing for the aged population rises o If we view elders as an economic burden rather than with a pay it forward mentality ageism may increase as the number of retired sick or frail older people increases Chapter 2 Stereotypes and Images Stereotypes are generalized beliefs or opinions based on individual experience often produced by irrational thinking 0 Stereotyping and labeling seem to ful ll our need to structure and organize situations in order to maximize ambiguity and to clarify where we stand in relation to others 0 Humans like to make quick assessments of situations and of people based on our beliefs or previous experience 0 Stereotyping whether direct or indirect is usually inaccurate 0 When we generalize by putting people into categories we oversimplify reality and ignore inconsistent information and emphasize only a few characteristics 0 Can be negative or positive Ageism occurs when people make general statements that are not true 0 These statements imply that one group is superior to another 0 Comprehension goals make sense of the world and enhancement goals increase selfworth can lead to both positive and negative stereotypes both might help the interpretation of ambiguous information and make the world more predictable o Enhancement goals may lead to negative stereotyping Mortality salience occurs when fear of death is high 0 to buffer this fear people identify more strongly with their ingroup o teetertotter logic quotif I am good you are badquot negative aging stereotypes illness impotency ugliness mental decline mental illness uselessness isolation poverty and depression grouchy touchy cranky despite positive shift in social attitude negative stereotyping of the elderly remains a signi cant social issue two kinds of negativism are relatively common 0 ageism that focuses only on the least capable less healthy least alert aged this focus on the sick takes attention away from the healthy who defy negative stereotypes biomedicalization of aging growth of scienti c inquiry and subsequent breathtaking advances in medical sciences o compassionate stereotyping portrays all older adults as disadvantaged on some level economic social psychological in need and deserving of help by others perpetuates dependency and low selfesteem and unnecessarily lowers expectations of what older people can achieve 0 positive stereotypes generalized beliefs that categorize all old people in a favorable light 0 negative stereotypes categorize old people in demeaning ways two most frequently cited positive stereotypes were quotgolden agersquot and quotperfect grandpa rentsquot most frequent negative stereotypes were quotseverely impairedquot and quotdespondent39 stereotyping objecti es people that objecti cation is internalized by older people and a vicious cycle of loss of sense of self ensues the extent to which younger people assimilate negative stereotypes of older adults is the extent to which they will have negative aging selfimages mass media are important sources of stereotyping about aging in the US 0 shapes the attitudes of children as well as the selfconcepts of adults and older people continue to be invisible or negatively portrayed o seldom in major roles especially no aging women shown 0 often portrayed as forgetful and illtempered or simply omitted aging is a gradual process with many in uences people age differently o cohorts affect how people age also public face of aging has changed women encouraged to get plastic surgery to look younger 0 public image of aging is to be forever youthful in appearance 0 Botox for cosmetic purposes Retirement at age 65 Legal de nition of old has become a social de nition on retirement a person39s lifestyle generally changes dramatically creating a point of entry from one phase of life to another that has become a social event for celebration and congratulations o Chronological criterion for determining old age is too narrow and rigid for it assumes everyone ages the same way and at the same time Selfconcept the way in which people see themselves as being it is how individuals de ne themselves to themselves and it forms the basis for the way people maintain a sense of continuity even as their bodies age and change 0 Ongoing image we have of ourselves 0 Sense of the aging self has profound impact on physical and mental heath Social construction of self addresses the idea that the way we interpret events in our lives is partially a re ection of how we are treated and partially the extent to which we have internalized the way society has de ned or categorized us Those with a good sense of continuity of who they are appear to be better adjusted in later life less likely to identify as being quotoldquot because they identify as being who they always have been The dimensions of an individual39s selfconcept that deal with selfesteem and a sense of social worth are the very dimensions that our society is most likely to treat harshly Phenomenology the meaning of an event is de ned by the person experiencing that event or phenomenon Through narrative techniques the concept of possible selves has emerged we have a sense of who we were of who we are presently and whom we are becoming or might become if we are not careful 0 Positive and negative possible selves can be very motivating for making useful and appropriate behavioral change Children tend to stereotype older adults formulate attitudes at an early age 0 These attitudes are shaped by various outside forces families social interactions with peers school in uences and media in uence 0 Tend to stereotype and adopt values in a way similar to adults 0 Media is a primary source of ageist messages for children ex Evil old stepmom witches College student attitudes toward old people mixed of positive and negative stereotypes Ageism is developmental it develops and is reinforced across the life span and is directed toward youth just as it is toward older adults 0 Also institutiona social policy establishes required times for schools work and retirement Older adult is the most positively perceived label not quotagedquot or quotelderlyquot Cultural lag negative stereotypes makes our attitudes and cultural beliefs slower to change than the technology and social awareness that has improved our longevity Reversed stereotype of aging refers to older characters driving racecars breakdancing or referring to their amazing sex lives TV viewing time increases with age 0 Television advertising that urges the public to cover up the signs of aging is particularly powerful 0 Advertising currently tells us that aging is primarily ugly lonely and bothersome unless one looks and acts young 0 Advertising creates a market by instilling a fear of aging or capitalizing on already existing fears but must be careful not to alienate their target audience 0 Ageist messages are nonverbal as well as verbal The use of patronizing communication over accommodation in communication based on stereotyped expectations of incompetence can be as offensively ageist as directly derogatory language 0 According to communication accommodation theory people modify their speech and behavior based on their assessment of their communication partner 0 The proportion of movies addressing later life in a positive way increases roughly as the boomer generation has aged 0 Those who hold negative stereotypes of aging are prejudiced against older people 0 The psychology of prejudice draws attention to the psychological causes of prejudice as opposed to social causes such as TV and magazine advertising 0 Theories that explain racism that may also be used to explain ageism o Authoritarian personality lesseducated rigid untrusting insecure people are the ones who hold prejudices o Frustrationaggression hypothesis those who are frustrated perhaps by poverty and low status take it out in aggression toward others 0 Selective perception we see what we expect to see and selectively ignore what we do not expect to see Our perceptions then con rm our stereotypes 0 Negative stereotyping of old people has detrimental effects on society in general and on old people in particular Perpetuates ageism in our societyincreases when society views all old people as senile decrepit and rigid Results in the avoidance of old people age segregation Fosters fear of aging in both old and young quotsecond childhood stereotypequot 0 Common stereotypes that old people are xated on childhood memories that youth is best and that old age contains few satisfactions were thus dispelled 0 Negative stereotyping sti es the potential of older people and draws