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Midterm 1 study guide

by: anonymous112

Midterm 1 study guide PSYC 1300


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About this Document

This study guide covers chapters 1-3 of the textbook Psychology (Meyers and Dewall, 11th edition) and notes from class including Introduction and Methods, Neuroscience, and Consciousness
Introduction to Psychology
Susan Hornstein
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by anonymous112 on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1300 at Southern Methodist University taught by Susan Hornstein in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Methodist University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Midterm 1 study guide Introduction and methods Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and the mind Science: uses systematic and objective measures of observation Behavior: anything that can be observed Mind: all unconscious or conscious mental states Types of Psychology - Psychological psychology: biological basis of human be havior - Clinical psychology: typically work with individuals who need treatment for psychological disorders - Counseling psychology: everyday problems of adju stment Wilhelm Wundt founds the first laboratory for experimental psychology in 1879 Introspection (looking inward) was the primary methodology Problem was that many things we do are not open to introspection Wundt identifie d the way humans think Sigmund Freud adopts a clinical approach to studying the mind Psychoanalysis (ways unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior) was primary methodology Modern-day research fails to support his theories The behaviorist alternative : redefined psychology as a study of observable behavior (only deal with what you see) The “cognitive revolution”: 1960s brings a renewed interest in mind, mental activity, and consciousness Basic role is to understand human intelligence and how it works Hindsight bias: (knew-it-all-along phenomenon) the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen in Theory: an organized set of principles that describe, predict, and explain the same phenomenon Hypothesis: a specific, testable prediction, derived from a theory Research settings Laboratory: events are simulated, control Field: real-world scenarios, realism Research conclusions Description Prediction Explanation: most powerful, explain the cause Research methods Naturalistic observation : only useful for description Pros: behavior can be measured objectively, na tural Cons: inner states can only be inferred by behavior, not actually seen, observer bias (distorted perception, can be compensated by having at least two observers), reactance (behavior changes when we know we’re being watched), time consuming Case studies: only useful for description, in depth look at a single individual , usually atypical Pros: rich description of behavior, ideas for future study Cons: difficult to generalize beyond single case, time consuming Surveys: only useful for description Random sampling is important for generalization to a larger population Pros: lots of information at relatively low cost Cons: dishonesty, response bias (compensated by random sampling) Correlation research: used to describe and predict, used to investigate the relationships between variables Pros: description and prediction are possible Cons: no causality, cannot explain the relationship Third variable problem Experimental research: used to explain, the impact of an independent variable on a dependent variable Control groups and random assignment are necessary Double-blind procedure: both the research participants and research staff about which participants have received the treatment or placebo Pros: can conclude causal relationships Cons: ethical considerations, behavior constrained in the lab Ethics Informed consent Review boards Confidentiality Debriefing Deception: allowed as long as it’s justified by the study’s values, as long as you are debriefed and not at risk of harm Animal Welfare Act: strict guidelines for welfare of animals Neuroscience Neurons: nerve cells, send and receive information throughout the body in the form of electrochemical signals Soma (cell body) stores nucleus of cell Two types of fibers connected to soma - Dendrites: pick up incoming messages - Axons: carry messages away Neurotransmitters stored in ends of axons (axon terminals) Myelin sheath: layer of fatty cells wrapped around axons as insulation to speed up electrical impulse/communication (multiple sclerosis occurs when myelin sheath is destroyed) Cell membrane is semipermeable Ion concentration inside and outside the cell creates all -or-none action potential At rest, inside of neuron has negative charge and outside has positive charge Neuron is stimulated, semipermeable membrane breaks down, positive charge rushes inside and negative charge rushes outside Action potential: characteristic to every neuron, quick burst of electrical activity Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters in synapse Synapse: gap between axon terminal and next neuron Neurotransmitters find receptor sites in a lock -and-key fashion: only certain neurotransmitters will fit into certain receptor sites Reuptake: neurotransmitters will detach from receptor site and go back to synapse where it is cleared and