BIOM: Exam I Study Guide
BIOM: Exam I Study Guide BIOM 250
Popular in Micro Hlth Sci: Infect Disease
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Davis Notetaker on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOM 250 at Montana State University taught by Kari Cargill in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 291 views. For similar materials see Micro Hlth Sci: Infect Disease in Biology at Montana State University.
Reviews for BIOM: Exam I Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/07/16
BIOM Exam I: 02/10/16, 11:0011:50, JONH 339 Review Week 1 Intro DALY’s “Disability adjusted life years”, a way to measure non fatal infectious diseases DALYS = years of premature death + years of disability Notifiable Diseases “Notifiable diseases are ones for which regular, frequent and timely information regarding individual cases is considered necessary for prevention and control” ex: salmonellosis Ch1 Types of Microorganisms Cell types: Prokaryotes, eukaryotes Microorganism types: Prokaryotic Eukaryotic N/A Unicellular Bacteria Protozoa Algae Fungi (ex: yeast) Multicellular Algae Fungi (ex: mushrooms) Helminths (ex: tapeworms) Noncellular Viruses (acellular) History Of Microbiology Ancient History Egyptians fungal spores Romans invisible animals cause illness Microscopy Hooke “cells” Leeuwenhoek microscope, “animalcules” Theory of Spontaneous Generation Redi experiment: observe maggot growth on meat, with and without being sealed Needham experiment: openflask with broth resulting in growth Spellanzani experiment: closedflask with broth resulting in no growth Instead of disproving spontaneous life it was argued these experiments suffocated the life Pasteur swannecked flask, breathable broth without growth Successfully disproved spontaneous generation Miasma Theory of Disease illness caused by poisonous vapors Week 2 Germ Theory of Disease Fracastoro disease seeds, “seminaria” , three modes of transmission: direct contact, inanimate objects, airborne Snow cholera outbreak traced back to common water pump Koch anthrax causative agent, 4 postulates to identify and prove the causative agent 1. the agent is found in every case 2. isolate the organism in a pure culture 3. inoculate a healthy animal with culture to verify disease follows 4. reculture the pathogen from the new host to show it is the same microorganism Exceptions: diseases with more than once cause, or agents that cause more than one disease, also some pathogens that cannot be grown in a culture Disease Control Antiseptic Semmelweis puerperal (childbed) fever incidents reduced by hand washing Aseptic Lister carbolic acid used to sanitize surgical sites Vaccination: Smallpox Smallpox inoculation: Chinese smallpox scab up the nose Montagu variolation: smallpox pus under skin Jenner linked milkmaid’s previous exposure to cowpox with their immunity to smallpox ● experiment: 8year old James Phipps inoculated with cowpox then exposed to smallpox and survived ● vaccine comes from “vacca” meaning cow 1969 global campaign to wipe out smallpox successful and in 1980 smallpox declared eradicated Smallpox today ● vaccinations uncommon, seen only in high risk workers (ex: military, research) ● one accidental death occurred at a research laboratory due to improper ventilation ● concerns remain for the possibility of smallpox bioweapons a sample went missing from Vector laboratory and has yet to be found Vaccination: Rabies Pasteur studied rabies in rabbits experiment: developed something like a vaccination for rabbits, spontaneously tested on an infected person and the subject survived Rabies is an unusual virus in that vaccination is effective after infection Immunology Metchnikoff discovered phagocytes in starfish Chemotherapy “use of chemicals to treat disease” traditional approach: herbal ex: malaria treated with quinine Chemotherapy: Syphilis Ehrlich “magic bullet”, a medicine to kill the microbe without being too harmful to the host; used salvarsan 606 compound Chemotherapy: staph/strep Domagk first sulfa drug “Prontosil”, reduced severe illness and even death due to infection of skin injuries Antibiotics Fleming penicillin experiment: accidentally contaminated bacteria culture sample and noticed inhibit bacterial growth near the mold contaminant Florey, Chain & Heatley medicine form of penicillin Waksman coined “antibiotic” and discovered use of streptomycin (a microbe from soil) as an antibiotic Virology Beijerink termed “virus” as used today Stanley first to discover/isolate virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus Epidemiology The study of factors that contribute to the spread of diseases in a population: etiology (cause) reservoir (source) transmission susceptible hosts Week 3 zoonosis transmission of disease from animals to humans ex: influenza can come from pigs, cats, dogs, ferrets tuberculosis from dogs, cattle measles: nonhuman primates Etiology Reservoirs (nonliving) ex: soil (ex: endospores), water(ex: fecal contamination) Transmission contact transmission direct horizontal touch vertical mother to child (during pregnancy) indirect fomite nonliving object that transmit a pathogen (not the same as nonliving reservoir, acts in a single case, not an epidemic) droplet less than 1 meter from source not airborne ex: coughing, sneezing, etc vehicle nonliving reservoir and how it was contracted (acquired) ex: waterborne, airborne, foodborne (usually improperly: processed, cooked, stored, inspected) vectors insects that transmit disease mechanical (in insect bodies) biological (biting insects) Epidemiology Part 2 Herd Immunity proportion of individuals in a population who are immune to a disease ways to become immune: vaccine recovery from illness close to 90% immunity best minimizes circulation of diseases Bioweapons historical ancient infected corpses over city walls or in wells New World smallpox blankets given to Native Americans WWII British tested anthrax