attention away from the happy sociable successful active older adu s o Selfful lling prophecy older people do not do anything because they assume they are not able Their lives therefore become neither as satisfying nor as ful lling as they might be Business companies try to remove older people from the labor market to reduce labor costs and make room for the young Too often no alternative ways for older people to make contributions Too often society works against elders instead of for them Boomers are undeniably making a cultural and social impact Those who did not fear aging felt good about themselves and their lives 0 Those who feared aging did not have a good personal sense of well being Many stereotypes of old age exist many negative Sources of negative stereotyping are the language we use to describe elders songs speeches television advertising movies and a complex sociohistorical heritage The psychology of prejudice examines ageism to understand the roots of prejudice Chapter 3 Social and Psychological Theories in Later Life Development Theories help us understand and organize what we see the empirical observations we make Data are the information being gathered as a means for testing or developing a perspective whether economic or physical Quantitative development emphasizes the changes in the number or amount of something Qualitative development does not include numbers Metaphor a gure of speech that implies a comparison 0 Mechanistic metaphor personality determined by outside sources from a biological model can be empirically tested Based on Newton39s model of physics objects cannot move unless it is acted upon by outside forces 0 Information processing personality develops internally by ourselves as we live and learn experiences thought about and ways of being adjusted accordingly 0 Organic personality unfolds from within compare with plants growing from seed through ower minimal personal control 0 Narrative story of one s life rewritten as experience accumulates stories have a beginning middle and end our own storying of life events shapes personality based on individual meaningmaking o Emergent self individual as shaper of personality through choices and motivations outcome oriented because of this that individual is highly selfdirected o Transcendent self personality develops beyond individual experience and ego shaped by larger human connections based on shared experiences Focus is on making meaning of one39s life as lived According to early human developmentalists distinct stages or phases form the life cycle through which humans pass 0 The life cycle is the course of aging individuals adapt throughout their lives to their own biological psychological and social roles Freud 18561939 0 O 0 Father of the psychoanalytic perspective Believed that it is not human reason but unconscious psychological forces that most profoundly affect our thought and behavior these forces originate in the emotions of early childhood and continue their in uence throughout our lives Human behavior are driven by instincts ln uences that shape us occur in the rst 810 years and after that we keep replaying the fears insecurities and issues that were established through early interaction with parental gures Psychoanalytic theory established the impact of early life experiences on the psychology and life choices of an individual Jung 18751961 0 O Focused attention on the future direction of personality development one of the rst to focus on adult personality development The rst three decades of development in the individual deal with the shadow the repressed childhood desires and attributes that Freud rst discussed After 40 he believed individuals began to develop their internal self potential Through balance of competing opposites reach maturity As individuals age personality archetypes change and people adopt psychological traits more commonly associated with the opposite gender men become more nurturing women develop independence and masculine personality traits Balance of extroversion and introversion is necessary for mature personality development Over the life course individuals move from self in society a focus on social interactions and institutions to a more internal focus or interiority Erikson 19021994 0 0 He was concerned with the mechanism by which people develop an identity Emphasized interactions between genetics and the environment in personality development Epigenetic principle innate structure of development in which people progress though stages as they become emotionally and intellectually more capable of interacting in a wider social radius Model of the stages of development extends beyond childhood and adolescence and include middle and old age lnfancy trust vs mistrust Toddlerhood autonomy vs shame Preschool initiative vs guilt Childhood industry vs inferiority Adolescence identity vs role confusion Young adulthood intimacy vs isolation Middle adulthood generativity vs stagnation Late adulthood integrity vs despair o Believed individuals progress through eight psychosocial stages to establish new orientations to self and the social world over time each stage is identi ed with a developmental challenge or task to be accomplished o In early adulthood late teens and twenties forming relationships 0 ln middle adulthood generativity involves a concern for the welfare of society rather than contentment with selfabsorption tasks of being able to create care for and share Ex of generativity parents and grandparents 0 Later adulthood Erikson39s psychosocial emphasis shifts to the considerations of being nearly nished with life and facing the reality of not being The crisis of later adulthood is integrity vs despair Life review or reminiscence remembering and telling stories sorting through and adjusting or arranging remembered events until a cohesive quotlife storyquot can be made from all the events of life Negative resolution of this stage is one of meaninglessness and despair the feeling that one s life has been useless Reason for this process is to prepare the person to leave lifedie with a sense of peace and completion 0 Erikson did not consider his stage model to be unidirectional he believed that in addition to be moving onward to the next level of development moving in one direction only we revisit various stages again and again throughout our life course by means of remembering o Loevinger 19182008 0 Addressed stages of ego development each of which provides a frame of reference to organize and give meaning to experience over an individual39s life course As the ego develops she said a sense of selfawareness emerges in which one becomes aware of discrepancies between conventions and one s own behavior For some development reaches a plateau and does not continue among others a greater ego integration and differentiation continues 0 Loevinger39s model has helped to establish basic ego construct de nitions such as conscientiousness individualism autonomy and personality integration Describes a continuous increase in these characteristics as higher ego development unfolds o Levinson 19201994 0 Daniel Levinson s interest was development in adulthood o In his longitudinal study of men39s lives he conceived of the life cycle as a sequence of eras each of which has its own biopsychosocial character 0 Major changes occur in our lives from one era to the next and lesser changes occur within each era The eras partially overlap with one era ending as another begins crossera transitions generally last about 5 years 0 The eras and transitions form a broader life structure the underlying pattern or design of a person39s life at a given time The primary components of a life structure are the person39s relationships with others in the external world identi ed as central components and peripheral components depending on their signi cance for the self and the life 0 He concluded there are wide variations in the ways in which the genders transverse each period but the basic pattern is the same for women as for men 0 Gender splitting a sharp division between feminine and masculine that permeates all aspects of life Transitions describes points at which a person39s development moves or transitions between one phase or stage and the next the developmental perspective focuses on the unfolding process of individuals 0 as maturity develops attitudes and behavior change in a somewhat orderly fashion distinctions between life periods are blurred our society is becoming more complex as many of the expectations for others39 behaviors are no longer valid and