NUTRI 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide (Vines)
NUTRI 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide (Vines) Nutrition 2000
Popular in Nutrition and Health
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Katie Vines in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 420 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
Reviews for NUTRI 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide (Vines)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/07/16
NUTRITION EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Includes key concepts from chapters 1-3 and a practice exam Chapter 1: Important Concepts • Hunger is the physiological NEED of food • Appetite is the psychological DESIRE to eat • The feeding center sends a signal to your stomach to let you know its time to eat • The satiety center sends a signal to your brain letting you know that you don’t need anymore food • Nutrition: the science which links foods to disease • Essential nutrients come from the diet and are not made by your body. These are nutrients your body NEEDS in order to function properly • Macronutrients provide calories, there are three types: - Carbohydrates o Main source of calories o Yields 4 kcal/gm of energy - Lipids o Fats are solid at room temperature o Oils are liquid at room temperature o Yields 9 kcal/gm of energy - Proteins o Structural material o Yields 4 kcal/gm of energy o Helps in getting amino acids • Micronutrients don’t provide calories or yield energy, there are three types: - Vitamins o These help with enabling chemical reactions o These are easily dissolved in fat and water - Minerals o These are inorganic substances that have many functions throughout the body o There are two types: § Trace elements: you need very little of these § Major elements: you need a lot of these - Water o We are made of 72% of water and therefore need a lot of it o You should drink 9-13 cups a day • The American diet typically consists of: - 16% proteins, - 50% carbohydrates, and - 22% fats Chapter 2: Important Concepts • There are five food groups from which you should eat from daily: - Fruit - Vegetable - Grains - Meat - Dairy • Serving sizes: - Fruit: 1 cup - Vegetable: 1 cup - Grains: 1 ounce - Protein: 1 ounce - Dairy: 1 cup • Nutrient dense foods are the ones with a good amount of micronutrients with a fair amount of calories • Energy dense foods are the ones that are light in weight but high in calories • Under nutrition is when your food intake is much lower than the amount your body needs • Over nutrition is when your food intake is much higher than the amount your body needs • Malnutrition is BAD nutrition, whether you eat too much or not enough • Recommended dietary allowances (RDA) meets 98% of the needs of healthy people • Adequate intake (AI) is information taken from the intakes of people who appear to be healthy • Estimated energy requirements (EER) are not set higher than average needs and takes into account gender, age, height, etc. • Tolerable upper level (UL) the highest amount which is not going to have a major impact on your health • Daily value (DV) is based on a 2000 calorie diet • My plate is a visual representation of how a healthy plate looks - Fruits and vegetables: ½ your plate - Grains: ¼ your plate - Protein: the remaining portion of your plate - Dairy: 1 cup • Your daily total fat intake should be less than 65 g • Your daily total cholesterol intake should be less than 300 mg • Your daily total sodium intake should be less than 2400 mg • Food labels are required on any food which is not fresh Chapter 3: Important Concepts • The cell/plasma membrane is not an organelle, but it holds all the things within the cell together • The cytoplasm is the fluid material and organelles within the cell (does NOT include the nucleus) • The mitochondria uses the energy from food we eat, and converts it into a form in which cells can use • The cell nucleus contains genetic material (chromosomes, genes, DNA) that controls the actions occurring in the cell • The endoplasmic reticulum has two types: - Rough ER contains ribosomes (ribosomes are used in making proteins) - Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down any harmful chemicals in the cell • The golgi complex is where proteins get packaged • The lysosomes it mainly worn out or damage cell parts • The