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BIOM: Exam I Study Guide

by: Davis Notetaker

BIOM: Exam I Study Guide BIOM 250

Marketplace > Montana State University > Biology > BIOM 250 > BIOM Exam I Study Guide
Davis Notetaker
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

Review of main topics covered in the first three weeks
Micro Hlth Sci: Infect Disease
Kari Cargill
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Davis Notetaker on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOM 250 at Montana State University taught by Kari Cargill in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 291 views. For similar materials see Micro Hlth Sci: Infect Disease in Biology at Montana State University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
BIOM Exam I: 02/10/16, 11:00­11:50, JONH 339    Review  Week 1  Intro  DALY’s ­ “Disability adjusted life years”, a way to measure non fatal infectious diseases  DALYS = years of premature death + years of disability   Notifiable Diseases  “Notifiable diseases are ones for which regular, frequent and timely information  regarding    individual cases is considered necessary for prevention and control”  ex: salmonellosis    Ch1 Types of Microorganisms  Cell types:  Prokaryotes, eukaryotes  Microorganism types:    Prokaryotic  Eukaryotic  N/A  Unicellular  Bacteria  Protozoa    Algae  Fungi (ex: yeast)  Multicellular    Algae    Fungi (ex: mushrooms)  Helminths (ex:  tapeworms)  Non­cellular      Viruses  (acellular)      History Of Microbiology  Ancient History  Egyptians ­ fungal spores  Romans ­ invisible animals cause illness  Microscopy  Hooke ­ “cells”  Leeuwenhoek ­ microscope, “animalcules”  Theory of Spontaneous Generation  Redi ­ experiment: observe maggot growth on meat, with and without being sealed  Needham­ experiment: open­flask with broth resulting in growth  Spellanzani­ experiment: closed­flask with broth resulting in no growth  Instead of disproving spontaneous life it was argued these experiments suffocated the life  Pasteur­ swan­necked flask, breathable broth without growth  Successfully disproved spontaneous generation    Miasma Theory of Disease  illness caused by poisonous vapors    Week 2  Germ Theory of Disease  Fracastoro­ disease seeds, “seminaria” , three modes of transmission: direct contact,   inanimate objects, airborne  Snow­ cholera outbreak traced back to common water pump  Koch­ anthrax causative agent, 4 postulates to identify and prove the causative agent  1. the agent is found in every case  2. isolate the organism in a pure culture  3. inoculate a healthy animal with culture to verify disease follows  4. re­culture the pathogen from the new host to show it is the same micro­organism  Exceptions: diseases with more than once cause, or agents that cause more than one   disease, also some pathogens that cannot be grown in a culture    Disease Control   Antiseptic  Semmelweis ­ puerperal (childbed) fever incidents reduced by hand washing  Aseptic  Lister­ carbolic acid used to sanitize surgical sites  Vaccination: Smallpox  Smallpox inoculation:  Chinese ­ smallpox scab up the nose  Montagu­ variolation: smallpox pus under skin  Jenner­ linked milkmaid’s previous exposure to cowpox with their immunity to smallpox  ● experiment: 8­year old James Phipps inoculated with cowpox then exposed to   smallpox and survived  ● vaccine comes from “vacca” meaning cow  1969 global campaign to wipe out smallpox successful and in 1980 smallpox declared   eradicated   Smallpox today  ● vaccinations uncommon, seen only in high risk workers (ex: military, research)  ● one accidental death occurred at a research laboratory due to improper  ventilation  ● concerns remain for the possibility of smallpox bioweapons­ a sample went  missing   from Vector laboratory and has yet to be found          Vaccination: Rabies  Pasteur ­ studied rabies in rabbits  experiment: developed something like a  vaccination for rabbits, spontaneously tested  on   an infected person and the subject survived   Rabies is an unusual virus in that vaccination is effective after infection  Immunology  Metchnikoff ­ discovered phagocytes in starfish  Chemotherapy  “use of chemicals to treat disease”  traditional approach: herbal ex: malaria