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Study Guide-Notes Overview

by: Lucy Stevens

Study Guide-Notes Overview PSYCH 3240

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Lucy Stevens
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This is a detailed study guide reviewing for Test 1.
PSYCH 3240
Dr. Claudio Cantalupo
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1-4 PSYCH 3240 *Chapter 1- What is Biopsychology? -Neuroscience: study of the nervous system -Biopsychology: study of the relationship between body and behavior -Model: proposed mechanism for how something works -Mind-Body Problem: what is the mind and how does it relate to the brain The mind is a collection of things that the brain does; it does not actually exist. -Monsim: the mind and the body is created of the same thing a) Materialistic Monism: the body, mind and everythi ng are physical b) Dualism: separates the mind and body -Descartes: French Philosopher who explained how ,pavement is produced -Explained brain’s activity using the hydraulic model and concluded that animal spirits ran through the body to control it -Galvani, Fritsch, Hitzig performed many experiments that showed that nerves were operated by “electricity.” -Hemholtz measured speed of conduction in nerves and knew that nerves operated electrically Localization Issue: -Determining that specific functions a re carried out by different parts of the brain -Phrenology: brain function determined in specific areas -Equipotentiality: brain function determined by extent of damage Nature vs. Nurture -Gene: transmits characteristics and directs cell processes -Chromosomes: 23 pairs (46 total) located in the nucleus -Female: XX Male: XY -Zygote: fertilized egg -Embryo: first 8 weeks -Fetus: after 8 weeks -DNA: genetic information -Dominant and Recessive Alleles -Genotypes: combination of genes Phenotypes: the exposed characteristic -Homozygous: AA/aa Heterozygous: Aa -Polygenic: characterizes determined by many genes -X-Linked: characteristic on the X chromosome of an unpaired gene ; affect more males than females Genes and Behavior -Charles Darwin -Human Genome Project -Children share ½ of their genes with each of their parents. -Natural Selection Heredity and Environment -Heritability: percentage of the difference within a certain characteristic caused by genetic influences . Is greatest for height. If everyone all had the same genes, then the heritability would be 0%. -“We influence dispositions, not destinies.” This is because genes only have partial influence. -Vulnerability: *Chapter 2- Communication Within the Nervous System Neurons: -Specialized cells that receive information and send it to other cells -Carry information within in the brain and throughout the rest of the body. -about 100 million neurons in the brain 1. Motor Neurons (output neurons): a. Receive information from the other neurons b. Carries information to muscle or gland cells 2. Sensory Neurons (input neurons): a. Receives a particular type of sensory information b. Carries information to other neurons 3. Interneuron a. Connects one neuron to another in a particular part of the central nervous system (CNS) Glial Cells: -cells that provide structural and functional support for neurons 1. Oligodendrocytes: build myelin around axons in the brain and spinal chord (CNS) ( The membranes of most cells are made of fat) 2. Schwann Cells: build myelin around axons in th e peripheral nervous Neural Membrane -critical for the neurons ability to carry information -consists of a phospholipid bilayer where protein molecules are sometimes embedded. -Head: Hydrophilic (attracted to water) -Tail: Hydrophobic (repelled by wate r) -Proteins are made of a sequence of amino acids Protein Molecules 1. Channels: molecules move down a gradient 2. Pumps: molecules are pushed against the gradient Resting Potential: difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the membrane of a neuron at rest. more potassium inside the neuron and more sodium outside the neuron Sodium Potassium Pump(Na+/K+) Pump: repeatedly moves 3 Na+ out of the neuron and 2 K+ inside the neuron at rest. K+ Ions: attracted inside by Electrical Gradient , and attracted outside by the Concentration Gradient. • Concentration Gradient is slightly stronger than the Electrical Gradient, but they are basically in balance with each other. • These two forces are independent of each other, but they act at the same ti me. Na+ Ions: attracted inside by BOTH Electrical Gradient and Concentration Gradient. • Electrical gradient is slightly stronger than the Concentration Gradient, but they are basically in balance with each other. • Na+ would rush inside if Na+ channels were open. *Hyperpolarization: reserved for any increase in polarization (going away from 0 ) *Depolarization: reserved for any decrease in polarization (going towards) *What happens?? 