peroxisomes contain enzymes which detoxify any harmful chemicals • The cell metabolism is the group of chemical processes which maintain life, there two types: - Anabolic: needs energy (puts molecules together) - Catabolic: puts out energy (takes molecules apart) • The epithelial tissue lines the outside of the body and external passages • The connective tissue holds different structure of the body together The muscle tissue helps in contracting movement • The nervous tissue transport nerve impulses from one body part to another • The cardiovascular system is one of the systems that circulates fluids throughout the body (blood) and consists of heart and blood vessels • Lymphatic system is the other system that circulates fluids throughout the body known as lymph (which has blood plasma and white blood cells) • The urinary system filters blood and removes waste from the body, it also helps in maintaining the pH level of blood (kidneyàuretersàbladderàurethra) • The nervous system is the regulatory system which controls most of the body’s systems, it is divided into two groups: central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) - CNS: includes the brain and spinal cord - PNS: the nerves that connect to everything else (organs, muscles, etc.) • The endocrine system regularizes your metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and other functions through producing and releasing hormones - Insulin is released from the pancreas to help control glucose levels in the blood - Thyroid hormones is are released from the thyroid gland and helps controls the body’s metabolism. - Glucagon is released from the pancreas to help the liver to convert glycogen to glucose - Epinephrine/norepinephrine is also known as adrenaline, released from the adrenal gland and increases heart rate, blood pressure, muscle strength - Growth hormone is released from the pituitary gland helps in growth of children and adolescents. • The immune system defends the body against infection/disease - Antibodies/immunoglobulin are produced by the white blood cell that help control and prevent infection. - Antigens are foreign proteins that you don’t want in your body, which causes the body to respond. • The digestive system contains the gastrointestinal tract in which the digestion and absorption of food takes place Saliva is a solvent, which further separates and allows us to better taste food. It also contains digestive enzymes • The small intestine has 3 parts: - Duodenum is the first 10 inches where most of the chemical digestion happens - Jejunum is the 4 feet after the duodenum - Ileum is the 5 feet after the jejunum • There are 3 ways nutrients are absorbed: - Passive diffusion is when the nutrient concentration is high in the lumen and low in the absorptive cells in the small intestine, this difference brings the nutrients into the absorptive cells through diffusion - Facilitated diffusion: when carrier proteins are required to follow a concentration gradient - Active absorption needs a carrier protein along with an added energy input to move from the lumen to the absorptive cells. • Large intestine/colon has 5 parts: the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. It absorbs nutrients like water, vitamins, fatty acids, sodium and potassium • The liver produces bile • The gallbladder stores the bile until it gets the hormonal signal to release it • The pancreas manufactures insulin and glucagon • The body reserves nutrients so we don’t have to constantly eat them - The body must reserve nutrients so we don’t have to constantly eat to get them - Fat is stored in adipose tissue - Carbohydrates are stored in the muscle and liver in the form of glycogen - Vitamins and minerals are stored in the liver - Glucose and amino acids are stored in the blood • Heartburn is also known as acid reflux and occurs when the stomach gasses back up into the esophagus • Ulcers occur when the lining of the stomach, esophagus, or small intestine, is taken over by acid which is secreted by the stomach cells • Constipation is when the evacuation of the bowel becomes difficult due to the waste in the large intestine slowly moving • Hemorrhoids are also be called piles, and are the swollen/inflamed veins that surround the rectum • Irritable bowel syndrome is when you have irregular bowl functions • Diarrhea is usually a result from infection