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BIOL 1100 Study Guide

by: Angelica Reed

BIOL 1100 Study Guide BIOL 1100

Angelica Reed

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These notes cover most of what will be on the exam. IT IS NOT EVERYTHING but I did my best to formulate everything you will need. I really hope this helps you! Best, Angelica Nancy Reed
Principles of Biology
Dr. Voytek
Study Guide
BIOL, BIOL 1100, Biology, Principles of biology
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angelica Reed on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1100 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Voytek in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biological Sciences at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter One  Study Tips: o Flash Cards. o Writing down notes (after typing) o Listening to background noise o Outline material o Repetition o Gamma and beta waves o Color coding o Talking it out o Study Groups o Study then speak o Voice Memo  Energy: we all use energy  Cells: Made of membrane bound cells  Information: We all process genes and information from the environment/ Genetics  Replication: Reproduction  Evolution: Populations are always evolving  Leeuwenhoek Built small powerful microscope  Theory: An explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations that are supported by a wide body of evidence: We see something happen over and over again and so we form theories. o Pattern: Something that occurs in the natural world o Process: Responsible for creating the pattern  THEORY WILL BE ON TEST= GO TO BACK OF CHAPTER AND READ QUESTIONS ON THEORY  Robert Hooke and Leeuwenhoek were the first to see cells  Cell: Bounded by a plasma membrane/ Contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution  Cell Theory: All organisms are made of cells (pattern)/ All cells come from preexisting cells (process)  Hypothesis: A testable statement that explains something observed  Prediction: Is measurable or observable result that must be correct if a hypothesis is valid  Louis Pasteur’s hypothesis: Cells arise from cells/ cells do not arise b spontaneous generation  Scientists to remember: o Hook/ Leeuwenhoek: The first to see cells o Pasteur: Made the experiment with the flask and the broth that proved that all cells arise from cells. Cells do not arise spontaneously. o Darwin and Wallace: All species have a common ancestor and characteristics are changed from generation to generation. o Schleidan: Plants have cells o Schwann: Animals have cells (it’s that simple;They are also responsible for developing the cell theory! o And lastly… o Virchow: All cells come from pre-existing cells  Charts from the powerpoint to memorize:   This brings us to cells!   Remember these four things that all cells have. Think of the acronym NPPC (I think of “Not Putting Pee in a Cup” XD ) o N: Nucleic acids that store and send information o P: Plasma membrane that is selectively permeable o P: Proteins that perform most of the cell’s processes o C: Carbohydrates that store chemical energy, involve carbon, and support the cell  The three tenants (or pillars) of cell theory: o All living organisms are composed of one or more cells o The cell is the most basic unit of life o All cells come from cells that are LIVING  A word of advice: If you get confused between which type of cell has a nucleus, remember the pronoun “pro-“ means before. The reason prokaryotes are the cells without the nucleus is because they came BEFORE eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are more advanced and actually have a nucleus.  Hope this helps!   Here’s Pasteur’s Experiment in case you forgot:  Know chart on powerpoint slides= first three columns  Atoms are composed of o Protons- positively charged particles o Neutrons- neutral particles o Electrons- negatively charged particles  Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus  Electrons are found in orbitals surrounding the nucleus  Atoms are defined by their number of protons. Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus. o Atomic Number= # of protons. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number. o Atoms without charge have the same number of protons as neutrons.  Universal Notation: o A over z of x  A= mass number (protons + neutrons)  Z= number of protons  X= symbol of element or isotope  Isotopes: o All isotopes of an element are chemically identical  Undergo the exact same chemical reactions o All isotopes of an element have the same number of protons o Isotopes of an element have different atomic masses o Isotopes of an element have different number of neutrons o Isotopes are identified by their atomic mass or mass number which is calculated by adding protons and neutrons  Electrons: o Electrons move around atomic nuclei in specific regions called orbitals  Each orbital can hold up to two electrons  Orbitals are grouped into levels called electron shells o Electron shells are numbered 1,2,3 and so on  Numbers indicate their relative distance from the nucleus  Smaller numbers are closer to the nucleus o Each electron shell contains a specific number of orbitals  An electron shell comprising a single orbital can hold up to two electrons  A shell with four orbitals can contain up to eight electrons o The electrons of an atom fill the innermost shells first, then fill the outer shells  Covalent vs. Ionic o Chemical bonds are formed when atoms either transfer or share valence electrons to attain stability  Covalent bond  Each atom’s unpaired valence electrons are shared by both