1. Massive influx of sodium into the neuron 2. Most of the potassium ch annels start opening (not as rapidly as the sodium channels) and potassium moves outside 3. Sodium Channels shut close and no more sodium can enter the neuron. (by now, the potassium channels are fully open) 4. Now lots of potassium leaving the neuron. Sodium ch annels are still closed. 5. Then there is some hyperpolarization caused by potassium channels starting to close slowly which causes excess leaking outside of potassium. Neuron is loosing even more positive charge and becoming more negative. 6. Pumps open and the normal distribution is acquired. *Absolute Refractory Period: The neuron does not react to any stimulus because the sodium channels will not open. Lays down a “speed limit” for the neuron in terms of how many times that neuron is able to fire over time. *Relative Refractory Period: Won’t produce an action potential unless the stimulus is stronger than normal. *Rate Law of Action Potentials: Intensity of a stimulus is encoded by the rate of action potentials. *As the stimulus gets stronger, the neuron goes faster. Ex: Hearing a louder sound or seeing a brighter light the neurons will fire faster in your brain. *Spontaneous Activity: firing of a neuron in absence of environmental stimulation *Action Potential: you need a passive (graded) potential that will end up changing the electrical difference within the membrane *The All or None Law: the height of the action potential curve is constant. Graded Potential: -amplitude depends on the intensity of the stimulus (unlike action potentials) and don’t go very far Axon Hillock: • where the axon comes out of the cell body. • first region of the neuron where you can detect an action potential. 1) There is a massive influx of positive charges, which sets of massive depolarization currents going left and right. The next region of membrane is depolarized and reaches threshold. Then an influx of sodium goes into the second part of the membrane. 2) This next section was at rest, but is now experiencing the up phase of action potential. The first section is now permeable to potassium and experiencing the down phase of action potential. 3) The process keeps repeating over and over. *Myelination and Conduction Speed of Action Potentials 1) Increase the neuron width a. Squid have axons that are huge and allow them to speed up their action potentials. 2) Myelin produced by glial cells (oligodendrocytes and Schwann) a. Nodes of Ranvier: uncovered parts of the axon not covered in the myelin sheath. **Movement of Signal through Neuron Covered in Myelin: 1. Na+ channels open (action potential) 2. Depolarization spreads within the exon very quickly. 3. At the next node, the action potential is triggered. 4. This continues to happen at each node as the action potential jumps from one to another. *The graded potentials happen within each myelin sheath. *Saltatory (Jumping) Conduction: 15 times faster and a lot cheaper than in un-myelinated axons *Communication between Neurons -Presynaptic Neuron -Synapse -Presynaptic Terminal (Button) -Synaptic Cleft -Postsynaptic Neuron *In most cases the signal travels as a chemical signal. Chemical Synapses -Presynaptic Membrane -Vesicles -Neurotransmitter Molecules -Calcium (Ca2+) Calcium channels embedded in the presynaptic membrane, and are closed at the resting state. When an action potential comes down, the channels OPEN! Exocytosis 1. Calcium coming in is the first step of the long chemical process of transfer between neurons. 2. The vesicles move toward the membrane and converge with it 3. Neurotransmitters released into the cleft. ( -70 mV at this point) (more sodium is outside than in. More potassium is in than out. ) *On the postsynaptic membrane there are channels that are NOT voltage activated. *They open if one or more molecules attach to them ( Lock and Key process) *Polarization begins changing as the channels are opened and closed. 4. Now the postsynaptic neuron is active. Sodium channels open and sodium (Na+) starts to go in and membrane potential starts depolarization (moving toward 0 mV). a. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP): postsynaptic membrane becomes partially depolarized. i. Most likely, the action potential will occur at the post -synaptic neuron or the axon hillock and there is a higher rate of firing. Inhibition -Now assume the potassium channels open up and the pot assium flows out. -The membrane potential moves away from the threshold and shows hyperpolarization. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP): postsynaptic membrane exhibits hyperpolarization. *It is unlikely that the action potential will occur at t he axon hillock or the post -synaptic neuron and there is a decreased rate of firing. Postsynaptic Integration a) Most neurons receive EPSPs and IPSPs from about 1000 other neurons. b) SPSPs and IPSPs combine at the axon hillock c) EPSP and IPSP are graded poten tials i. Temporal Summation ii. Spatial Summation Type of Synapses: 1. Axosomatic Synapse: Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the soma of another neuron. 