in the intestine, which causes the cells to release fluids • Gall stones are little stones that are formed in your gallbladder, which leads to the removal of your gallbladder • Celiac Disease makes a person allergic to gluten PRACTICE EXAM 1) What is the physiological/need of food? a. Psychological needs b. Appetite c. Satiety d. Hunger 2) What is the psychological/desire of food? a. Psychological needs b. Appetite c. Satiety d. Hunger 3) You have just eaten a meal that you had been wanting to eat, you have now reached a point of ______________ a. Healthy b. Nutrition c. Essential nutrients d. Satiety 4) Where do essential nutrients come from/where are they found? a. Your pancreas releases hormones which make them b. They come from the food you eat c. They come from the environment you live in d. Your brain sends a signal to your organs to release them throughout your body 5) What part of the brain tells you that you NEED food? a. Thalamus b. Feeding center c. Brain stem d. Satiety center 6) Which of these is not a macronutrient? a. Lipids b. Minerals c. Fats d. Proteins 7) How much energy do carbohydrates and protein yield? a. 0 kcal/gram b. 3 kcal/gram c. 4 kcal/gram d. 9 kcal/gram 8) How much energy do fats yield? a. 0 kcal/gram b. 3 kcal/gram c. 4 kcal/gram d. 9 kcal/gram 9) How much energy do vitamins/minerals yield? a. 0 kcal/gram b. 3 kcal/gram c. 4 kcal/gram d. 9 kcal/gram 10) Which of these do most of an average person’s calories come from? a. Carbohydrates b. Proteins c. Lipids d. Vitamins/minerals 11) What is the recommended water intake? a. 3-8 glasses cups day b. 7-11 glasses cups day c. 8-10 glasses cups day d. 9-13 glasses cups day 12) Why are there certain nutrients on a food label, which are bolded out? a. So people with a certain health issue can be made aware of them b. Because that certain nutritional fact is the most important c. So that people know how much of a certain nutrient is in the package d. Because that certain nutritional fact can be overlooked if wanted (not considered as important) 13) What is the amount of calories in a slice of bread with 25 grams of carbs, 4 grams of fat, and 3 grams of protein? a. 148 calories b. 134 calories c. 172 calories d. 127 calories 14) Using the same bread problem, calculate the amount of calories in the whole package if the amount of servings is 12 a. 1,776 calories b. 1,608 calories c. 2,064 calories d. 1,524 calories 15) What is it called when you choose different items to eat during dinner, rather than just one thing? a. Balance b. Moderation c. Variety d. Portion 16) Which one of these is not one of the main food groups? a. Fruit b. Protein c. Vegetable d. Grain 17) What counts as a serving of vegetables? a. 1 ounce b. 1 cup c. ½ a cup d. 2 ounces 18) What counts as a serving of peanut butter? a. 1 tbsp b. 1 ounce c. 2 tbsp d. 1/4 cup 19) What counts as a serving of salmon? a. 1 ounce b. ½ cup c. 3 ounces d. 1 cup 20) Which of these is an example of under nutrition? a. Eating 200 calories a day when you need 1,800 b. Eating 1,900 calories a day when you need 1,300 c. Eating 1,496 calories a day when you need 1,500 d. Eating 1,675 calories a day when you need 1,600 21) Which of these is an example of over nutrition? a. Eating 2,000 calories a day when you need 1,950 b. Eating 1,785 calories a day when you need 1,800 c. Eating 1,900 calories a day when you need 1,350 d. Eating 400 calories a day when you need 1,500 22) Which of these is an example of malnutrition a. Eating 300 calories a day when you 1,300 b. Eating 2,000 calories a day when you need 1,570 c. Only eating processed foods/junk food d. All of the above 23) Which one of these can happen if you keep on overindulging food? a. Diabetes b. Obesity c. Blood pressure d. All of the above 24) What does the anthropometric (A) part of ABCDE measure? a. Skin thickness, muscular endurance b. The foods you eat c. Blood, insulin, and triglyceride levels d. Body height, body weight, BMI 25) What does the clinical (C) part of ABCDE measure? a. Skin thickness, muscular endurance b. The foods you eat c. Blood, insulin, and triglyceride levels d. Body height, body weight, BMI 26) Which of these uses intake information from people who appear to be healthy/maintaining health a. RDA b. AI c. EER d. UL 27) Which of these is not set higher than the average needs of a person, along with taking