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TEST 2: PSYCH 1630 Study Guide

by: Lauren McDowell

TEST 2: PSYCH 1630 Study Guide PSYC 1630

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Psychlogy > PSYC 1630 > TEST 2 PSYCH 1630 Study Guide
Lauren McDowell
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Chapters 3, 10, and 11 Nature/Nurture, Genes, Heritability, Development Stages, etc.
Introduction to Psychology 1
Nine Calmenson
Study Guide
Psychology, psych, psych 1630, 1630, psychology 1630, Test 2
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren McDowell on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1630 at University of North Texas taught by Nine Calmenson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology 1 in Psychlogy at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
CHAPTER 3 NATURE AND NURTURE: has gone on for many centuries, first with philosophers then social scientists NURTURE: contributions of learning and environment Nature provides building blocks but nurture decides which of the blocks will be used and how they will be combined GENES CHROMOSOMES: humans have 46 strands of DNA aka chromosomes GENES: individual genes are just sections in the strands of chromosomes 20,000 protein producing genes in the human genome DNA: blueprint for humans and stores genetic information GENOTYPE: actual set of DNA ALLELES: slightly varied versions of the same gene. Lead to slightly different protein shapes, and thus turn into different phenotypes PHENOTYPE: observable characteristics Mom and dad both have 23 chromosomes, equaling 46 total strands of DNA Each gene makes a specific type of protein BEHAVIORAL GENETICS: scientific field that tries to identify and understand links between genetics and behavior HERITABILITY HERITABILITY: variability due to genetic differences Heritability cannot be assessed without taking environment into account Ex: Study of heritability of human intelligence in participants living in extremely wealthy circumstances; genetic influences would be exaggerated Correlational term that only has a positive value between 0 and 1 (can be stated as a percentage 0-100). In people, usually generated by twin studies (fraternal and identical) with similar environments HERITABILITY IS NOT: a measure of importance of genes in the production of a trait. Ex: heritability estimates only reflect what causes the variation in traits; they say nothing about what causes the traits themselves EPIGENETICS: the study of the way genes and the environment interact to produce phenotypes. Ex: being abused as a child and can change the expression of the stress hormone genes for a lifetime NATURAL SELECTION EVOLUTION: descent with modification from a common ancestor NATURAL SELECTION: process by which survival and reproduction pressures act to change the frequency of alleles in generations DARWIN: responsible for this theory Survival = Reproduction = Offspring = Genes in the next generation (Ex: English Pepper Moths) MUTATIONS: errors when DNA is replicated. Each newborn has ~130 new mutations EVOLUTION OF MAN SEXUAL SELECTION: humans are biologically attracted to health, genes that are fit, ability to reproduce, and ability to care for the young MOST BEHAVIORS ARE THE RESULT OF COMPLEX INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NATURE AND NURTURE CHAPTER 10 COMMUNICATION: signal danger, territory, is inflexible LANGUAGE: grammar and syntax, is flexible, “crown jewel of human intelligence” PHONEMES: sounds MORPHEMES: words GRAMMAR: sentences Humans can produce 500+ phonemes, Western Africa has the largest number of phonemes in a language. English has 45 phonemes. LANGUAGE AND THE BRAIN Language functions appear to be located in various spots in the left side of the brain BROCA’S APHASIA: difficulty producing phonemes, speech is slow but meaningful WERNICKE’S APHASIA: difficulty understanding language, speech is fluent but meaningless Every society on earth has a language, every language is subject to environmental influence, and language is a strong example of nature-nurture interaction VOCABULARY: most kids start learning vocabulary by age 2, and know around 40,000 words by the time they hit 10 years old INTELLIGENCE INTELLIGENCE: the ability to understand complex ideas, adapt effectively to the environment, learn from experience, engage in reasoning, and overcome obstacles IQ TESTS: stored knowledge, math, short-term memory, detect and replicate patterns, social situations FLYNN EFFECT: three points increase in IQ per decade, a few causes are: education and testing, stimulating environment, nutrition, reduced infectious disease CHAPTER 11 Nature/Nurture Interaction: epigenetic processes, experience impacts biology, critical and sensitive periods PIAGET: theorized cognitive development of children COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT STAGES SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: birth to age 2, lives in the now, object permanence, explores moving and sensing PREOPERATIONAL STAGE: 2-6 years, language development, egocentrism, illogical reasoning CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE: 6-12 years, logical reasoning, learn by doing FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE: 12+ years, abstract reasoning, idealism, improved problem solving ATTACHMENT STYLES ATTENTIVE, RELIABLE CAREGIVER: secure attachment, explores environment, cries when caregiver leaves, easily comforted by caregiver OVER-PROTECTIVE INCONSISTENT CAREGIVER: anxious attachment, hesitant to explore, clingy NEGLETFUL CAREGIVER: avoidant attachment, does not seek contact, physio signs of stress A child’s temperament type corresponds to the quality of their attachment to their caregivers PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ERIKSON: theorized stages of psychological development TRUST VS MISTRUST: 0-1 years, needs supportive environment to form attachments and trust AUTONOMY VS DOUBT: 1-3 years, can I do things for myself or always rely on others, independence INITIATIVE VS GUILT: 3-6 years, am I good or bad, acceptability of actions INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY: 6-12 years, am I successful or worthless, fantasize about success INDENTITY VS ROLE: early teens, who am I, seeks independence from parents INTAMACY VS ISOLATION: young adults, relationships become very important GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION: middle aged, career and children are important, need to succeed EGO VS DESPAIR: retired, have I lived a full life, content or unfulfilled past, worried about future


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