Developmental Psychology- Exam 1 Study Guide
Developmental Psychology- Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 3120
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Highlight = important terms Highlight = important people Highlight = important concepts **Anything bolded is a “vocab term” Chapter 1 1. Know what is meant by: physical development, cognitive development, personality development, and social development • Physical development: development involving the body’s physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, senses, and the need for food, drink and sleep • Cognitive development: development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior • Personality development: development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span • Social development: the way in which individuals’ interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life 2. The Nature vs. nurture controversy • Nature = stability • Nurture = change • Both nature and nurture affect a child and their development - never just one 3. Contexts of development (normative age graded influences, normative socio -cultural influences, history graded influences, non-normative influences) • Normative age graded influences: milestones that happen at particular ages. These a re things that are influenced by biology and therefore happen regardless of where you live o Example: potty training, puberty (e.g., getting your period) • Normative socio-cultural influences: the impact that social and cultural factors may play on development o Example: family structure (economically), hunting, religious activity • History graded influences: development that occurs due to the unique, historical period that the individual was raised in o Example: Great Depression, 9/11 • Non-normative influences: development that is influenced by something that happens to an individual but is something that is “out of the ordinary” - something that doesn’t happen often o Example: someone wins the lottery, sudden death (especially of a parent) 4. Ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner) • Microsystem: the everyday, immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives o Examples: homes, caregivers, friends, teachers • Mesosystem: connections between the various aspects of the microsystem o Examples: binds children to par ents, students to teachers, employees to bosses, friends to friends o Real life instance: a parent has a bad day at the office and then is short -tempered with their child at home • Exosystem: broader influences, encompassing societal institutions such as local government, the community, schools, places of worship, and the local media o Examples: Extended family members, television coming into the home, workplace (do the parents make good money) o Real life instance: the quality of a school will affect a child’s cog nitive development and potentially can have long -term consequences • Macrosystem: the larger cultural influences on an individual o Examples: laws, values, customs o Real life instance: the value a culture or society places on education or the family will affect the values of the people who live in that society • Chronosystem: involves the way the passage of time affect children’s development o In other words, take the entire system and look at it across time 5. Know the following terms: cohort, naturalistic observat ion, case study, correlational study, experimental design, independent variable, and dependent variable • Cohort: a group of people born at around the same time in the same place • Naturalistic observation: a type of correlational study in which some naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention in the situation • Case study: study that involves extensive, in -depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals • Correlational study : a study that seeks to identify whether an a ssociated or relationship between two factors exists o Correlation DOES NOT equal causation • Experimental design: a study designed to discover causal relationships between various factors • Independent variable: the variable that researchers manipulate in an ex periment • Dependent variable: the variable that researchers measure in an experiment and expect to change as a result of the experimental manipulation 6. Know the difference between the designs for measuring developmental change (longitudinal, cross-sectional, and cross-sequential) • Longitudinal: research in which the behavior of one or more participants in a study is measured as they age • Cross-sectional: research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time • Cross-sequential: research in which researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time Chapter 2 1. Define the basic genetic aspects of human development (gene, chromosomes, gametes, zygote) • Gene: a segment of DNA along the length of a chromosome - takes about 100,000 genes to make up one chromosome • Chromosome: found within every nucleus of every cell of the body; help to store and transmit genetic information o 46 chromosomes in the human body (23 pairs) o 22 pairs of matching chromosomes o The 23 pair determines the gender of the embryo • Gamete: sex cells o Female: egg/ovum o Male: sperm • Zygote: first one celled organism that becomes a human o Has all the genetic information