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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Courtney Elliott

Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 4540

Courtney Elliott

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These are all the notes/things that will be on the first exam.
Counseling Psychology
Dr. Currence
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Elliott on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 4540 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Currence in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Counseling Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
History of Counseling -Development of Psychology based on: 1. Psychology is being recognized as an independent discipline in academic settings 2. Inability of other professions to deal with the mentally ill -Until mid 19th century… • Mentally ill people were viewed as possessed by “demons”: shunned or locked up in asylums for the “insane”, these were usually permanent and inhumane 3. Education and Career Directly related to psychometrics movement (measuring individual differences) • • Vocational Guidance Movement -Frank Parsons (1909)- book on choosing a vocation: knowledge about oneself, knowledge about the world of work, a process of “true reasoning” to “match” the two- incorporated the psychological tradition of including information on aptitudes, abilities and interests -Career or Vocational Psychology Grew during the depression • • Occupational titles to help people with this person-environment match • World War 2 -Matching model to place results in specialities which maximized the use of their abilities 4. Brief Interactions E.G Williamson (1930s) • -counseling on college campuses -led to development of university counseling centers -these were especially needed with the large numbers of veterans returning to college with the GI bill • Carl Rogers (1951) -created client-centered counseling book aka “person-centered therapy” -his theory helped shift focus from diagnosis and labeling to counseling and psychotherapy -his theory focused on the authentic interactions of 2 equal people, one the counselor and the other the client -shifted focus from medical model 5. Intact Personalities -Developmental stage models inspired attention to normal developmental stages that we all go through-this is the opposite of a focus on pathology -Stages in the Development of Counseling Psychology • 1940’s -Impact of WW2=realization that we needed both a science and a practice of the treatment of basically “normal” people with problems we all face -Division of Counseling and Guidance- new division of APA -counseling wanted connection to empirical traditions of psychology -psychology wanted to fill vacuum of study and treatment of normal personality functioning • 1950s -Northwestern Conference (1951)= prepared definitions of roles and functions of counseling psychologists -Utilization of psychotropic medications began in 1952 with meds for schizophrenia- leads to deinstitutionalization of many formerly hospitalized patients • 1980s -First handbook of Counseling Psychology -Began to look at new research methodologists -Georgia Conference (1987)= positive mental health/strength approach, promotion of mental health at all levels across lifespan, importance of cultural variables, emphasis on all 3: prevention, educative and remediation • 1990s -Now complete acceptance of importance of diversity of profession -Emergence of managed care issues -Increasing utilization of psychotropic medications • Continuities in the 2000s -Scientist-Practitoner Model=graduate students in counseling psychology must master both research methods and psychological treatment -Diversity of Clientele=we are the most broadly focused division in terms of diversity, regarding gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age and disability -Diversity of Practice=we have a wide array of choices regarding where/how we practice • New Challenge= globalization of counseling psychology (ICD10-international coding system) The Counseling Process Psychotherapy=any type of counseling based on the exchange of words in the context of the relationship between a mental health professional and a person seeking help, strives to influence thoughts, behavior, emotions and attitudes -Common Factors in Counseling • Theory often does not express importance of these common factors, but research supports the central importance of these 1. Positive expectations of the client (belief he/she will be helped) 2. The quality of the relationship between client and therapist • Counselor Common Factors 1. Able to establish good relationship with client (trust) 2. Skill 3.Belief in what he/she is doing 4.Genuinely likes people (positive regard) 5. Hope 6. Empathy= understand and approach therapy from clients world view • Client Common Factors 1. Subjective Distress 2. Willingness to work 3. Client himself/herself seeks help • Common Change Process -Emotional “catharsis” -Being taught and practicing new behaviors -Getting the benefit of someone else’s perspective -Counseling Theories • A theory provides 3 major things 1. A particular view of people and of what healthy functioning is/means (defining health) 2. A set of hypotheses about where we go wrong (the source of our problems- defining dysfunction) 3. Specific set of treatments= systemic desensitization (behavioral technique that taps into dysfunction) • Major Theories are: 1. Psychoanalytic 2. Behavioral 3. Cognitive/ Cognitive-Behavioral 4. Humanistic/Experiential 5. Career theories for cases when some attention to educational and career decisions is needed 6. Eclectic or Integrative- using techniques from a variety of theories based off the situation - Stages of Counseling 1. Relationship building 2. Assessment and diagnosis 3. Formulation of goals for counseling 4. Intervention and problem solving 5. Termination and follow up 6. Research and evaluation • Some of these stages are happening simultaneously and within a sub-cycle -The Therapeutic Relationship • Role of importance depends on theoretical orientation Can be seen in 3 ways • 1. As a prediction for counseling (behavioral and cognitive approaches) 2. As an essential process which can itself produce change (experiential) 3. As content for therapy itself (psychodynamic) • Necessary and sufficient conditions -2 people are in contact -client is in pain or incongruent -therapist is health or congruent -the therapist provides: 1.unconditional positive regard 2.empathy 3.genuine -Empathic Understanding= basically refers to therapists natural sensitivity to others thoughts and feelings (a really sincere attempt to put yourself in that person’s experiential world) • Subtractive empathy=counselor missed the boat all together ex= “why don’t you just tell him that nobody’s perfect and to get off you back” • Reciprocal Empathy=counselor responds at the same level of feeling as the client has expressed- this level of empathy helps to build the CO/CL relationship ex=“you want to please you boss but are discouraged about being able too, you are concerned that he isn’t satisfied with your performance” • Additive Empathy=goes a bit farther and facilitates client growth and forward movement ex=“you seem overwhelmed with the futility of trying to please him, I wonder if you’re afraid that your job may be in jeopardy” -Other facilitative conditions • Respect=focusing on the positive attributes of the client • Immediacy=communication in the here and now • Confrontation=pointing out inconsistencies between different aspects of behavior • Concreteness=focus on specific behaviors Self-disclosure=sharing of oneself (general rule is not to do this) • -Values in Counseling • Counseling is not value-free • Models of mental health are not value free • Many decisional problems involve serious value dilemmas -The Building Blocks of Counseling 1. A successful relationship between client and therapist 2. Theories of therapy which provide means of getting from the problems to the solutions, while fostering personal growth and better life functioning for the client 3. Overlaid by value systems of individuals, cultures or groups and societies Ethics -APA Ethical Code • Applies to all professional roles of a psychologist- counselor, teacher and researcher • General Ethical Principles 1. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence= rule of try to help (beneficence) and at least “do no harm” (nonmaleficence) -We are always aware and make a priority the welfare of both human and animal participants in our counseling, research or testing 2. Fidelity and Responsibility -Our colleagues can trust and count on us -We are concerned about the ethical compliance of others in our field -We have an obligation to give back and often this is “pro-bono” services 3. Integrity= truthfulness and honesty (doing what’s right, not what’s easy) 4. Justice= respect and caring for all people and recognition of the barriers and oppressions facing some people 5. Respect for people’s right and dignity -Ethical Standards 1.Ethical Conflicts 2.Dual Relationships= you should not counsel your friends anymore than physicians should treat other friends and family • Absolutely NO sexual intimacies with current patients • None with relatives or significant others of current clients Do not accept clients whom they have had sex with in past • 3.Bounds of Competence • Psychologists engage in continuing education, especially in the area of ethics • An impaired psychologist must stop seeing clients until he/she resolves the impairment • Multicultural/Cultural Competence=all APA approved graduate programs now require training in multicultural counseling issues 4.Privacy and Confidentiality= psychologists do their best to maintain confidentiality and let their clients know the limits of that confidentiality, release information only to those with a legal right to it or with the consent of the client • Tarasoff Decision= protective privilege ends where the public peril begins- “duty to warn” • Child abuse= must be reported in every state, though laws vary on whether or not a perp must be reported if the child is not judged in physical danger 5.Advertising and other public statements • Psychologists do not use testimonials or advertise on T.V etc. 6.Record keeping and fees • No rebates for referrals of service • No waiving of copayment (insurance fraud) • Can set up sliding scales for poorer or uninsured clients and many view this as an obligation similar to pro bono services 7.Informed Consent • Client has right to know how you practice, statement about your ethical code and fee schedule 8.Education and Training 9.Testing • Counselors terminate therapy when it becomes reasonably clear that the client no longer needs the service, is not likely to further benefit, or is likely to be named by the service • Counselors may terminate therapy if there feel threatened or endangered by either the client or a significant other of the client 10.Therapy • Tests should be shown to be valid with the population you’re using it on • Psychologists do no make protected tests available to the general public • There should be truth in interpretation • Levels of test use (can only give assessments based on education) Psychological Assessment -Individual Uses= in counseling, testing helps individuals understand themselves • Make better decisions about education • Careers • Personal Adjustment • Relationships -Institutional Decisions= for the benefit of the institution or organization (in reality, may also help the individual) • Profit Effective use of resources • • Selection of training programs • Placement within a system (ex-military) -Uses: Diagnosis • Diagnosis of psychological problems or psychopathology (MMPI) • Medication for bipolar disease vs. unipolar depression • Treatment program for a disturbed vet in the VA hospital system Screening those with violent personalities from our police forces, releasing violent • offenders from prison • Identifying a suicidal college student living in the residence halls -Uses: Research= tests and scales are the basis of research on personality and behavior • Career development • Social development Relationship of personality to healthy functioning • • Outcomes of psychotherapy -Inventory=means a collection of scales (like the “Strong Interest Inventory” or the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory) -Battery= often used to mean a collection of inventories/tests (ADHD testing) -Psychometric Quality as indicated by APA Test Standards • Evidence for reliability-the scale measuring something in a repeatable, consistent way -one index is “internal consistency” or homogeneity- do all the items measure the same underlying dimension? • Evidence for validity-the scale measuring what we think it measures/what we want it to measure -Content Validity= is item content rationally related to what we are measuring? -Construct Validity= does the test measure the theoretical construct we say it does? -Criterion-related (predictive) validity= does the test predict what it is supposed to/ being used to predict? • A manual (consistency) • Norms for any use intended (ex-age, gender etc.) -Types of Psychological Measures • Intelligence and Aptitude- WAIS-R -Yields a verbal IQ, a performance IQ and a full scale IQ Vocational Interest- Strong Interest Inventory • • Personality (objective)- Myers Briggs Type Indicator (for use with “normal” people), MMPI-2 (for use in diagnosing psychological problems) -lists of questions to which one gives agree/disagree or true/false responses -numerical scores are obtained from counting “keyed” responses -the same response pattern always gets the same score Personality (subjective)- Rorschach • -requires a higher level of expertise • Values- Work Values Inventory -DSM-V= major basis for the insurability of psychological treatment • Practitioners must give a DSM code for insurance purposes October 1, 2015- moves to ICD-10 codes • -Other uses of assessment • Used to evaluate the effectiveness of frug treatments • Used to evaluate competency to stand trial • Used in prisons to evaluate whether they can be left with other inmates or suicide risk or readiness of violent offenders for release -Use in legal settings • Fitness for adoption/duty • Disability hearings • Wrongful injury suits Which parent is fit/more fit to parent • -Behavioral and Symptoms Checklists • A whole variety of measures which assess actual behavior in different domains • Can be checklists or indication of probability of behavioral responding in a given way • Eating disorders, substance abuse, marital and social interactions etc. Generally about categorization and severity •


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