the developmental tasks that once seemed to be set in a clear time frame no longer are we develop not only a sense of personal identity as the life course progresses but also a sense of social identity or who we are as a member of different groups or social categories 0 the groups with which we identify impact our perspectives and our development because each group has normative behavioral expectations identi cation by social group becomes an intergroup perspective which is the shared assumption of a speci c group 0 generally in terms of salient features such as appearance behavior etc o stereotyping which can lead to prejudicial behavior generational or cohort categories based on historical decade not biology provides an easy and intuitively quotvalidquot way to generalize people Young Adulthood 0 Ages 1835 or so 0 Late adolescence often involves physical separation from one s family college military 0 Young people tend to have the most friends of any age group 0 Identities are dif cult to create with so many options quotWho am Iquot 0 Family and society place many expectations on young adults establish an identity occupational goals nish education begin a job or career get married set up housekeeping have children etc Current expectations for marriage are not as clear as they once were delaying marriage Centrality of major culture values creates a particularly intense pull for minorities Internal and family expectations as well as social rules Have been asked to give up their cultural roots and embrace a culture that is different from their own acculturation which serves to help assimilate nonmainstream cultures in the American social and economic reward system creates tremendous disruption between generations When asked about aging there is a degree of acceptance and anticipation while others show fear women seem to have the most fears because society judges their aging more harshly 0 Middle Age 0 O O 0 Point of transition or crisis Many if not most nd it dif cult to face their own aging during these years 3545 is the quotDeadline decadequot Many people experience a major psychological disruption and need for change around midlife This time is referred to either as the quotprime of lifequot or a quotcrisisquot or both prime of life lies in family and friendships and the increased understanding of one39s self a person the crisis lies in the need to reshape one s identity as emotional and physical changes take place can take place anytime between 30 and 60 early by 30 quotearly midlife crisisquot after 60 quotlate midlife crisisquot midlife crisis might best be considered as a narrative form providing people with a way of shaping and understanding the events and experiences in their life represents a story or plot around which the personal narrative might be constructed underlying theme is that there is a turning point a change in the stable narrative of early adulthood that change may or may not be experienced as a crisis the words transition or shift rather than crisis more aptly describe the midlife experiences of most individuals the new perspective views midlife transitions as normal situations likely to confront anyone such times which are marked by feelings of uncertainty and instability eventually result in some kind of adaptation ego resiliency is the general capacity for exible and resourceful adaptation to external and internal stressors whether a midlife age transition becomes a crisis seems to depend on the ability developed along the life path for the ego to be resilient in the face of stress and ambiguity o as a selfful lling prophecy many people anticipate a midlife crisis because they accept its existence 0 middle age is the transition between young adulthood and old age 0 age norms constrain those who have not lled the appropriate social role at the appropriate time 0 middle age can become a time to sort through which roles one might still ll and which roles to abandon and to deal with the feelings of loss for those roles that never will be process of becoming gerotranscendent it takes re ection and selfknowing to continue personality and spiritual growth in adulthood and later life major role changes and events occur in the 405 and 505 quotempty nest syndromequot has been used to describe a midlife depression experienced by some women whose energies has been focused on child rearing quotempty nest re lled39 return of adult children home 0 Middle age brings biological changes as well as changes in career and family 0 The way in which people anticipate their future self can profoundly affect the choices they make in the process of becoming old 0 Late Life 0 Least examined part of life 0 Characterized by decline and loss loss of physical health loss of lifelong partners and friends loss of mental capacity loss of creativity loss of social roles in short depressing discouraging and barely worth spending much time on 0 Today many people will spend about 13 of their life span in quotold agequot 0 Loss does occur in late life but it is important to distinguish between normal pathological and optimal latelife experience 0 Although physical changes do occur with advancing age physical and mental declines are not necessarily part of normal aging 0 Pathological aging a physical state based on disease or injury rather than as an outcome of the aging process 0 Young old 65 to 7580 old old 7590 very old 90 0 Erikson de ned old age as a time when one is seeking balance between the search for ego integrity and feelings of despair 0 Six tasks of late life Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health Adjusting to retirement and reduced income Adjusting to the death of a spouse Establishing an explicit association with one39s age group Adopting and adapting societal roles in a exible way Establishing satisfactory physical arrangements 0 Function of these tasks is to promote wellbeing in later life optimal aging o Humility is a realistic appreciation of our limits and competencies o Transitions still occur in later life 0 Activity theory is a dominant theoretical perspective it implies that social activity is the essence of life for people of all ages 0 the more active people are mentally physically socially the better adjusted they are 0 any activities and roles that individuals have been forced to give up should be replaced with new activities 0 theory predicts that those who are able to remain socially active will be more likely to achieve a positive selfimage social integration and satisfaction with life and will age successfully o anomie a condition in which some individuals in a society are in a normless state lack a consensus on rules to guide their behavior and receive no support or guidance from society result excluded from participation in social activities 0 successful aging in many studies de ned in relationship to life satisfaction people with strong reports or measures of life satisfaction were aging quotsuccessfullyquot 0 activities might enable people to con rm their identities and participate in roles they highly value likely to bolster selfesteem and life satisfaction 0 disengagement theory an explicit theory that contends that it is both normal and inevitable for people to decrease their activity and seek more passive roles as they age 0 mutual withdrawal of the elderly from society and society from the elderly in order to ensure the optimal functioning of both the individual and of society 0 gerotranscendence refers to older adults as selectively investing in some relationships over others rather than comprehensively withdrawing 0 Older people seem to disengage but more at will choosing where their priorities lie and divesting themselves of super uous relationships to focus on a more transcendent view of experience 0 Continuity theory proposes that a person39s adaptations to young adulthood and middle age predict that person39s general pattern of adaptation to old age 0 The personality formed early in life continues throughout the life span with no basic changes 0 lmplies that neither activity nor disengagement explains adjustment to aging adjustment depends on personality patterns of one s former years 0 Personality theory signi cant personality change after 30 is unlikely individuals achieve a core personality by adulthood have adopted coping mechanisms established stress and frustration tolerance levels and de ne ego defenses o Traits the enduring response patterns that are exhibited by a person in many different contexts 0 States more accurately describe something that is transient in the personality