Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 2010
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Psychology o Involves the study of mental activity and behavior Wundt o Founded modern experimental psychology o He realized actions in the brain take time to occur, used reaction time to assess how quickly people can respond to events Roots of Psychology o The field of psychology emerged as a scientific discipline in the 19th century, but its roots go back to ancient philosophy Structuralism o An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components Functionalism o An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behavior Introspection o A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts Titchener o Introspection o First attempt to scientifically study the mind James o First to study memory Distinguish between short and long term o In theorizing about how mind works, moved psychology beyond structuralism and into functionalism o Stream of consciousness Freud o The father of psychoanalytic theory; his work influenced modern psychology in the 20th century o Study people from negative perspective o Says what is wrong and how to fix it o Explain hysteric behavior/symptoms Childhood experience Sexual urges Unconscious mind o No way to verify what he is saying b/c he is last to decide what is happening in unconscious mind Unconscious o The place where mental processes operate below the level of conscious awareness Psychoanalytic Theory o Theory of personality and treatment Watson o Developed and promoted behaviorism Behaviorism o A psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behavior Behavior o Describes the totality of observable human (or animal) actions Skinner o Known for behaviorism and casinos Maslow o Known for focus in humanism Clinical Psychology o Factors that cause psychological disorders and the methods best used to treat them Cognition the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses Empiricism the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience Pavlov o Popularized behaviorism Humanism any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominates Rogers o Focused on humanism and the positive potential of human being Piaget o Introduced the idea that cognitive development occurs in stages Neuroscience o The study of the working brain as it performs its vital psychological functions Dualism o The idea that the mind and the body are separate yet intertwined Descartes o Promoted the influential theory of dualism o He argued that the body was nothing more than an organic machine governed by reflex Phrenology the detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities Franz Gall o Known for the development of phrenology Chapter 2 Steps in Scientific Investigation 1. Formulate Hypothesis 2. Select Research Method and Design the Study 3. Collect Data 4. Analyze Data and Draw Conclusions 5. Report Findings Testable Hypothesis o A specific, testable prediction, narrower than theory it is based on Operational Definition o A definition that qualifies (describes) and quantifies (measures) a variable so the variable can be understood objectively Study Design o specific plan or protocol for conducting the study, which allows the investigator to translate the conceptual hypothesis into an operational one Descriptive Study o Any study that is not truly experimental Correlational Study o A research method that describes and predicts how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them Experiment o A research method that tests causal hypotheses by manipulating and measuring variables Experimental Group o The participants in an experiment who receive the treatment Control Group o The participants in an experiment who receive no intervention or who receive an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated Independent Variable o The variable that gets manipulated in a research study Dependent Variable o The variable that gets measured in a research study Extraneous Variables o undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the variables that an experimenter is examining Avoiding Bias o Sample Individuals selected to participate in an experiment o Biased sample > Biased Results o Random Samples Any person in population has equal chance of being selected as any other person Assumption: Sample represents population o Random Assignment Any person in sample has equal chance of being assigned to control or experimental group o Expectancy Effects Observer expectancy Researcher influences subject Subject expectancy Subject responds in way they think researcher wants them to respond Random Assignment o Placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable Random Sample o A sample that represents the population; this method gives each member of the population an equal chance of being chosen to participate Blind Study o A study done in such a way that the patients or subjects do not know (is blinded as to) what treatment they are receiving to ensure that the results are not affected by a placebo effect (the power of suggestion) Double Blind Study o of or relating to an experiment or clinical trial in which neither the subjects nor the researchers know which subjects are receiving the active medication, treatment, etc., and which are not: a technique for eliminating subjective bias from the test result Bias vs. Error o cause to feel or show inclination or prejudice for or against someone or something versus a deviation from accuracy or correctness Third Variable Problem o A problem that occurs when the researcher cannot directly manipulate variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the variables of interest Subject Expectancy o Subject responds in way they think researcher wants them to respond Observer Expectancy o Researcher influences subject Naturalistic Observation o A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, separated from the situation and making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior Case Study o A descriptive research method