bombs Japanese program USSR US testing 19421969 Counter measures since shutting down US bioweapon programs, research has focused on developing vaccinations in event of bioweapon attacks Geneva Protocol Chemical Weapons convention Bioterrorism health care workers should be protected and trained to recognize a bioweapon event Agents/Diseases (human) Category A spread easily Category B spread less easily Category C emerging infectious diseases may be engineered for mass spread largely available, thus easy to produce/spread have high morbidity & mortality rates Agricultural (plant/animal) weakening strategy to attack food sources & economy Diseases disease/infection Cholera etiologic agent vibrio cholerae bacteria (caused by: name, type of m/o, gramnegative other characteristics) vibrio (comma shaped) halophile (salt loving) reservoir (where it is harbored fecal contamination in water naturally) mode of transmission to ingestion through water or food humans (& susceptible people) pathogenesis (progression of bacterium produces enterotoxin that triggers intestinal cells disease within body, virulence to produce excess liquid factors) symptoms “ricewater stools” (watery) fluid loss, up to 20 L/day decreased blood volume, organ failure shock, coma, death in response to severe dehydration treatment/prevention/control replace fluids and electrolytes in sick individuals oral vaccine sanitation: keep waste separate from drinking water disease/infection Puerperal Fever etiologic agent streptococcus pyogenes (caused by: name, type of m/o, group A, β hemolytic streptococci other characteristics) reservoir (where it is harbored normal flora of respiratory tract and vagina naturally) mode of transmission to cesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, humans (& susceptible prolonged labor people) women just after giving birth are susceptible pathogenesis (progression of septicemia if the bacteria enters the mother’s bloodstream disease within body, virulence factors) symptoms fever above 100°F, chills, lower abdominal pain, badsmelling discharge treatment/prevention/control antibiotics disease/infection Neonatal sepsis and meningitis etiologic agent Group B streptococci (caused by: name, type of m/o, other characteristics) reservoir (where it is harbored also normal vaginal flora (10%30% of women) naturally) mode of transmission to pregnant mother to child; infants humans (& susceptible people) pathogenesis ( progression of earlyonset sepsis (EOS) disease within body, virulence lateonset sepsis (LOS) factors) symptoms 50% mortality (if present in blood or spinal fluid of the baby) treatment/prevention/control give antibiotics to newborns if the mother tests positive disease/infection Syphilis etiologic agent Treponema pallidum bacterium (caused by: name, type of m/o, other characteristics) reservoir (where it is harbored another infected individual naturally) mode of transmission to sexual humans (& susceptible people) pathogenesis (progression of 1. incubation period disease within body, virulence a. asymptomatic for ~3 weeks (unclear is this is factors) a contagious stage or not) 2. 1° (primary) syphilis 3. 2° (secondary) syphilis 4. latent syphilis ~24 years (not infectious unless pregnant) a. congenital syphilis (if pregnant mother is in latency) 5. 3° (tertiary syphilis) symptoms 1°: chancre, spirochetes in fluid 2°: skin rash (infectious), systemic symptoms 3°: gummas (immune response experienced as necrotic lesions, insanity) 50% of the time congenital: mental retardation, bone & neurological problems treatment/prevention/control 1° treatable with penicillin later stages treated with antibiotics over a longer time period disease/infection Tularemia etiologic agent francisella tularensis bacteria (caused by: name, type of m/o, intracellular infection (macrophages) other characteristics) reservoir (where it is harbored arthropods naturally) mode of transmission to direct contact w/ animals, deer fly or tick bite, ingesting humans (& susceptible undercooked contaminated meat, water, soil, inhalation people) pathogenesis (progression of incubation period ~114 days disease within body, virulence symptoms usually begin 35 days factors) inflammation of lymph nodes symptoms fever, lethargyloss of appetit, signs osepsis, lesions, and possibly death treatment/prevention/control vaccination treated withstreptomycin or tetracyclinclass drugs such as doxycycline disease/infection Histoplasmosis etiologic agent Histoplasma capsulatum fungus (caused by: name, type of m/o, other characteristics) reservoir (where it is harbored bat & bird droppings naturally) mode of transmission to lungs: inhalation of fungal spores (not person to person) humans (& susceptible people who live away from reservoirs: Ohio & Mississippi people) river valleys; are susceptible pathogenesis (progression of symptomatic ~317 days after exposure disease within body, virulence can cause mediastiniti factors) symptoms vary, commonly affects the lungs (coughlike or flulike), can resemble tuberculosis treatment/prevention/control resolves without treatment in many who are not already immunocompromised; severe cases treated with amphotericin B, followed by oral itraconazole (antifungal agents) disease/infection Nosocomial infection etiologic agent bacteremia, Pseudomonosa aeruginosa (caused by: name, type of m/o, gramneg cells (rod) other characteristics) reservoir (where it is harbored environment (water, soil) naturally) mode of transmission to commonly found in: burn patients, patients in septic shock, humans (& susceptible cystic fibrosis patients people) pathogenesis (progression of bacteremia produces endotoxin resulting in fever & shock disease within body, virulence factors) symptoms neurological symptoms, paralysis, bed sores with bluegreen pus, shortness of breath, chest pain, septic shock treatment/prevention/control antibiotics
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'