it will inherit from the father and mother 2. Know the difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins • Monozygotic (MZ): one zygote that breaks into two o Identical twins • Dizygotic (DZ): two zygotes fertilized by two different sperm o Fraternal twins 3. Know the difference between genotype vs. phenotype; homozygous vs. heterozygous • Genotype: complex blend of information transmitted from the parents to the child o Genetic makeup o You may carry some of the same genetic information as your sibling, even though it is not expressed • Phenotype: what is actually expressed on your body • Homozygous: genes from both parents are alike (PP or pp) • Heterozygous: different genetic traits from either parent (Pp or pP) 4. Know the following genetic disorders: PKU & sickle cell anemia • PKU: inability to neutralize the harmful amino acid phenylalanine o Recessive trait- it has to run on both lines of the family tree • Sickle cell anemia: an individual’s red blood cells are very rigid and unable to move through the body to bring oxygen to all parts of their body o Also a recessive trait 5. Know the stages of prenatal developm ent • Germinal stage (Fertilization to 2 weeks): shortest stage o The zygote’s single cell multiplies to become a blastocyst. This blastocyst then implants itself into the uterine wall and begins to grow more • Embryonic stage (2 weeks to 8 weeks): layers of cells begin to form o Ectoderm: outside layer of cells that forms the skin, hair, teeth, primitive brain and spinal chord o Mesoderm: middle layer of cells that forms muscles, bones and blood o Endoderm: inside layer of cells that forms the digestive tract and resp iratory tract • Fetal stage (8 weeks to birth): rapid increase in size of the fetus o Age of viability is reached meaning the fetus can likely survive (with assistance) if born at this time- this happens between 22 and 24 weeks o Behavioral capacities appear § Nervous system and muscles start to improve § Fetus can coordinate movements § Fetus can hear sounds, although they are muffled 6. Define genetic counselor & teratogen • Genetic counseling: the discipline that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders • Teratogen: environmental agent that produces a birth defect (e.g., alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco) Chapter 3 1. Know key aspects of labor and delivery (e.g., signs preceding labor, stages of labor, appearance and features of the neo nate/newborn) • Stage 1: lasts, on average, 16 to 24 hours (shorter period for subsequent children usually) o Contractions initially occur every 8 to 10 minutes and last between 30 seconds and 2 minutes or so o At transition (the end of stage 1), it’s pretty muc h constant contractions o As contractions increase, the cervix becomes wider, eventually expanding to allow the baby’s head to pass through (usually has to be about 10cm) • Stage 2: lasts, on average, 90 minutes (again, usually shorter time for subsequent children) o “Dramatic” part of labor- where the mother is really baring down and screaming in pain o The baby’s head (the widest part of the body) starts to move through the cervix and birth canal o Ends when the baby is completely out of the mother’s body o Sometimes, an episiotomy occurs (but rarely now) for mothers whose area down there is too small for the baby’s head § An episiotomy is an incision a physician can make (between the vagina and the anus) that will allow the baby’s head to come through • Stage 3: lasts, on average, 5 to 10 minutes o This is the easiest stage - it’s when the mother must push a couple more times so that the umbilical cord and placenta are delivered • Appearance and features of the neonate o Babies are covered in different liquids § Amniotic fluid § Blood § Vernix: thick, greasy substance that helps ease the baby through the birth canal (covers and protects the baby) § Lanugo: very fine hairs that cover the body starting at 20 weeks gestation but is almost completely gone by 40 weeks o The baby may have a bit of a cone-shaped head that is caused by the force of going through the birth canal 2. Know the most common birthing methods (including ‘effects’ of different methods) • In the hospital with a nurse/midwife o Typically, an analgesic or anesthetic is used § Analgesic can dim the pain, but not as much as an epidural would § Most common anesthetic is an epidural but this can create risks for both the mother and infant (temporary paralysis for mother, interference with woman’s ability to push, sleepy newborn) • Lamaze o Makes use of breathing techniques and relaxation training o The goal is to learn how to deal positively with pain and to relax at the onset of a contraction o Self-selection bias • Cesarean (C-section) o Surgical birth used if the fetus is in distress, if there is tw ins, if it’s clear the baby’s head is too big for the mother’s birth canal, or if the fetus is breech o May be done too often o Has disadvantages § Mother’s recovery can be relatively lengthy § Risk of maternal infection is higher § Stress-related hormones that are normally released during a natural birth may not be present to help prepare the neonate to deal with the stress of the world outside the womb § More likely to experience breathing problems • Bradley Method o “Husband-coached childbirth” o Emphasizes that