Consistency in personality development over time Personality traits are central to an individual39s selfconcept form the core of how people see themselves and the continued sense that we are the quotsamequot person provides the basis by which we can move on to make meaning of that life as lived Trait theory holds that lives change but fundamental personality characteristics do not Continuity theorists would say that we can alter our ways of behaving but the fundamental personality remains the same Exchange theory based on the premises that individuals and groups act to maximize rewards and minimize costs interaction will be maintained if it continues to be more rewarding than costly and when one person is dependent on another that person loses power 0 Power is derived from imbalances in social exchange 0 Exchange theory is based on the idea of reciprocity 0 Norm of reciprocity to maintain balance in relationships that goods or deeds are quotpaid forquot with equivalent goods or deeds Norm of bene cence the person giving does not expect a material reward but does expect love or gratitude Reciprocity norm dictates that one does not gain at the expense of another39s bene cial acts a moral belief Equity theory suggests that people react equally negatively to under and over bene ting balanced bene t is the moral standard Role is a status or position which carries known attributes accorded to an individual in a given social system 0 Roles are modi ed rede ned and transformed as people age Gender roles have to do with cultural aspects of being male or female Ethnicity refers to one39s identi cation with a subgroup in society having a unique set of values traditions or language lntrinsic biologically mandated Extrinsic formed by social structure and roles Postparental transition men become more nurturing feminine women become more independent masculine Age grading age is a prime criterion in determining the opportunities people may enjoy 0 Our age partially establishes the roles we may play Role expectations at various age levels are called age norms Society expects individuals to engage in activities such as marriage schooling and child rearing at a socially approved age Age cohort a group of individuals exposed to a similar set of life experiences and historical events 0 Demographers use cohort analysis to compare groups of people born during speci c time periods usually separated by 510 year intervals 0 Cohort analysis permits sociologists to study the effects that evets or demographics may have on a broad group of individuals all of whom have experienced the same events at a similar state of biological and physical development The concept of generation is more complex than a cohort has common beliefs and behaviors a common location in history and perceived common memberships Studying a group of people over several years is a longitudinal study provides tremendous amounts of information because individual changes can be observed over time and within context Coping skills are acquired in hard times not in tranquil ones The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging is an ongoing study of how biology and behavior change as people age 0 The longestrunning study of human aging Stress accompanies the need for change and the need to adapt or change is integral with progressing on the life course Locus of control personality characteristic locus or center of control is considered internal if a person sees that his or her own actions bring about a reward or positive change o If the person sees rewards due to fate luck change or powerful others the locus of control is external 0 The locus of control is a longstanding personality component developed over years of positive and negative reinforcement 0 Older people experience higher life satisfaction if they possess an internal locus of control Chapter 4 Physical Health and WellBeing Statistically good health declines with age Physical tness and good nutrition are two critical factors affecting the aging process Aging is a gradual process beginning at birth The absolute human life span is the maximum possible chronological age that humans can live 0 Currently 120 years for humans Longevity is a complex trait in uenced by genes environment and chance Mean human life span the chronological age by which 50 of humans will have died Intrinsic aging changes within the body that occur to everyone as part of the normal aging process Extrinsic aging has to do with changes in the body that are related to exposure to toxins noise smoking or sunshine as a person ages body systems reach peak levels of operation or performance and their functioning then remains constant or begins a slow decHne physical declines may result nit from the aging process intrinsic factors but from various pathologies diseases lack of proper diet and exercise cigarette smoking overweight and obesity stress community structure availability of medical care etc all extrinsic factors physical problems are generally considered to be pathological or disease related and may or may not be caused by the aging process many changes that take place in the body are observable 0 skin loses elasticity and becomes wrinkled hair grays and thins out body become less erect individuals get tired more quickly muscle tissue loses its elasticity due to uid loss and increase in brous material tendency for people to gain weight in middle years and lose weight in 805 and 905 as early as 305 and 405 most people develop presbyopia a condition in which near vision is impaired and the ne print of a book or newspaper becomes dif cult to see at close range 0 agerelated changes occur in the eye s adaptation to dark and 000 brightness o more light is often required to produce good vision may impact night driving 0 lenses of the eye gradually yellow eyes lter out more violet blue and green hearing loss may gradually occur especially in men agerelated changes in the esophagus are fairly common as muscle contraction takes more time for the valvelike structure allowing food into the stomach cardiac sphincter to open 0 may result in premature sensation of being full 0 more commonly susceptible to atrophic gastritis chronic in ammation of stomach decline of ability of body cells to absorb calcium more brittle bones that break easier more wear and tear on joints dental issues or loss of teeth common lungs decrease max breathing capacity kidneys decrease speed at which they can lter waste out of blood bladder capacity declines level of sex hormones decreases reaction time declines tasks take longer to perform body takes longer to digest food immune system decreases in ability to protect from disease capacity of body to achieve homeostasis physiological declines with age 0 dif culty quotGetting back to normalquot after a stressful event 0 more sensitive to hot and cold view of aging as a process in which body changes naturally occur resulting in a general physiological decline in body functioning 0 this model of physical decline is somewhat offset by an intellectual and psychological increase in competence o in other words body systems slow down and accumulates with age equilibrium life experience longevity is in uenced by genes but also by our environment and mental state chronology age by year is a poor indicator of functionality ability to function physiological changes with age occur so gradually that many go unnoticed much of the time deterioration of the body organs and systems with age may be fairly insigni cant as it relates to an individual39s ability to function independently to get around and to carry out normal activities the health status of the aged has improved markedly in the past 50 years 0 most people over 65 are in good health of noninstitutionalized elders functional limitations range from mild arthritis conditions to totally disabling ailments that interfere in their ability to perform activities of daily living ADLs or instrumental activities of living lADLs o ADL washing hair feeding ourselves dressing bathing o lADLs light housework food preparation and cleanup shopping for groceries managing money the abilities that allow people to live independenUy Disability among older adults has social consequences Acute conditions shortterm illnesses in which the cause is known and the condition is curable 0 Ex Chicken pox colds and in uenza Chronic conditions long term cause typically unknown but ultimate cost is profound on health quality of life and increased health care expenditures 0 Ex Hypertension arthritis heart disease diabetes and cancer 0 Much