nuclei to fill their orbitals  Often called a molecule  Ionic bond  Electron are transferred from one atom to another  Polar bonds and Electronegativity (EN) o The bonding between atoms can be viewed as a range of electron sharing (from equally sharing electrons to complete transfer of electrons) the amount of sharing is measured by electronegative differences (EN) between atoms o A polar molecule is one with polar bonds that when added together do not cancel each other. This leaves a permanent net dipole moment (one side is positive and the other is negative)  Pure (nonpolar) covalent bond: electrons shared equally  Polar covalent bond: electrons shared unequally  Ionic bond: electron transferred  Ion: an atom or molecule that carries a charge  Cation: an atom that loses an electron and becomes positively charged  Anion: an atom that gains an electron and becomes negatively charged  Ionic bond: The resulting attraction between oppositely charged ions  The degree to which electrons are shared in chemical bonds forms a continuum o From equal sharing in nonpolar covalent bonds o To unequal sharing in polar covalent bonds o To the complete transfer of electrons in ionic bonds  Chemical reactions occur when o One substance is combined with another  Atoms are rearranged in molecules  Or small molecules combine to form larger molecules o One substance is broken down into another substance  In most chemical reactions o Chemical bonds are broken and new bonds form o This event is called a coupled reaction  Chemical Reactions have reactants and products  Chemical equilibrium occurs o When the forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate o The quantities of reactants and products remain constant  Endothermic reactions must absorb heat to proceed  Exothermic reactions release heat  Chemical reactions are spontaneous if o They proceed without any continuous external influence o No added energy is needed  Spontaneity of a reaction is determined by two factors: o The amount of potential energy  Products have less potential energy than the reactants o The degree of order  Products are less ordered than the reactants o Physical and chemical processes proceed I the direction that results in lower potential energy and increased disorder  The Chemical Evolution Theory: The leading scientific explanation or the origin of life o Pattern:  In addition to small molecules, complex carbon-containing substances exist and are required for life o Process  Early in Earth’s history, simple chemical compounds combined to form morecomplex carbon-containing substances before the evolution of life o Chemical evolution may have begun in one of these environments  The Atmosphere:  The dominant gases ejected by volcanoes today  Water vapor  Carbon dioxide  Nitrogen  Molecular hydrogen  Carbon monoxide  Deep-Sea Vents  Extremely hot  Gases such as CO2 and H2 o Reactive metals such as nickel and iron (may have been present)  Models of chemical Evolution: o Prebiotic soup model proposes that:  Certain Molecules were synthesized from gases in the atmosphere or arrived via meteorites  Then condensed with rain and accumulated in ovens  Would result in an “organic soup” that allowed for continued construction of larger, even more complex molecules o Surface metabolism model suggests that  Dissolved gases came In contact with minerals lining the walls of deep-sea vents  Formed more complex, organic molecules o Stanley Miller wanted to answer a simple question:  Can complex organic compounds be synthesized from the simple molecules present in Earth’s early atmosphere?  Put another way, is it possible to re-create the first steps in chemical evolution by simulating early-Earth conditions in the laboratory?  Carbon is the most versatile atom on Earth o Because of its four valence electrons o Because it can form many covalent bonds  Carbon-containing molecules can form o An almost limitless array of molecular shapes o different combinations of single and double bonds  The formation of carbon-carbon bonds was an important event in chemical evolution  Water o Life is based on water because water is a great solvent  A solvent is any liquid in which one or more solids or gases can dissolve o The structure of water makes it the universal solvent  The covalent bonds in water are polar, because oxygen has a greater electronegativity than hydrogen  Oxygen has a partial negative charge  Hydrogen has a partial positive charge o Characteristic feature called Hydrogen bonds  Are the weak electrical attractions between the partially negative oxygen of one water molecule  And the partially positive hydrogen of a different water molecule  They can also form between a water molecule and any other polar molecule  Hydrophilic atoms and molecules o Are ions and polar molecules that stay in solution o They are attracted to water’s partial charges  Hydrogen bonding makes it possible for almost any charged or polar molecule to dissolve in water  Hydrophobic molecules o Are uncharged and nonpolar compounds o They do not dissolve in water  Water is unique due to its structure o Small size o Bent shape o Highly polar covalent bonds o Overall polarity  Water also has several remarkable properties largely due to its ability to form hydrogen bonds, including being: o Cohesive o Adhesive o Denser as a liquid than a solid o Able to absorb large amounts of energy  Cohesion o Binding between like molecules o Binding to itself o Results in high surface tension  Adhesion o Binding between unlike molecules o Binding to plastic or epithelial layers  Denser as a liquid than a solid