resting state is restored Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine: responsible for muscle activity - If blocked, results in paralysis; Alzheimer’s results from undersupply of ACh Serotonin: regulation of sleep, eating, pain, aggressive behavior, and mood - Prozac (SSRI, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor): blocks reuptake of serotonin Dopamine: involved in control of voluntary movements, pleasure enhancing neurotransmitter - Parkinson’s disease: undersupply of dopamine - L-Dopa: drug that converts into dopamine (treatment for Parkinson ’s) - Schizophrenia: too much dopamine Neurotransmitters contribute to addictive nature of substances Nicotine and dopamine cause increase of dopamine, an addict needs more and more of the drug just to feel normal Adenosine: coffee blocks adenosine receptors, making you feel awake Tools for studying the brain Electrical recordings (EEG): records waves of electrical activity, shape and pattern of waves depict certain electrical activity Brain imaging techniques - CAT: picture of brain - MRI: picture of brain, uses a magnetic field - PET: tell you which part of the brain is active when engaged in cer tain activities Experimental interventions - Lesion: surgical destruction (once exposed, there are no pain receptors in the brain, cannot feel pain) - Electrical stimulation: patient cannot feel, but body will react - Clinical case studies: used to determine what certain parts of the brain do, usually after damage occurs Brainstem: performs basic functions Medulla: most vital functions ( swallowing, breathing, heart rate ) Reticular formation: controls sleep, arousal, attention Thalamus: “sensory relay station,” directs traffic between your senses and cortex Limbic system: regulation of emotion, motivation, memory newer than the brainstem, fully developed only in mammals Amygdala: “aggression center,” controls anger, fear, violence Hippocampus: plays role in forming new memories H.M. case study: 1950s, removed hippocampus to prevent seizures, experienced anterograde amnesia (remembered everything about himself up to point of surgery, but still able to learn at unconscious level) Hypothalamus: emotion, basic drives (hunger, thirst, sex), reward center (when stimulated produces strong feelings of pleasure, linked to addiction) Cerebral cortex: outermost surface, wrinkled so it saves space (new part in terms of evolution) Two hemispheres - Contralateral: opposite side, each hemisphere controls opposite side of the body - Frontal: motor cortex (larger surface dedicated to parts with more intricate behavior), prefrontal cortex (planning, logic, control, leading mature emotional life —part damaged in Phineas Gage case), Broca’s area (language production) Temporal: auditory cortex (contains Wernicke ’s areas, language comprehension) , parietal (sensory cortex, more space devoted to body parts that are very sensitive), occipital (visual cortex) Left hemisphere largely controls verbal ability (language hemisphere) Right hemisphere controls non-verbal ability (imagery, spatial tasks, ability to recognize faces) Trauma to left hemisphere is often much more dis turbing than trauma to the right Aphasias: severe language impairment (damage to left hemisphere, type of aphasia depends on part of hemisphere destructed) Agnosia: object recognition/spatial disorientation (caused by damage to right hemisphere) Prosopagnosia: face blindess Left side neglect: disruption in spatial awareness in which people lose the ability to pay attention to anything on their left side Severing corpus callosum (band of fibers that sends information b ack and forth between hemispheres) eliminates communication between the two hemispheres Everything from one visual field goes to the opposite side of the brain Neural plasticity: brain’s ability to change and grow in response to experience (growth in synaptic connections and adaptive) Hemispherectomies: removal of the left or right half of the brain (other hemisphere can compensate) Consciousness Consciousness: awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings that one is attending to at any given moment All mental states fall into two groups: (1) when you are awake and alert (2 ) when you are detached from outside environment Circadian cycles: the biological clock - Cluster of neurons in hypothalamus responsible for secreting hormones at different times of day - Epinephrine: makes you alert and awake (slowed at night) - Adenosine: natural chemical that makes you sleepy (caffeine blocks adenosine receptors) - Melatonin: natural chemical that makes us sleepy, natural produced at night when your retina are not exposed to light (Life is closer to a 25 hour clock that a 24 hour) Stage 1: heart rate and blood pressure drop, very light sta ge - Myoclonic jerk: have fallen asleep (stage 1) and brain produces a visual sensation Stage 3: deepest slee in terms of brain activity, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing go as low as they can Go back to stage 2, then to REM REM sleep (paradoxical sleep: brain activity, heart rate, blood pressure resemble waking state, rapid eye movements, internally very active, but externally paralyzed (lose muscle tone) Proceed through stages 4-5 times per night, as night wears on spend more time in REM sleep and less time in stage 3


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