of theses chronic diseases are preventable with prevention measures and lifestyle choices or impact reduced Dan Beuttner Power 9 pyramid centenarians why did you live this longquot 0 Add simple activities throughout your day like walking farther than you must doing gardening or home repairs or running around with pets or grandchildren Try eating from a smaller plate to decrease your portion sizes and reduce calories Limit number of servings of meat you eat in a week Drink a glass or two of red wine most evenings Know your passions in life and take time to enjoy them most days Take quiet time to relieve stress Belong to a spiritual community and gather with them regularly Make your family and loved ones a priority express that through your acUons o Surround yourself with friends who have healthy habits and support you in your goals A chronic condition may or may not be disabling depending on type and severity Most major health problems of old age result from pathology the presence of disease 0 000000 Poor living habits established early in life cause many of the quotdiseases of old agequot About 75 of all deaths are caused by heart disease cancer and stroke Differences in mortality based on race and ethnicity are evident Heart disease is a term incorporating conditions of ischemic heart disease heart attack arrhythmias heart failure and hypertension and stroke 0 The most widespread form of heart disease coronary artery disease or ischemic deprived of blood heart disease is now the major killing disease in the US 0 Incidence of heart disease increases with age 0 If coronary heart disease results in de cient blood supply to the heart heart tissue will die producing a dead area called an infarct and the disease can lead to myocardial infarction or heart attack 0 Heart attack can be acute sudden and painful clearly identi able or more subtle creating a more generalized dizziness weakness confusion or numbness Two major disorders of the circulatory system are atherosclerosis and hypertension 0 Atherosclerosis is one of a group of cardiovascular disorders called arteriosclerosis 9hardening of the arteries or their loss of elasticity occurs when fat and cholesterol crystals along with other substances accumulate on the interior walls of the arteries reducing the size of these passageways 0 Excessive deposits of fat are linked to factors such as smoking obesity and serum cholesterol levels that might by controlled by lifestyle changes A major problem associated with atherosclerosis is thrombosis or blood clotting 0 Blood clots occur when undissolved fatty deposits in the arteries cut off the blood supply to the heart Hypertension is excessive arterial blood pressure 0 Factors associated with are obesity smoking and excessive alcohol consumption Cancer may affect the breasts skin stomach bones blood or other parts of the body 0 Numerous causes 0 A living cell somehow becomes a cancer cell basic cause of cancer not fully understood cancer cell then transmits its abnormality to succeeding cell generations when wild growth of cancer cells is not eliminated from the body tumors develop 0 Anyone can develop cancer 0 2nCI leading cause of death among older adults Arthritis results from the in ammation of a joint or a degenerative change in a joint one of the oldest and widespread disease affects all age groups and is leading cause of disability among Americans numerous types with different causes symptoms and severity Osteoarthritis most common form of arthritis fairly widespread in middle age and almost universal in old age 0 Joints most commonly affected are hips knees spine ngers big toe 0 Elastic tissue cartilage becomes soft and wears away underlying bones are exposed causes pain stiffness and tenderness Osteoporosis another form of joint and bone degeneration no speci c symptoms main consequence is risk of bone fractures o Characterized by a gradual loss of bone mass density A health problem of major proportion is disability or death due to accidents resulting in hospital admission 0 Falls are most common cause of accidental death 65 followed closely by car accident 0 Suffocation by ingestion 0 Danger falling and breaking a hip Factors of age that contribute to accidental death or injury 0 Failing eyesight and hearing 0 Reduced muscular strength balance and coordination 0 Increased reaction time Second most common accident is choking while eating Diabetes prevalence has increased for all racial and ethnic groups Substantial obesity increase in adults of all ages Good health vital involvement in living and meaningful activity are key to successful aging Longevity and quality of life factors are profoundly impacted by obesity obese adults have numerous chronic conditions medical utilization rates are higher symptoms of depression and illness 0 Excess of body fat is a risk factor in coronary heart disease Body mass index BMI weight divided by height in square meters is often used in research as an estimate of overall weight Morbidity quality of life Mortality death rates Obesity is linked to diabetes and hypertension risk factors for heart disease Longest lived person 122 years this age currently represents the maximum life span of the human species greatest age reached by a member of a species Biological aging is senescence or the onset of the degenerative process Graying at temples crow39s feet around eyes and need for reading glasses to correct nearsightedness presbyopia are early indicators of aging normally Average life span average age reached by a member of a species Biological theories must meet 4 criteria 0 The process is universal all members of the species experience it o The process is deleterious results in physical decline 0 The process is progressive losses occur over time o The process is intrinsic cannot be corrected by the organism Damage theories are based on the idea that aging is the result of accumulated errors from sources such as free radicals 0 Cell damage may result from changes in tissue due to intrinsic cellular mechanisms or changes in one tissue may predominate Programmed theories of aging states that aging has a strong genetic component and is not a product of a random process of damage but is driven by genetically regulated process 0 Programmed theories emphasize internal programs or coding inherent to the cell Biological clock this clock may be in the nucleus of each cell of our body an idea that advances the proposition that the body is programmed by speci c genes to live a certain length of time There are multiple mechanisms to aging it is a complex biological process that is characterized by disorder and decline and requires the approach of integrative biology rather than the singlefocus approach of a distinct biological discipline Many aspects of immune function decline with age and this decline is related to many kinds of disease such as cancer If the body s immune system becomes decreasingly effective with advancing age harmful cells are more likely to survive and do damage Autoimmune theory it is thought that cancer and other diseases attack the body with advancing age because the body progressively loses its ability to ght off disease 0 a related immunological theory of aging suggests that as the body ages it develops more and more autoimmune antibodies that destroy cells even normal ones as age increases the immune system seems to increase its capacity for autoimmune reactions several diseases such as midlife diabetes are related to autoimmune reactions Thus leading to the theory that such reactions cause aging criticized because most autoimmune diseases begin to develop at younger ages but the impact of their consequences affect quality of life of elders wear and tear the idea that irreplaceable body parts simply wear out this idea ignores the fact that cells can repair damage caused by wear and tear variability in longevity is that some people are more susceptible to free radicals than others 0 free radicals the name given to molecules in the body that are highly reactive the byproducts of normal metabolism produced as cells turn food into energy 0 free radicals invade cells throughout the body mangling vital protein enzymes and membranes and in general damaging the body 0 the older we become the more free agents we produce calorie restriction increases longevity in a number of species although it is still unclear how this works 0 reducing a humans food intake by 3050 might cause some serious interpersonal problems if not physiological and psychological ones a 22 year old study of over 19000 men found that