that involves the intensive examination of an unusual person or organization Data Collection o process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion Methods o a particular form of procedure for accomplishing or approaching something, especially a systematic or established one Observation o the action or process of observing something or someone carefully or in order to gain information Self-Report o Methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in surveys or questionnaires Descriptive Statistics o Statistics that summarize the data collected in a study Central Tendency o A measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole Mean o A measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers Median o A measure of the central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers that falls exactly halfway between the lowest and highest values Mode o A measure of central tendency that is the most frequent number score or value in a set of numbers Variability o In a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and from the mean Standard Deviation o A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on average, from the mean Correlation Coefficient o A descriptive statistic that indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables Causation o The act of causing something Inferential Statistics o A set of assumptions and procedures used to evaluate the likelihood that an observed effect is present in the population from which the sample was drawn Statistical Significance o Generally .05 or .01 o Less than a 5% (or 1%) chance that observed due to chance Replication o Repetition of a research study to confirm the results Placebo o a harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for the psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect Deception o The act of making someone believe something that is not true Ethics o moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior Normal Distribution o Measure of central tendency and variability Chapter 3 Localization of Function o Specific parts of the brain have specific function Phineas Gage o Learn about brain through injury to brain Destruction of large part of frontal lobe Executive functions destroyed Never the same after injury Neurons o The basic units f the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system o They operate through electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical signals, and form neural networks Communication in the nervous system o The central nervous system communicates with the rest of the body by sending messages from the brain through the nerves that branch off of your spine Soma o Cell body; the site in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated Dendrite Branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons Axon A long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons Myelin Sheath A fatty material, made up of glial cells that insulates some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon Nodes of Ranvier Small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath, where action potentials take place Terminal Buttons At the ends of axons, small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse Synapse The gap between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron; the site at which chemical communication occurs between neurons Glia non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system Action Potential The electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons Resting Potential The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active All-or-None Refractory Period The principle that when a neuron fires, it fires with the same potency each time; a neuron either fires or not- it cannot partially fire, although the frequency of firing an vary Threshold the point at which a stimulus is of sufficient intensity to begin to produce an effect Synaptic Cleft the space between neurons at a nerve synapse across which a nerve impulse is transmitted by a neurotransmitter—called also synaptic gap Neurotransmitter Chemical substances that transmit signals from one neuron to another Excitatory Neurotransmitter These types of neurotransmitters have excitatory effects on the neuron; they increase the likelihood that the neuron will fire an action potential. Some of the major ones include epinephrine and norepinephrine Inhibitory Neurotransmitter These types of neurotransmitters have inhibitory effects on the neuron; they decrease the likelihood that the neuron will fire an action potential. Some of the major ones include serotonin and GABA Reuptake The process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons, thereby stopping its activity Peripheral Nervous System o All nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous system o Includes the autonomic and somatic nervous systems Somatic Nervous System o A component of the peripheral nervous system; it transmits sensory signals between the central nervous system and the skin, muscles, and joints Autonomic Nervous System o A component of peripheral nervous system; it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the body's glands and organs Central Nervous System o The brain and the spinal cord Spinal Cord o the cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissue that is enclosed in the spine and connects nearly all parts of the body to the brain, with which it forms the central nervous system The Brain o an organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity Brainstem o An extension of the spinal cord; it houses structures that control functions associated with survival, such as heart rate, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm Medulla o Breathing, swallowing, and digestion Pons o Bridge between different hemispheres o Allow neural fibers to crossover Midbrain o Reticular activating system Consciousness, sleep, arousal, attention, cardiorespiratory function and movement Thalamus o The gateway to the brain; it receives almost all incoming sensory