childbirt h should be as natural as possible - no medication or medical interventions • Hypnobirthing o Involves a form of self-hypnosis during delivery that produces a sense of peace and calm • Water Birthing o Not as common in the U.S. o Woman enters a pool of warm water to give birth 3. Know the difference between preterm/small for gestational age/very low birth weight • Preterm infant: infants who are born prior to 38 weeks after conception (also known as premature infants) • Small for gestational age infant: infants who, because of delayed fetal growth, weight 90% (or less) of the average weight of infants of the same gestational age • Very low birth weight infant: infants who weigh less than about 2.25 pounds or, regardless of weight, have been in the womb less than 30 weeks 4. APGAR • APGAR scale is a measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns • A score ranging from 0 to 2 is given for each category • A “good” final score is 7+ • Appearance = color (don’t want the baby to be blue or pale all ov er) • Pulse = heart rate (heart rate greater than 100) • Grimace = reflex irritability (sneezes, coughs, pulls away) • Activity = muscle tone (active movement) • Respiration = respiratory effort (good, crying) Chapter 4 1. Be able to identify the description of a reflex and when they disappear (on average) • Rooting reflex: neonate’s tendency to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek (disappears around 3 weeks) • Stepping reflex: movement of legs when held upright with feet touching the floor (disappears around 2 months) • Swimming reflex: Infant’s tendency to paddle and kick in a sort of swimming motion when lying face down in a body of water (disappears around 4 -6 months) • Moro reflex: activated when support for the neck and head is suddenly removed - the arms are thrust outward and then appear to grasp onto something (disappears around 6 months) • Babinski reflex: an infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke on the outside of its foot (disappears around 8-12 months) • Startle reflex: in response to a sudden noise, the infant flings out its arms, arches its back and spreads its fingers (remains in different form) • Eye-blink reflex: rapid shutting and opening of eye on exposure to direct light (remains) • Sucking reflex: infant’s tendency to suck at things that to uch its lips (remains) • Gag reflex: an infant’s reflex to clear its throat (remains) 2. Know how infant sensory development (smell, touch, vision, taste, hearing) is studied • Smell o Facial expressions o Can recognize mother’s scent o Prefer the scent of a lactati ng woman than a non-lactating woman • Touch o Tested by looking at reflexes, temperature, putting things in their mouth and pain (they can experience pain, even though people thought they couldn’t really in the past) • Vision o Distance vision is 1/10 to 1/3 that of the average adult’s (same degree of distance acuity as the uncorrected vision of many adults who wear glasses or contacts) • Taste o Tested by watching the infant’s facial expressions when they taste something • Hearing o Sound localization- permits us to pinpoint the direction from which a sound is emanating o Sound distinction: can tell distin ction between sounds, like between “ba”, “ga”, and “pa” o Especially like sounds that sound like a human voice 3. Visual cliff • Psychologists Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk • Place infants on a sheet of heavy glass. A check ered pattern appeared under one half of the glass sheet, making it seem that the infant was on a stable floor. However, in the middle of the glass sheet, the pattern dropped down several feet, forming an appent “visual cliff” • The main question: would infants willing crawl across the cliff when called by their mothers 4. Know and distinguish among the 3 basic learning processes in infants: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, habituation • Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response • Operant condition ing: form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences • Habituation: the decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus 5. Principles of Growth • Cephalocaudal principle: the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body • Proximodistal principle: the principle that development proceeds from the center of the body outward • Principle of hierarchial integration: the principle that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later integrated into more complex skills • Principle of the independence of systems : the principle that different body systems grow at different rates 6. Know the research supporting the sensitive periods for brain development (kittens, strabismus) • In one study, young kittens were fitted with goggles that made them only see vertical lines. When the cats grew up and the goggles were removed, they were unable to see horizontal lines, but could see vertical lines perfectly . When the same study is done on older cats, however, this does not happen • Strabismus: an individual has difficulty seeing clearly because one eye can’t focus (a.k.a. “lazy eye) 7. Know the states of arousal, average time spent in each state, and “rhythmicity” • Awake States o Alert: attentive or scanning, the infant’s eyes are open, bright and shining (6.7%) o Nonalert waking: eyes are usually open, but dull and unfocused (2.8%) o Fuss: continuous or intermittent, at low levels (1.8%) o Cry: intense vocalizations occurring singly or in succession (1.7%) • Transition States Between Sleep and Waking o Drowse: eyes are heavy -lidded, but opening and closing slowly (4.4%) o Daze: open, but glassy and immobile eyes. State occurs between episodes of alert and drowse (1.0%) o Sleep-wake transition: behaviors of both wakefulness and sleep are evident; when the infant is waking up (1.3%) • Sleep States o Active sleep: eyes closed; uneven breathing; REM (50.3%) o Quiet sleep: eyes closed; slow and regular breathing (28.1%) • Transitional Sleep States o Active-Quiet transition sleep: occurs between periods of active and quiet sleep; eyes are closed and little motor activity (1.9%) 8. Development of the Nervous System • Neuron: a nerve cell that stores and transmits information; increase in size after birth o Die over time if they’re not used/stimulated o Infants are born with a large number of them - born with more than they actually need • Myelin (fatty sheath): covers the neurons and improves the efficiency of message transfer o Believed this is related to us forming memories • Cortex: part of the brain where all this takes place • By the age of 2, the brain is 70% of its adult weight • Synaptic pruning: the elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation (“use it or lose it”) o Allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons • Plasticity: the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience o Interaction between nature and nurture o The brain is able to accommodate your whole life, but is best in infancy o Neuroplasticity allows for: learning memory, recovery from physical trauma • Infant’s sensory experiences affect both the size of individual neurons and the structure of their interconnections 9. Know the Milestones of Motor Development • 3.2 months: rolling over • 3.3 months: grasping rattle • 5.9 months: sitting without support • 7.2 months: standing while holding on • 8.2 months: grasping with thumb and finger • 11.5 months: standing alo ne well • 12.3 months: walking well • 14.8 months: building tower of two cubes • 16.6 months: walking up steps • 23.8 months: jumping in place Chapter 5 1. Be able to recognize the developmental sequence of Piaget’s cognitive stages • I am unsure what she means by this statement, but I will include it in the final notes uploaded on Tuesday afternoon 2. Assimilation vs. Accommodation • Assimilation: the process by which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking o Example: an infant who tries to suck on any toy in the same way is assimilating the objects to her existing sucking scheme • Accommodation: changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events o Example: when a child sees a flying squirrel and calls it “a bird with a tail” 3. Know the Substages of the sensorimotor period • Substage 1 (first month of life) o Simple reflexes are at the center of the infant’s cognitive life o Example: sucking reflex causes the inf ant to suck at anything placed in its lips • Substage 2 (1-4 months) o Primary circular reactions: infants repeat actions that are interesting or enjoyable to them that focus on their own body o Infant begins to vary actions/anticipate events § Example: a baby might open their mouth differently for a bottle than for being breastfed o Around 3 months of age, they’ll stop crying when mom walks in the room because they know the parent is coming to take care of them • Substage 3 (4-8 months) o Secondary circular reactions: infants repeat actions that bring about desirable consequences (they are interested in the environment around them) o Environment focus- they try to grasp at objects or just track things in the environment; they also start to imitate sounds they hear people m aking o Example: child who repeatedly picks up a rattle and shakes it in different ways to see how the sound changes • Substage 4 (8-12 months) o Coordination- infants combine different actions together o Goal directed behavior and object permanence § Example: if you show a baby an attractive toy then hide it, they’d try to push the blanket or whatever out of the way to get to that toy § Object permanence: the realization that people and objects still exist even when they can’t be seen • Substage 5 (12-18 months) o Tertiary circular reactions: infants deliberately vary their actions that bring about desirable consequences; almost like they’re putting on mini -experiments to figure out how things happen/behave in the natural world o Example: a child will throw different toys down the stairs to see what sound they make and where they land • Substage 6 (18 months-2 years) o Thinking out actions before they do them o Problem solve symbolically o Deferred imitation: if a child sees something and it’s novel them, they will do it later o Functional play: first type of play that happens § Example: using blocks to make a tower o Make-believe play: for example, making a “train” out of blocks and saying “choo-choo” while pushing the block train 4. Know the criticisms of Jean Piaget’s theory • Underestimated abilities (he based everything off only what he could see with his own eyes, so he couldn’t use computers/technology to see other things) o Object permanence