those at their ideal weight determined by height live longer than those who are only slightly above their ideal weight by restricting food intake people can cause sensitive biological parameters such as DNA repair glucose regulation and immune functions to work better andlonger o it appears the decline in the immune function is at the root of many of the health problems elders face establishing the relationship between diet and disease is dif cult because the time that elapses before an inadequate diet results in disease can be substantial or individuals may not be able to accurately remember their eating habits over a period of years diet is increasingly being implicated as a factor and numerous conditions and diseases 0 saturated fat contributes to atherosclerosis 0 lack of ber is thought to be one cause of cancer in the intestine or colon 0 research proves that various nutritional anemias are the result of poor diet 0 as we grow older our metabolic rate slows down we require less energy intake or fewer calories because of reduced kidney function should eat somewhat less protein good nutrition in early life is directly related to health and wellbeing in later life many people in the US are considered quotfood insecurequot have trouble nding money to keep food on the table physiological and sociopsychological factors can compound nutritional dif culties for the very old 0 digestive processes slow down dental problems can limit one to food that are easily chewed reduced keenness pf taste sight and smell can diminish enjoyment of food physical handicaps such as arthritis can complicate preparation and consumption of meals lack of transportation 0 eating in restaurants nutritional value can compound issues 0 limited budgets physical activity is positively associated with lower heart disease physical activity is a component in rehabilitation following cardiac illness patterns of exercise throughout the life and even exercise at any point during the life produce positive physical and mental outcomes some exercise is better than none a program of strength training and exibility exercises helps maintain mobility improve quality of life and prolong independence loss of mobility is a signi cant cause of loss of independence among the elderly myth that older individuals are unable to exercise or to pro t from it exercise helps maintain good everyday function improves circulation and respiration diminishes stress preserves a sense of balance promotes body exibility and induces better sleeping patterns at any age people who exercise reduce the risk of heart attack and increase chances of survival if one did occur many of the problems found in older people result directly from disuse of body systems which results in decline 0 disuse affects muscle mass all unused tissues and functions atrophy o with disuse muscle tissue turns to fat tissue older individuals who participate in physical activity that constantly works the muscles will have larger muscle mass than younger individuals who follow no tness program constraints to exercise appear to be both universal and individual 0 gender differences emerge lived experience includes history and social context of a person39s life course nothing can retard the aging process as much as exercise the connection between physical wellbeing and mental health is strong biological factors become more saliently intertwined with psychosocial ones in the mental disorders of late life relative to typical problems of younger adu s subjective sense of being physically fit feeling good about one s health and body predicts better mental health being a happy and optimistic person contributes to longevity Harvard longitudinal study 0 Optimists had better health and middle age than pessimists 0 Men with a healthy outlet for stress humor or physical activity reported being happier and lived longer 0 Those who did not take themselves too seriously but expressed humility were healthier and lived longer 0 Happiness must be shared those with meaningful sustained healthy relationships with friends and family were happiest and healthiest Antagonistic hostility predicts premature death 0 Easily provoked to anger and is vindictive Personality characteristics that are lifeshortening depression egocentricity and other negative attitudes 80 of older adults have at least one chronic health condition 50 have two or more Medications are often a major issue shifts in medication tolerance and negative cognitive effets are part of psychological symptoms complex associated with older adults Those who are good at coping with stress will live longer The environment we live in plays a role in how long we live A positive hopeful stimulating social environment adds years to life An active physical and mental environment is important for humans Social class is correlated with longevity Centenarians people who live to 100 o Described as assertive and forceful scored high on dominance suspiciousness and imagination and low on conformity personality traits that served low as protective functions repressed anger 0 Cognitive skills high on practical problem solving tests but lower on intelligence and memory tests 0 Genetic factors account for some 0 Long life is correlated with good health habits stimulating physical and mental activities spirituality moderation tolerance integrity and interacting with others Chapter 5 Mental Health Declining mental health is NOT a natural consequence of the aging process 0 Vast majority of people 65 are in good mental health and if they are not speci c causes other than the aging process itself can usually be pinpointed Distinction between agerelated changes and biologically caused changes Four major causes of depression in older adults 0 Physical factors predisposition to depression constant pain or a major health issues such as cancer 0 Psychological factors including increasing fear of death especially after death of a loved one lingering feelings of guilt or sadness for unaccomplished goals or problems adjusting to changes inherent in frailty of old age 0 Personality factors such as dif culty with becoming dependent or loss of selfesteem or selfcon dence o Medications some of which can trigger depression in older adults Both positive and negative life changes call on an ability to cope with new life situations Cognitive appraisal helps to explain why older people may react differently to the same stressor Although some disability results from normal more general losses of physiological functions extreme disability is not an inevitable part of aging Depression is the most common form of laterlife psychopathology Normal aging includes stable intellectual functioning capacity for change and productive engagement with life Older people may hold beliefs attitudes and stereotypes about themselves that distort memory assessment 0 Older adults are just as likely to have ageist social beliefs about memory as younger adults High cognitive performance is associated with education strenuous activity in the home peak pulmonary ow rate and most importantly a strong sense of selfef cacy con dence in the ability to organize and execute actions to deal with situations likely to happen in the future Successful aging is largely the outcome of lifestyle rather than genetic p vHege New model for successful aging physical and mental wellbeing avoiding disease and disability sustaining high cognitive and physical function and engaging with life Metamemory the selfappraisal or selfmonitoring of memory 0 our own evaluation of how well we can remember cognition thinking about a situation our awareness of the world around us how we absorb stimuli and information and how we make sense of it our perception what we think of something is related to our behavior in various situations cognitive processes involve the use of our sense our arousal attention information processing reaction time and motor performance information processing describes the kinds of cognitive processes involved in memory the loss of memory many people assume will occur in later life seems to be more highly related to individual differences as well as the context in which human development occurs than with age itself sensation the process of taking information in through the senses the ve senses vision touch hearing smell and taste relate environmental information to the brain generally lose acuity with age varies with age and by person each memory starts as a sensory stimulus sensory memory initial shortterm sensory experience 0 takes in large amounts of information so rapidly