into account gender, height, weight, etc.? a. RDA b. AI c. EER d. UL 28) Which of these meets 98% of the needs of people who are healthy in a certain group? a. RDA b. AI c. EER d. UL 29) What is the amount of calories that daily values are set on a. 1200 calories b. 2000 calories c. 1500 calories d. 1800 calories 30) How much of your plate should you fill with grains? a. 1/4 b. 1/3 c. 1/2 d. 2/3 31) How much of your plate should you fill with veggies? a. 1/4 b. 1/3 c. 1/2 d. 2/3 32) How much fat is okay to eat in a day? a. Less than 70 grams b. Less than 80 grams c. Less than 75 grams d. Less than 65 grams 33) How much cholesterol is it okay to eat in a day? a. Less than 300 mg b. Less than 350 mg c. Less than 400 mg d. Less than 600 mg 34) How much sodium is it okay to eat in a day? a. Less than 3000 mg b. Less than 2500 mg c. Less than 2700 mg d. Less than 2400 mg 35) Which one of these foods would require a food label? a. A package of lunch meat b. Apples c. Kale d. Butcher meat 36) Why is percent daily value of protein not required on the food label? a. Americans already eat too much of it b. It is expensive to calculate c. Protein deficiencies are rare d. All of the above 37) Which of these things is not on a food label? a. Name of the product b. The uniform serving size c. A description (short bio) of the manufacturer d. How many servings are in a package 38) How many calories is 1 kcal? (Notice the lower case “c” in calorie) a. 1000 calories b. 100 calories c. 10 calories d. 1 calories 39) How many kcal is 1 Calorie? (Notice the uppercase “C” in Calorie) a. 1000 kcal b. 100 kcal c. 10 kcal d. 1 kcal 40) Which of these tissues holds different structures of the body together? a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous 41) Which of these tissues lines the outside of the body and external passages? a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous 42) Which of these tissues transports nerve impulses from one body part to another? a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous 43) Which of these tissues helps in contracting movement? a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous 44) What are the two body systems that circulate fluids throughout the body? a. Cardiovascular and lymphatic b. Cardiovascular and urinary c. Lymphatic and endocrine d. Urinary and endocrine 45) This fluid consists of blood plasma and white blood cells a. Blood b. Urine c. Hormones d. Lymph 46) This fluid is composed of water, urea, unneeded vitamins/minerals, and waste from the kidneys a. Blood b. Urine c. Hormones d. Lymph 47) This fluid is composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets a. Blood b. Urine c. Hormones d. Lymph 48) Which of these is the correct process for urine leaving the body? a. Kidneyàbladderàuretersàurethra b. Uretersàkidneyàurethraàbladder c. Kidneyàuretersàbladderàurethra d. Bladderàkidneyàuretersàurethra 49) What is the basic structural unit of the nervous system? a. Brain b. Spinal cord c. Neuron d. Nephrons 50) What is the name of the fatty tissue, which helps in speeding up the transmission process? a. Myelin sheath b. Lymph tissue c. Epinephrine d. Nervous 51) What does the central nervous system include? a. Muscles and organs b. Brain and spinal cord c. Lungs and esophagus d. Everything 52) This hormone is also known as adrenaline and released from the adrenal gland a. Thyroid hormones b. Glucagon c. Epinephrine d. Growth hormone 53) This hormone is release from the pancreas to help the liver convert glycogen to glucose a. Thyroid hormones b. Glucagon c. Epinephrine d. Growth hormone 54) This hormone is released from the thyroid gland and helps control the body’s metabolism a. Thyroid hormones b. Glucagon c. Epinephrine d. Growth hormone 55) This hormone is released from the pituitary gland and helps in the growth of children and adolescents a. Thyroid hormones b. Glucagon c. Epinephrine d. Growth hormone 56) Which of these are produced by the white blood cells to help control and prevent infection? a. Antibodies b. White blood cells c. Antigens d. Hormones 57) Which of these are foreign proteins that you don’t want in your body a. Antibodies b. White blood cells c. Antigens d. Hormones 58) When does mechanical digestion start? a. In the stomach b. In the mouth c. In the esophagus d. In the gastrointestinal tract 59) When does chemical