o Water expands as it changes from a liquid to a solid  That is why ice floats  Able to absorb large amounts of energy o Water has an extraordinary large capacity for absorbing heat  High specific heat  High heat of vaporization   Dehydration reaction o Carboxyl is always joined to an amino end= water o Peptide bond: forms a peptide bond  Know all of the characteristics of proteins  Modern life arose through a series of endergonic (endothermic) chemical reactions o This led to the production of organic compounds, which then led to mid-sized molecules (amino acids, simple sugars), remember that these compounds mixed together in the ocean to have a prebiotic soup! These mid-sized molecules then led to even larger molecules (proteins, complex carbohydrates). o THEN… o Life became possible when one of these large molecules self- replicated  All proteins are made from  Just 20 Amino acids o Amino acids have a central carbon atom that bonds to  An amino functional group, a carboxyl functional group, and a variable side chain (R-Group) o In water (pH 7), the amino and carboxyl groups ionize NH3 ion and COO ion respectively  This helps amino acids stay in solution and makes them more reactive  The 20 amino acids differ only  In the unique R-group attached to the central carbon o The properties of amino acids vary o Amino acid side chains distinguish the different amino acids and can be grouped into four general types  Acidic  Basic  Uncharged polar  Nonpolar o Determine the amino acid type by asking three questions  Does the side chain have a negative charge? o If so, has lost a proton so it must be acidic  Does the side chain have a positive charge o If so, it htaken on a proton , so it must be basic  If the side chain is uncharged, does it have an oxygen atom? o If so, the highly electronegative oxygen will result in a polar covalent bond and that is uncharged polar  If the answers to all three questions are no o Then you are looking at a nonpolar amino acid  Monomers form polymers through condensation (loss of water). And gain water when they brake up (hydrolysis).  Primary: o The amino acid sequence chain. IT’S LINEAR.  Secondary: o Alpha helix  Looks like a single strand of a double helix o Beta-plated sheet  Pleated like it’s been folded up and then unfolded o These denature  Tertiary: o Protein is globular (The secondary structure folds in on itself) o Protecting the hydrophobic interior with hydrophilic exterior o These denature  Quatenary o 2 or more tertiary structures put together. These are functional. They denature.  Proteins are linked together by a peptide bond!! Peptide bonds are incredibly strong.   Lipids make up the plasma membrane o Fatty acids and isoprene make up lipids o Fatty acids are unsaturated and saturated  Unsaturated is better for you because of its double bonds which carry les hydrogens  Saturated fats are solid at room temperature but unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.  3 types of lipids that are found in cells o Fats (also called triglyceride) o Steroids o Phospholipids: made up of phosphate, glycerol, and a polar head in the hydrophilic and then the fatty acid in the tail end (hydrophobic). Smaller molecules go through easier than a large polar molecule.  Things that affect permeability: Tail length, cholesterol, temp., and saturation o All three of these are insoluble  Micelles: makes a circle of phospholipids  Amphoteric: acts as both acid and base  Buffers: solutions that resist changes in pH: made if weak acid and conjugate base  Lipids contain carbon o Lipid bilayers are only moderately permeable to glucose   Plants have cellulous, Animals have the extra-cellular matrix= collagen. Collagen is more flexible and elastic than the cellulous.  The extracellular matrix in plant cells is actually directly connected to the cytoskeleton.  Animal extracellular matrix o Actin filaments are closer to the inside of the cell  Actin-integrin-laminin-proteoglycans-collagen  How do adjacent cells connect? o Multi cellular organisms stick together and have similar structures through which they can communicate. o Plant cells: middle lamella= the space where plant cells stick together. It is NOT just an empty space. The gap junction is called the plamadesmota  Plasmadesmota: There’s a hole in the cell wall through which the smooth er connect. o Animal cells:  Tight Junctions: stitch cells together  Specialized integral proteins that make the cell water tight: different proteins for each organ.  Desmosomes: connect cytoskeletal structures to each other.  Intermediate filaments on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and the outer surface that are integral proteins links together that anchor (anchor proteins) Also selective to tissue type   Gap Junctions  Gap junctions on each cell connect and form channels for cell signals  How distant cells communicate: o Plant cells  Symplast: share cytoplasm  Apoplast: extra cellular space= cell wall connection through the lamella o Animal cells  Hormone: Hormone goes directly into blood and then goes to where there’s a receptor for it  Lipid soluble  Signal reception: hormone travels in blood to correct receptor o Hormones go easily through the plamsma membrane to receptors INSIDE the cell and then goes to target DNA  Lipid insoluble o Signal geths through cell through protein and then replicates through the cell and goes to target gene DNA  DO NOT MEMORIZE CHART  NOTE: I did not write about slides 22-27 because I thought that there wasn’t much else to say. Best of luck!


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