treated with quinine  Chemotherapy: Syphilis  Ehrlich ­ “magic bullet”, a medicine to kill the microbe without being too harmful to the  host;   used salvarsan 606 compound   Chemotherapy: staph/strep  Domagk ­ first sulfa drug “Prontosil”, reduced severe illness and even death due to   infection of skin injuries  Antibiotics  Fleming­ penicillin  experiment: accidentally contaminated bacteria culture sample and noticed inhibit  bacterial   growth near the mold contaminant   Florey, Chain & Heatley ­ medicine form of penicillin  Waksman­ coined “antibiotic” and discovered use of streptomycin (a microbe from soil)  as   an antibiotic    Virology  Beijerink ­ termed “virus” as used today  Stanley­ first to discover/isolate virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus    Epidemiology  The study of factors that contribute to  the spread of diseases in a population:  etiology (cause)  reservoir (source)  transmission  susceptible hosts     Week 3  zoonosis ­ transmission of disease from animals to humans   ex: influenza can come from pigs, cats, dogs, ferrets   tuberculosis from dogs, cattle   measles: non­human primates    Etiology  Reservoirs (non­living) ex: soil (ex: endospores), water(ex: fecal contamination)  Transmission  contact transmission  direct  horizontal ­ touch  vertical ­ mother to child (during pregnancy)  indirect  fomite ­ non­living object that transmit a pathogen (not the same as   nonliving reservoir, acts in a single case, not an epidemic)  droplet  less than 1 meter from source ­ not airborne ex: coughing, sneezing, etc  vehicle  nonliving reservoir and how it was contracted (acquired)  ex: waterborne, airborne, foodborne (usually improperly: processed,   cooked, stored, inspected)  vectors ­ insects that transmit disease  mechanical (in insect bodies)  biological (biting insects)    Epidemiology Part 2  Herd Immunity­ proportion of individuals in a population who are immune to a disease  ways to become immune:  vaccine  recovery from illness  close to 90% immunity best minimizes circulation of diseases    Bioweapons  historical  ancient­ infected corpses over city walls or in wells  New World­ smallpox blankets given to Native Americans  WWII   British tested anthrax bombs  Japanese program  USSR   US testing 1942­1969  Counter measures  since shutting down US bioweapon programs, research has focused on developing   vaccinations in event of bioweapon attacks  Geneva Protocol  Chemical Weapons convention          Bioterrorism  health care workers should be protected and trained to recognize a bioweapon event  Agents/Diseases (human)  Category A ­ spread easily  Category B­ spread less easily  Category C ­ emerging infectious diseases  may be engineered for mass spread  largely available, thus easy to produce/spread  have high morbidity & mortality rates    Agricultural (plant/animal)  weakening strategy to attack food sources & economy    Diseases    disease/infection  Cholera  etiologic agent  vibrio cholerae bacteria  (caused by: name, type of m/o,       gram­negative  other characteristics)       vibrio (comma shaped)       halophile (salt loving)  reservoir ​(where it is harbored  fecal contamination in water  naturally)  mode of transmission to  ingestion through water or food  humans ​ (& susceptible  people)  pathogenesis ​ (progression of  bacterium produces enterotoxin that triggers intestinal cells  disease within body, virulence  to produce excess liquid  factors)  symptoms  “rice­water stools” (watery)  fluid loss, up to 20 L/day  decreased blood volume, organ failure  shock, coma, death in response to severe dehydration  treatment/prevention/control  replace fluids and electrolytes in sick individuals  oral vaccine  sanitation: keep waste separate from drinking water          disease/infection  Puerperal Fever  etiologic agent  streptococcus pyogenes  (caused by: name, type of m/o,  group A, β ­hemolytic streptococci  other characteristics)  reservoir ​(where it is harbored  normal flora of respiratory tract and vagina  naturally)  mode of transmission to  cesarean section, premature rupture of membranes,  humans ​ (& susceptible  prolonged labor  people)  women just after giving birth are susceptible  pathogenesis ​ (progression of  septicemia­ if the