can occur at a much younger age (even at 3.5 months, infants can have some understanding of it) o Development is more continuous - happens in “waves” rather than stages o Deferred imitation o Motor behavior not important for development 5. Know the following: Scheme, Object permanence, and Deferred imitation • Scheme: an organized pattern of functioning that adapts and changes with mental development • Object permanence: the realization that people and objects still exist even when they can’t be seen • Deferred imitation: an act in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a simi lar act 6. Know what the Bayley measures (recognize an example of a Bayley item) • Bayley Scales of Infant Development: a measure that evaluates an infant’s development from 2 to 42 months in two areas: mental and motor abilities • Bayley items: cup with a han dle, book, crayons, pictures (look on page 157 of text for more examples) 7. Know the Milestones/Sequence of Language Development • Prelinguistic communication: communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation and other nonlinguistic mea ns (pointing at something and making noise) • Cooing: starts around 2 months of age (making vowel sounds) • Babbling: starts around 6 months of age (making vowel and consonant sounds) 8. Know early language -related abilities & evidence for when language acquisition starts • I am unsure what she means by this statement, but I will include it in the final notes uploaded on Tuesday afternoon 9. Learning vs. Nativist (Chomsky) theories of language development (know support and criticisms too) • Learning theory: language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning o Criticism: doesn’t explain how children acquire the rules of language as readily as they do • Nativist (Chomsky) theory: theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development o Criticisms: § There’s not one single “grammar” system for all languages § Takes a lifetime to learn grammar - if we’re pre-wired, why does it take so long? § If it’s supposed to be a “human” thing, how can primates learn basic languages Chapter 6 1. Know the following: Social referencing, Self -awareness, Stranger anxiety, Attachment, Temperament • Social referencing: the intentional search for information about others ’ feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events • Self-awareness: knowledge of oneself • Stranger anxiety: the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs • Attachment: the positive emotional bond that develops between and child and a particular individual • Temperament: patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual 2. Be familiar with the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test and her attachment categories • Strange Situation steps o Mother and baby enter an unfamiliar room o Baby explores the room o Stranger enters room and interacts with the mother and child o Mother leaves baby with strange o Mother returns and stranger leaves o Mother leaves baby alone o Stranger returns o Mother returns and stranger leaves • Attachment categories o Secure attachment: children use the mother as a kind of home base and are at ease when she is present; when she leaves, they become upset and go to her as soon as she returns (about 66% of children) o Avoidant attachment: children do not seek proximity to the mother; after the mother has left, they seem to avoid her when she returns as if they are angered by her behavior (about 20% of children) o Ambivalent attachment: children display a combination of positive and negative reactions to their mothers; they show great distress when the mother leaves, but upon her return they may simultaneously seek close contact but also hit and kick her (about 10% of children) 3. Know the conclusion of Harry Harlow’s surrogate mother research • Surrogate mothers o Wire- “mother” made of wire but that provided food o Cloth- “mother” made of cloth but provided no food • The monkeys spent much more time with the cloth mothe r and only went to the wire mother when driven by extreme hunger. They’d eat and then immediately go back to the cloth mother 4. Know the temperament types • Easy babies: babies who have a positive disposition; their body functions operate regularly and they are adaptable (about 40% of children) • Difficult babies: babies who have negative moods and are slow to adapt to new situations; when confronted with a new situation, they tend to withdraw (about 10% of children) • Slow-to-warm babies: babies who are inactive, showing relatively calm reactions to their environment; their moods are generally negative and th ey withdraw from new situations, adapting slowly (about 15% of children) 5. Gender differences (mothers vs. fathers) in interactional style with infants • When in unusually stressful circumstances, most infants prefer to be soothed by their mother rather than their father • Mothers spend a greater proportion of their time feeding and directly nurturing their children • Fathers spend more time playing with infants (proportionally) o Fathers’ play with their babies differently than mothers o Fathers engage in more physical, rough -and-tumble activities where as mothers play traditional games such as peek -a-boo and games with more verbal elements
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