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General Biology 2 Exam Study Guide 1

by: Christina Hancock

General Biology 2 Exam Study Guide 1 EBIO 1220

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Science > EBIO 1220 > General Biology 2 Exam Study Guide 1
Christina Hancock

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About this Document

This is a study guide for General Biology 2 Exam 1. This Study Guide is to be studied along with the packets of notes; Weeks 1-4. This Study Guide cover terms and concepts to know for Chapters; 19,...
General Biology 2
Dr. Carol Kearns
Study Guide
General Biology 2: Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christina Hancock on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1220 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Dr. Carol Kearns in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Thursday, February 4, 2016 Gen. Biology Exam 1 Study Guide Terms and Concepts to Know: Chapters; 19, 21, 22, 23, and 24 Chapter 19: Overpopulation: Too many babies to survive = Competitions to survive. Most able babies Survive. Variation: Produced by sexual reproduction - Not every offspring is going to be exactly the same. This provides the raw material for natural Selection. Heritability: Some of the variation among individuals must have the genetic basis so offspring can inherit the characteristics. Parent and babies look identical due to this. Differential survival and reproduction: Individuals that thrive in their environ,emts will survive, reproduce and pass their traits on to the next generation. Their genes will be represented at a greater frequency in the next generation. Sources of Genetic Variation: Mutations, Gene Mutations, Chromosome Mutations, Sexual Reproduction, Recombination, and Mate Selection. Natural Selection: Occurs when individuals with certain alleles produce the most offspring in a population. Depends on 4 Key Parameters: Overpopulation, Variation, Heritability, and Differential Survival and Reproduction. Adaption: A genetically based treat that increases an individuals ability to produce offspring in a particular environment. Fitness: The ability of an individual to produce offspring, relative to that ability in other individuals in the population. (The animal with the most babies is the most___) Evolution: The process by which individuals in a population with a certain hertibie trait tend to produce more offspring than do individuals without those traits, leading to changes in the maker of the population. (Speckled Moth Example) Not goal-directed or Progressive. 1 Thursday, February 4, 2016 Why the idea of natural selection changed our world view: Originally believed that organisms were unchanging. Now we believe organisms change through time, and they are related by common ancestry. Chapter 21: Smallest unit of evolution: Population Microevolution: Is change in allele frequencies in a population over generations. Macroevolution: Refers to the origin of new groups of organisms, the appearance of major new features in organisms, and the changes in diversity associated with mass extinctions. Agents of Evolution: Mutation: Changes in nucleotide sequence of DNA, cause new gene and alleles to arise. Mutation = the raw material for evaluations. Can be neutral, beneficial, and detrimental. Non-Random Reproduction: Inbreeding, Outbreeding, Sexual Selection for a particular type, Positive assortative mating (like individuals mate with like individuals) , Negative Assortative Mating (Opposites attract) Genetic Drift: is unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies in small populations due to chance. Does not lead to adaptions, leads to fixation of alleles, important in small populations, related to the founds effect. Natural Selection: the only one of these forces that can produce adaptations. Three modes of selection: Directional Selection (favors indiv. at one of the phenotype range) Disruptive Selection (favors at both extremes of the phenotypic range) Stabilizing Selection (Favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes) Gene Flow: (Migration) is movement of alleles between populations. Movement of pollen, individuals, gametes. 2 Thursday, February 4, 2016 Gene Pool: The population of genes there is to pick from. Population: Group of individual species living in the same place at the same time Natural Selection as only agents that produces adaption: Rate Depends on: the generation time of the organisms, the frequency of the allele in the population, the selection coefficient associated with the allele Genetic Drift- Founder Effect: Occurs when a small group of individuals establishes a new populations. Some characteristics may be present at a higher frequency. Small Population Size Fixation: only ONE allele remains in the population. All other are gone. SO the trait is FIXED in that there is only one option. Bottleneck: As a result of genetic drift, populations lose alleles, populations lose genetic diversity, separate population divert from each other, and genes can come “fixed” Non- Random Mating- Inbreeding: Close relatives mate with each other Outbreeding: When an organisms leaves to another location to find a mate. Mate Choice: When the organisms has a preference on what they want in a mate Intrasexual Competition: Competition for a mate. Males fight for female attention. Assortative Mating: Positive and Negative (See previous explanation) Sexual Selection: Natural selection for mating success Sexual Dimorphism: Marked differenced between the sexes in the secondary sexual characteristics Heterozygote Advantage: genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygote recessive genotype or dominant. Frequency Dependent Selection: The fitness of a phenotype increases as it becomes for common. 