that most of it is lost much information that passes through sensory memory is never processed to a storage place in the brain because we cannot pay attention to everything hitting our sense ex Details on the dollar bill we make choices through giving our attention to some sensations and ignoring others selective attention means focusing attention on relevant information while inhibiting irrelevant information o if we are distracted unable to focus on a speci c stimulus among many our ability to code the stimulus into memory is impaired divided attention doing two things at once such as watching television and listening to a conversation shows that when dividedattention tasks are easy age differences are typically absent but when the tasks become more complicated age difference emerge older people are more distractible and less able to disregard the clutter of irrelevant information than younger people the process of evaluating sensory information carried to the brain is called perception individuals may perceive the same stimuli differently the same person may react differently at different times sensory threshold the minimum intensity of a stimulus that is required for a person to perceive it mood activities and personality may all in uence perception sensory decline affects perception signi cantly perceptual differences among age groups differences may be biological or agerelated rst a person experiences the environment through the 5 senses second the person perceives what is happening and third the person reacts a physical reaction to stimuli is called motor performance very old drivers may be affected by changes in vision and hearing 0 vision does not adapt as rapidly to dark and are more affected by glare 0 process information slower from the point of sensation seeing the sign to perception registering its meaning and taking action the time from sensation to perception psychomotor speed one aspect of motor performance is reaction time the length of time between the stimulus and the response directly related to psychomotor speed 0 increases with age general slowing of behavior with age agerelated change 0 slowed psychomotor speed and lengthened reaction time the more complex a task the greater the difference in reaction time by age cognitive mechanics the hardware of the mind re ects the neurophysiological architecture of the brain 0 involves the speed and accuracy of elementary processing of sensory information o geneticbiological in uence cognitive pragmatics the software of the mind re ects the knowledge and information of one39s culture 0 involves reading writing education professional skills and life experiences that help us master or cope with life 0 culturalsocial in uence culturalsocial factors tend to be more reversible than geneticbiological ones geneticbiological factors thought to be related to slowing of information processing in old age 0 changes in sensation acuity changes in physiological arousal to stimuli changes in attention changes in motor capacity stiffness reduced strength lower levels of physical activity changes in blood ow to the brain leading to neural malnutrition changes in the CNS changes in cortical levels of the brain gradual loss in brain mass neuralmetabolic changes decline in physical health culturalsocial factors 0 changes in selfesteem and selfcon dence 0 lower levels of mental activity 0 lessened familiarity and experience with the task 0 lifestyle characteristics such as lack of travel lack of stimulating environment including social exposure physically t older people have shorter reaction times than less t young adu s the course of slowing reactions has a lot to do with the brain and CNS not every older individual experiences a slowdown in reaction OOOOOOOOOO 0 learning new skills maintaining those we have and engaging in activities larger than our own selfinterest are important aspects of retaining cognitive functioning intelligence is most often measured by a standardized test with many multiple choice items on vocab reasoning and ordering of numbers and spaces using such a test represents the psychometric approach cognitive process approach tests that examine thought processes the quality and depth of thinking and the ability to solve complex problems 0 most widely used psychometric test of intelligence for older adults Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS compensates for increasing age crystallized intelligence a measure of knowledge you have acquired through experience and education ex Vocab tests uid intelligence innate ability the informationprocessing skills 0 individuals do not show deterioration on mental abilities uid intelligence appears to decline some with age whereas crystallized does not 0 speed of response is the major decline 0 older people are as pro cient as ever when it comes to situations that demand past experience or knowledge given that they have enough time IQ tests measure speci c skills to generalize about an allinclusive concept of intelligence results may be biased Terminal drop theory of decline refers to the measured tendency of a person39s biological and psychological processes to decrease precipitously in the last few years of life 0 Learning and memory are important components of mental functioning are separate yet interrelated processes 0 When an individual can retrieve information from his or her memory storage learning is assumed to have occurred if someone cannot remember it is assumed that learning has not adequately taken place 0 Learning the process of acquiring knowledge or understanding 0 Measured by tests of performance 0 Many factors affect learning abilities o Pacing the rate and speed required for learning Older adults learn better with a slower pace and perform best with selfpacing Also do better with lengthened time to respond 0 Anxiety some older adults are more uncomfortable with testing situation and have increased anxiety 0 Meaningfulness of the material also makes a difference older people do better when nonsensical or abstract syllables and words are replaced with actual concrete words 0 Motivation and physical health are contributing factors as well 0 Memory varies among individuals of all ages interindividual differences and types of memory vary greatly in the same person intraindividual differences o Slight and progressive deterioration of memory ef ciency as people grow older Three types of memory 0 Sensory memory the initial level at which all sensory information is registered but not stored Fleeting lasting less than a second unless deliberate attention is paid 0 Secondary memory shortterm memory holds pieces of information such as the phone number you just looked up the name you of a person you just introduced 0 Tertiary memory longterm memory sometimes called remote memory the stored facts and words learned years ago weddings births deaths etc The content of primary memory depends on the acuity of the senses to pick up the initial signal 0 Primary memory shows little change with age once information is transferred to primary memory people of all ages seem equal in being able to recall it Working memory age differences are found the processing of sensory stimuli to give it meaning and transfer it to longerterm storage 0 if info does not get to storage it cannot be recalled secondary memory is another major source of agerelated decline 0 processing involved is deeper than primary memory enabling recall to take place over a longer period of time o eliminating distractions can optimize shortterm memory for older people 0 searing historical moments are called quotflashbulb memoriesquot serve as benchmarks in our lives that connect personal histories to cultural history tertiary memory 0 information is stored for years in tertiary or longterm memory 0 typically no age differences 0 what does appear with age differences is perceptual speed or the speed at which longterm memories are processed and retrieved 0 learning and recalling what is learned keeping the mind stimulated is a good way to preserve memory 0 mnemonics memory techniques to improve memory psychopathology is the study of psychological disease or mental disorders some mental disorders have a physical cause others seem to be entirely emotional in nature senility has been used as a catchall term for any mental disorder of old age 0 symptoms of confusion anxiety memory loss or disorientation senility is not an inevitable consequence of growing old pseudosenility showing confusion and disorientation as a result of infection pneumonia heart failure or attack