digestion start? a. In the stomach b. In the mouth c. In the esophagus d. In the gastrointestinal tract 60) Where does digestion and absorption of the food take place? a. In the stomach b. In the mouth c. In the esophagus d. In the gastrointestinal tract 61) Which of these is a fat digesting enzyme? a. Amylase b. Mucus c. Lipase d. Saliva 62) Which of these is a starch-digesting enzyme? a. Amylase b. Mucus c. Lipase d. Saliva 63) Which of these makes swallowing a lot more easier? a. Amylase b. Mucus c. Lipase d. Saliva 64) Which of these is a solvent, which further separates and allows us to better taste food? a. Amylase b. Mucus c. Lipase d. Saliva 65) What does the epiglottis do? a. Prevents food from entering the trachea b. Makes swallowing easier c. Pushes the food into the esophagus d. Release enzymes to break down the bolus of food 66) What is peristalsis? a. The release of enzymes from the saliva to aid in break food down b. Muscle contraction which helps move the food through the digestive system c. The digestion of food in the stomach d. The digestion of food through the gastrointestinal tract 67) What is the first part of the small intestine a. Ileum b. Jejunum c. Colon d. Duodenum 68) What is the second part of the small intestine? a. Ileum b. Jejunum c. Colon d. Duodenum 69) What is the third part of the small intestine? a. Ileum b. Jejunum c. Colon d. Duodenum 70) Which of these types of diffusion needs a carrier protein present to follow a concentration gradient? a. Passive diffusion b. Facilitated diffusion c. Active absorption d. Inactive absorption 71) Which of these types of diffusion brings nutrients into the absorptive cells through diffusion? a. Passive diffusion b. Facilitated diffusion c. Active absorption d. Inactive absorption 72) Which of these types of diffusion requires a carrier protein and ATP? a. Passive diffusion b. Facilitated diffusion c. Active absorption d. Inactive absorption 73) Which of these is not an accessory organ? a. Gallbladder b. Pancreas c. Spleen d. Liver 74) Which of these produces bile? a. Gallbladder b. Pancreas c. Spleen d. Liver 75) Which of these manufactures insulin and glucagon a. Gallbladder b. Pancreas c. Spleen d. Liver 76) Where is extra fat stored? a. Liver b. Blood c. Adipose tissue d. Muscle and liver 77) Where are extra carbohydrates stored? a. Liver b. Blood c. Adipose tissue d. Muscle and liver 78) Where are extra glucose and amino acids stored? a. Liver b. Blood c. Adipose tissue d. Muscle and liver 79) Where are extra vitamins and minerals stored? a. Liver b. Blood c. Adipose tissue d. Muscle and liver 80) This is also known as acid reflux and happens when stomach acids back up into the esophagus a. Ulcers b. Constipation c. Heartburn d. Hemorrhoids 81) This happens when evacuation of the bowel becomes difficult due to the waste in the intestine slowly moving a. Ulcers b. Constipation c. Heartburn d. Hemorrhoids 82) This happens when the lining of the stomach, esophagus, or small intestine is taken over by acid that is secreted by the stomach cells a. Ulcers b. Constipation c. Heartburn d. Hemorrhoids 83) This is also known as piles and are the swollen/inflamed veins that surround the rectum a. Ulcers b. Constipation c. Heartburn d. Hemorrhoids 84) This is when you have irregular bowel functions a. Diarrhea b. Gall stones c. Irritable bowl syndrome d. Celiac disease 85) These are little stones that are formed in your gallbladder a. Diarrhea b. Gall stones c. Irritable bowl syndrome d. Celiac disease 86) This is the intolerance of gluten a. Diarrhea b. Gall stones c. Irritable bowl syndrome d. Celiac disease 87) This is usually a result from infection in the intestine which causes cells to release fluids a. Diarrhea b. Gall stones c. Irritable bowl syndrome d. Celiac disease ANSWER KEY 1) D 2) B 3) D 4) B 5) B 6) B 7) C 8) D 9) A 10) A 11) D 12) A 13) A 14) A 15) C 16) B 17) B 18) C 19) C 20) A 21) C 22) D 23) D 24) D 25) A 26) B 27) C 28) A 29) B 30) A 31) C 32) D 33) A 34) D 35) A 36) D 37) C 38) A 39) D 40) B 41) A 42) D 43) C 44) A 45) D 46) B 47) A 48) C 49) C 50) A 51) B 52) C 53) B 54) A 55) D 56) A 57) C 58) B 59) A 60) D 61) C 62) A 63) B 64) D 65) A 66) B 67) D 68) B 69) A 70) B 71) A 72) C 73) C 74) D 75) B 76) C 77) D 78) B 79) A 80) C 81) B 82) A 83) D 84) C 85) B 86) D 87) A
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'