bacteria enters the mother’s bloodstream  disease within body, virulence  factors)  symptoms  fever above 100°F, chills, lower abdominal pain,  bad­smelling discharge  treatment/prevention/control  antibiotics      disease/infection  Neonatal sepsis and meningitis  etiologic agent  Group B streptococci  (caused by: name, type of m/o,  other characteristics)  reservoir ​(where it is harbored  also normal vaginal flora (10%­30% of women)  naturally)  mode of transmission to  pregnant mother to child; infants  humans ​ (& susceptible  people)  pathogenesis ( ​progression of  early­onset sepsis (EOS)  disease within body, virulence  late­onset sepsis (LOS)  factors)  symptoms  50% mortality (if present in blood or spinal fluid of the baby)  treatment/prevention/control  give antibiotics to newborns if the mother tests positive          disease/infection  Syphilis  etiologic agent  Treponema pallidum bacterium  (caused by: name, type of m/o,  other characteristics)  reservoir ​(where it is harbored  another infected individual  naturally)  mode of transmission to  sexual  humans ​ (& susceptible  people)  pathogenesis ​ (progression of  1. incubation period  disease within body, virulence  a. asymptomatic for ~3 weeks (unclear is this is  factors)  a contagious stage or not)  2. 1° (primary) syphilis  3. 2° (secondary) syphilis  4. latent syphilis ~2­4 years (not infectious unless  pregnant)  a. congenital syphilis (if pregnant mother is in  latency)  5. 3° (tertiary syphilis)  symptoms  1°: chancre, spirochetes in fluid    2°: skin rash (infectious), systemic symptoms   3°: gummas (immune response experienced as necrotic  lesions, insanity) 50% of the time  congenital: mental retardation, bone & neurological  problems  treatment/prevention/control  1° treatable with penicillin  later stages treated with antibiotics over a longer time  period      disease/infection  Tularemia  etiologic agent  francisella tularensis bacteria  (caused by: name, type of m/o,       intracellular infection (macrophages)  other characteristics)  reservoir ​(where it is harbored  arthropods  naturally)  mode of transmission to  direct contact w/ animals, deer fly or tick bite, ingesting  humans ​ (& susceptible  undercooked contaminated meat, water, soil, inhalation  people)  pathogenesis ​ (progression of  incubation period ~1­14 days  disease within body, virulence  symptoms usually begin 3­5 days  factors)  inflammation of lymph nodes  symptoms  fever, lethargyloss of appetit, signs osepsis, lesions, and  possibly death  treatment/prevention/control  vaccination  treated withstreptomycin or tetracyclin­class drugs such as  doxycycline      disease/infection  Histoplasmosis  etiologic agent  Histoplasma capsulatum ​fungus  (caused by: name, type of m/o,  other characteristics)  reservoir (where it is harbored  bat & bird droppings  naturally)  mode of transmission to  lungs: inhalation of fungal spores (not person to person)  humans ​ (& susceptible  people who live away from reservoirs: Ohio & Mississippi  people)  river valleys; are susceptible  pathogenesis ​ (progression of  symptomatic ~3­17 days after exposure  disease within body, virulence  can cause ​mediastiniti  factors)  symptoms  vary, commonly affects the lungs (cough­like or flu­like), can  resemble tuberculosis  treatment/prevention/control  resolves without treatment in many who are not already  immunocompromised; severe cases treated with    amphotericin B, followed by oral itraconazole (antifungal  agents)       disease/infection  Nosocomial infection  etiologic agent  bacteremia, Pseudomonosa aeruginosa   (caused by: name, type of m/o,       gram­neg cells (rod)  other characteristics)      reservoir ​(where it is harbored  environment (water, soil)  naturally)  mode of transmission to  commonly found in: burn patients, patients in septic shock,  humans ​ (& susceptible  cystic fibrosis patients  people)  pathogenesis ​ (progression of  bacteremia produces endotoxin resulting in fever & shock  disease within body, virulence  factors)  symptoms  neurological symptoms, paralysis,  bed sores with blue­green pus, shortness of breath, chest  pain, septic shock  treatment/prevention/control  antibiotics   


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