2. Axodendritic Synapse: Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron. 3. Axoaxonic Synapse: Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the terminal button of another neuron. a. The neurotransmitters form the one axon can affect the membranes permeability to calcium on the other neuron b. Presynaptic Excitation: an increase in the release in neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron. c. Presynaptic Inhibition: a decrease in the release of neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron Neurotransmitters *Chemical signals that are released by one neuro n at the synapse and that affect other neurons. *Know the table of neurotransmitters found at the end of chapter two. *GABA is important (Hint-Hint) *Know most prevalent and what they do. Drug: a chemical that comes from the outside that has an affect o n your nervous system. Depending on the effects you classify the drug as an agonist or an antagonist a) Agonist: a chemical that mimics or increases the effect of a neurotransmitter b) Antagonist: a chemical that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter Function Acetylcholine Transmitter at muscles Monamines Serotonin Mood, sleep, arousal, aggression, depression Dopamine Movement control Norepinephrine Released during stress; increases attentiveness and arousal Epinephrine Plays a minor role as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Related to norepinephrine Amino Acids Glutamate Excitatory; involved in learning GABA Inhibitory; receptors respond to alcohol Glycine Inhibitory; Peptides Endorphins Reduce pain; enhance reinforcemen t Substance P Pain Neuropeptide Y Initiates eating; metabolic shifts Gas Nitric Oxide Influences the presynaptic neuron to release neurotransmitters *Chapter 3- The Organization and Functions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS): Made up of the brain and the spinal chord and where most of the processing takes place. CNS is made up of one type of neurons called interneurons. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): made up of cranial nerves and spinal nerves. Cranial Nerves: connect to the brain Spinal Nerves: connect to the spinal chord *A neuron is a single cell. *A nerve is a bundle of axons of many neurons in the PNS. *A tract is a bundle of axons of many neurons in the CNS. Anatomical Direction of the Nervous System *Neuraxis: imaginary line drawn through the center of the CNS from the bottom of the spinal chord to the front of the forebrain. The Brain Horizontal Section Sagital Section Coronal Section Development 3 WEEKS: Part of the tube grows at different rates. You can see the 3 major portions emerging. Forebrain, Midbrain, hindbrain. 7 WEEKS: cranial nerves begin to form. 11 WEEKS: the forebrain has taken over in terms of development. The other parts aren’t developing as fast. At BIRTH: the hindbrain has expanded. All three parts expanded at different rates, so that they end up as recognizable organs. Cerebral Hemispheres Cortex 1. Outer surface that is wrinkled with grooves and ridges a. Ridge=gyrus b. Groove=sulcus c. GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER *A very large sulcus is called a fissure. *A central fisher separates the left and right hemispheres. *Clusters of gray mater are called nuclei. Roles of the Lobes 1. Frontal Lobe: a. Precentral Gyrus (Primary Motor Cortex): Controls voluntary movement. One hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body, which explains how you can have paralysis on one side of the body. Located in front of the Central Sulcus. b. Topographical organization of body muscles. i. Motor Homunculus c. Broca’s Area: i. Controls speech and articul ation ii. Grammatical structure iii. Lateralized to the left area iv. Lesion to the right side Broca’s Area is less likely to cause speech issues. Broca’s Aphasia 1. Impaired word production 2. Unimpaired word comprehension d. Prefontal Cortex: Involved in planning, impulse control, and decision making i. Composed of highly sophisticated neural function. ii. Associative cordial region: involved in performing higher level processing iii. “Central Executive” part of the brain 2. Parietal Lobe: a. Postcentral Gyrus (Primary Somatosensory Cortex): Processes skin senses, body positioning. One hemisphere serves the opposite side of the body b. Topographical Organization c. Association Cortex: i. further sensory information processing ii. Integrates information from other senses iii. Locations of objects in space d. Unilateral Neglect: ignoring objects on the opposite side to the damage. Not a perceptual problem 3. Occipital Lobe: processes visual stimulations a. Primary Visual Cortex (V1): back part where you find the neurons that are first activated when the retina see s light. 4. Temporal Lobe: *Chapter 4- The Methods and Ethics of Research


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