electrolyte imbalance anemia malnutrition etc 0 functional disorder psychologists use this term to denote emotional problems of psychological rather than physical origin that interfere with daily functioning O 0 more serious than emotional problems anxiety disorders depressive disorders personality disorders affective disorders and schizophrenia anxiety disorders anxiety is a cluster of feelings of uneasiness nervousness tension or dreading the future 0 O O O O O trait anxiety is related to an individual39s personality state anxiety is more related to a transitory situation people with these disorders are often anxious or rigid have insecure personality types no age differences generalized anxiety disorder when a person becomes so anxious that fear and dread of things or events impair his or her ability to function when it is present exaggerating any real danger obsessivecompulsive disorder a person obsessed with one act such as washing their hands walking back and forth across a room looking for something or touching something exhibits this phobia a fear that displaces fears that a person cannot face ex Claustrophobia depressive disorders a person feels sad has low selfesteem is lethargic and nds life confusing hopeless or bereft of meaning 0 0 physical symptoms insomnia dif culty sleeping loss of appetite difficulty concentrating in later life is often triggered by death of a loved one or other disappointments accumulated over time myth that older people suffer from this more a hypochondriac is someone who is overly concerned about his or her health generally have bodily complaints for which no physical cause exists may be depressed fear physical deterioration need attention or be expressing emotional issues through a series of somatic body oriented complaints personality disorders not characteristics of older people but of a group of people some of whom have aged into late adulthood O O O O the way a person characteristically thinks and acts relates to his or her adaptation to stressful situations in life thoughts and strategies for coping are distinctively large pieces of personality people who have developed very rigid styles of coping that make adaptive behavior dif cult or impossible fall into the category of having a personality disorder those with a personality disorder typically have held long standing maladaptive and in exible ways of relating to stress and the environment o paranoid personality extremely suspicious and mistrustful preoccupied with being alert to danger tend to be stubborn hostile and defensive o introverted personality tends to be a solitary person who lacks the capacity for warm close social relationships 0 antisocial personality characterized by a basically unsocialized behavior pattern that may con ict with society may have dif culty with social situations that require cooperation and selfsacri ce affective disorders quotmood disordersquot depression and mood swings are typical 0 bipolar describes behavior that includes both a depressed phase of sadness and slowed activity and a manic phase characterized by high levels of excitement and activity 0 depression without the manic phase is more common most severe as an affective disorder as an anxiety disorder is moderate o schizophrenia serious disturbances in thinking and behavior inability to communicate coherently with others language seems to be a means of selfexpression rather than communication talk is lled with irrelevancies feelings have no relation to verbal expression impaired contact with reality hallucinations or delusions organic disorders arise from a physical origin that impairs mental functioning o dementia difficulty in assessing this partially due to the main different paths of brain disorder including reversible and irreversible dementias with multiplicity of causes and symptoms 0 an acute organic brain disorder is shortterm and reversible o anything that interferes with the nourishment of the brain the supply of oxygen or food by the bloodstream can produce an acute disorder if not treated promptly becomes chronic 0 chronic organic disorders are brain disorders with a physical cause for which no cure is known irreversible chronic and progressive deterioration of the brain 0 the two manifestations of organic brain disorders are delirium and dementia o delirium is characterized by a lack of awareness about oneself and the surroundings hallucinations delusions and disorientations 0 caused by the atrophy and degeneration of brain cells dementia was once labeled as senility and was thought to accompany normal aging dementia can result from numerous conditions largest is Alzheimer39s 0 Symptoms of dementia Recent memory loss people with this often forget things but sometimes the information does not make it to memory stores at all Dif culty performing familiar tasks might cook a meal but forge to serve it or forget they cooked it Problems with language may misuse simple words or use the wrong words making it hard to understand what they want 0 Time and place disorientation may get lost on their own street or forget how to get a certain place and back home Poorjudgement often forget simple things like putting on a coat before going out in cold weather Problems with abstract thinking balancing a checkbook and even knowing what the numbers are and what needs to be done with them Misplacing things may place things in the wrong places iron in freezer or watch in the sugar bowl Changes in mood fast mood swings from calm to tears to anger in minutes Personality changes may experience major changes in personality exhibiting irritability suspicion or fear Loss of initiative they may become passive avoiding going out or seeing people 0 Alzheimer s disease the most common form of chronic organic brain disease Risk rises with age more common in women The brain gradually atrophies shrinking in both size and weight neurons are lost bers become twisted in the neuron cell bodies neuro brillary tangles and abnormal masses senile plaques develop Gradually lose their memory thought processes slow judgement becomes impaired speech disturbances emerge and disorientation In more severe stages emotional disturbances delusions deterioration of personal and toilet habits failing speech and total loss of memory Major symptoms are gradual declines in cognitive functioning memory learning reaction time language disorientation declines in selfcare and inappropriate social behavior Extremely disruptive behaviors are catastrophic reactions a reaction occurring when the organism is unable to cope with a serious defect in physical and cognitive functions Shortlasting emotional outburst characterized by anxiety aggressive behavior swearing displacement refusal renouncement andor compensatory boasting Stages 1norma 2forgetfulness 3eary confusional 4late confusional 5early dementia 6middle dementia 7ate dementia o Multiinfarct dementia MID rises from problems with blood ow to the brain vascular dementia is caused by a series of small strokes infarcts that damage brain tissue over time typically chronic Lifelong alcoholism or the onset of alcoholism in late life may yield changes that indicate a dementia syndrome CreutzfeldtJakob Disease CJD is a rare degenerative invariably fatal brain disorder similar to Alzheimer39s but much more rapid and far less common has come to be known as mad cow disease Parkinson39s disease tremors and rigidity of movement progresses through stages and some are eventually con ned to bed or wheelchair Huntington s Disease inherited as a defective gene much like Alzheimer39s with total deterioration of memory and bodily functions Those who are mentally ill have been shown to bene t by 0 Activities for remaining busy such as music dance cards and handiwork 0 Activities for engaging in the community even if only to have a cup of coffee 0 Programs and goals for reducing dependency and passivity Most older people are in good mental health A safeguard against emotional debilitation in old age is to maintain an active interest in life and to keep one39s mind stimulated 0 Also have good mental health in youth and middle age 0 Seek professional health care services when needed SUMMARY Older people generally suffer a decline in reaction time but not necessarily in intelligence learning and other areas Mental health problems may be functional behavioral or organic with a physical basis Functional disorders may be moderately debilitating as with a temporary emotional problem or quite severe with a psychotic breakdown
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