3 Thursday, February 4, 2016 Chapter 22: Speciation: The formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution. Biological Species Concept: Emphasizes reproductive isolation. Biologists categorize the mechanisms that stop gene flow between populations as being either pre zygotic or post-zygotic Reproductive Isolation: Prevents the members of 2 different species that cross or mate from producing offspring, or which ensures any offspring that may be produced are sterile. Prezygotic Barrier: Occurs when individuals of different species are prevented from mating. Postzygotic Barrier: Occurs when individuals from different populations do mate, but they hybrid offspring produced have low fitness and do not survive or produce offspring (mule example) Allopatric Speciation: occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes wth genetic interchange, Symmetric Speciation: new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region. Polyploidy as a mechanism for speciation: When the number of chromosome doubles meaning that the organism has more chromosomes than other individuals if the same species, meaning it cannot mate with other individuals. Habit Differentiation: Subpopulation exploits a habitat, food source, or other resource not used. Hybrid Zones: A geographic region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry. Punctuated Equilibrium: In the fossils record, long periods of apparent stasis, in which a species undergoes little or no morphological change, interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change. 4 Thursday, February 4, 2016 Chapter 23: Time line of Events: Big Bang, Earth Formation, First Evidence of Life, First prokaryotic Fossils, Appearance of Gaseous Oxygen, First Eukaryotic Fossils Radioactive Dating: Technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon back to when they were formed. Fossil Records: documents the history of life. Limitations: Habitat bias (certain places fossilize better), Taxonomic bias (certain types fossilize better), Temporal bias, Abundance bias (rare species have low chance of being fossilized) Index Fossils: Fossils used to define and identify geological periods Relative Dating: Science of determining the relative order of past events without necessarily determining their absolute age. Key Events in the History of Life- Continental Drift: The movement of Earth’s continents relative to each other. Stromatolites: a solid structure created by single- celled microbes called cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Cambrian Explosion: Relatively short evolutionary event, beginning around 542 million years ago. This is when most of the major animal phyla appeared, as indicated by the fossil record. Mass Extinction: When more the 50% of earth species becomes extinct. Geologic Eras (Concept): the sum of how members of the species interact with the living parts of their environment. Adaptive Radiation: The rapid formation of many species from a single ancestral species. (ex. formation of exoskeleton) Gene Duplication: HOX genes determine such basic features as where wings and legs will develop on bird or insect. Duplication of these regulatory genes allows more complexity in animal form. Mutation obviously mutates this process. 5 Thursday, February 4, 2016 Chapter 24: Domains of Life: Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Class Species Spontaneous Generation: The idea that certain forms such as fleas could arise from inanimate matter such as dust or that maggots could arise from dead flesh. Prokaryotes: Where are they found? Everywhere Shape: All different kind of shares (circle, long string like, cylinder…) Size: Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells Appearance: Can take up different colors in labs (can be used to detect certain types) Cell Wall: YES Flagella: YES Gram Stains (+ and -) Difference in gram + and gram - bacteria How do they reproduce? Binary Fission: Making a copy of genetic material, splits, and makes 2 identical cells (clones), Evolve by Mutation. Lack of organelles: YES 6 Thursday, February 4, 2016 4 Major modes of nutrition- Phototrophs (get energy from light) Chemotrophs (get energy from chemicals) Autotrophs (Get carbon from CO2) Heterotrophs 9(Get Carbon from source other than CO2) Lateral Gene Transfer- Conjugation: When 2 cells from a thread between them and one shoots DNA to another through the thread. Transformation: When there is a dead bacteria cell, another cell can come and take DNA from the dead cell through its environment Transduction: A Virus can infect a cell and give its DNA o another cell. 7


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