information before that information reaches the cortex 4 lobes of the brain o Frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes Motor Cortex o the part of the cerebral cortex in the brain where the nerve impulses originate that initiate voluntary muscular activity Sensory Cortex o the region of the cerebral cortex concerned with receiving and interpreting sensory information from various parts of the body Frontal Lobe o Regions of the cerebral cortex (at front of brain) important for movement and high-level psychological processes associated with the prefrontal cortex Temporal Lobe o Regions of the cerebral cortex (below the parietal lobes and in front of the occipital lobe) important for processing auditory information, for memory, and for object and face perception Occipital Lobe o Regions of the cerebral cortex (at the back of the brain) important for vision Parietal Lobe o Regions of the cerebral cortex (in front of occipital lobes and behind frontal lobes) important for the sense of touch and for attention to the environment Broca’s Area o A small portion of the left frontal region of the brain, crucial for the production of language Wernicke’s Area o Comprehension deficit Hippocampus o A brain structure that is associated with the formation of memories Amygdala o A brain structure that serves a vital role in learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotion information Limbic System o Motivation, emotion, learning Basal Ganglia o A system of subcortical structures that are important for the planning and production of movement Cerebellum o A large, convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem; it is essential for coordinated movement and balance Corpus Callosum o A massive bridge of millions of axons that connects the hemispheres and allows information to flow between them Split Brain Studies o Cut the corpus callosum o Left brain can't communicate with the right and vice versa Hypothalamus o A brain structure that is involved in the regulation bodily functions, including body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels; it also influence our basic motivated behaviors Cerebral Hemispheres o either of the rounded halves of the cerebrum of the brain, divided laterally by a deep fissure and connected at the bottom by the corpus callosum Hemispheric Specialization o refers to the control of distinct neurological functions by the right and left hemispheres of the brain Chromosomes o Structures within the cell body that are made up of DNA, segments of which comprise individual genes Genes o The units of heredity that help determine the characteristics of an organism Behavioral Genetics o Studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits DNA o deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information Homozygous o Two genes in pair are different Heterozygous o Two genes in pair are different Dominant Gene o A gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present Recessive Gene o A gene that is expressed only when it is matched with a similar gene from the other parent Genetic Relatedness o 50% Parent-child o 100% monozygotic (identical) twins o 50% dizygotic twins o 50% siblings o 25% Grandparent-child Genotype o The genetic constitution of an organism, determined at the moment of conception Phenotype o Observable physical characteristics, which results from both genetic and environmental influences Family Studies o play an important role in determining how mental disorders will manifest Twin Studies o Study hereditary influence studying monozygotic and dizygotic twins Adoption Studies o one form of clinical genetic study designed to evaluate genetic and environmental influences on phenotype Deep Brain Stimulation o a nonsurgical treatment to reduce tremor and to block involuntary movements in patients with motion disorders Parkinson’s Disease o a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine Types of Neurons o Sensory Receive information from external world, send to brain o Motor Carry information from spinal cord to muscles o Interneurons Connect neurons (process bulk information) MS o Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) o the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body ALS o a type of motor neuron disease that causes nerve cells to gradually break down and die GABA o Gamma-aminoutyric acid; the primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system Acetylcholine o The neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles; it is also involved in mental processes such as learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming Dopamine o A monoamine neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward, and motor control over voluntary movement Serotonin o A monoamine neurotransmitter important for a wide range of psychological activity including emotional states, impulse control, and dreaming Norepinephrine o A monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for bursts of energy after an event that is exciting or threatening Agonists o Increase the effects of the neurotransmitter o Prevents reuptake o Increase production and release Antagonists o Block the function of the neurotransmitter o Block production and release o Prevent binding MRI o A method of brain imaging that uses a powerful magnetic field to produce high-quality images of the brain FMRI o An imaging technique used to examine changes in activity of the working human brain by measuring changes in the blood's oxygen levels PET scan o A method of brain imaging that assess metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream Stroop Task o a demonstration of interference in the reaction time of a task Hemispatial Neglect o Patients with this syndrome fail to notice anything on their left side even though their eyes work perfectly well Aphasia o A language disorder that affects a person's ability to communicate Plasticity o A property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience or injury
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