BSC 114 Test One Study Guide
BSC 114 Test One Study Guide BSC 114
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Sharp on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stevan Marcus in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 239 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter 2 BSC 114 Vocabulary: Bio Basics Organisms are any contiguous living systems made of matter -> matter is everything that has mass and takes of space, is made of elements -> elements cannot be broken down any farther and make up all biological material Compounds are 2+ elements. There is a fixed ratio of the amount of each element involved, and the compound does not necessarily retain the properties of its elements Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom (written to the lower left of an atom) Atomic mass is the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (written to the upper left of the atom) atomic mass is measured in atomic mass units, or daltons Isotopes are different forms of the same element, differing only in the number of neutrons. They are not always stable. Half Life is the amount of time it takes for half of the sample element to decay Energy is the ability to do work to cause change Electron Shells are the planes in which the electrons exist. Electron location can never be pinned down 100% as explained by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Valence Electrons refer to the number of electrons in the outermost Electron Shell Valence Electron Shell refers to the outermost electron shell Covalent Bonds occur when 2 or more atoms get together too share electrons to complete the number of electrons in their valence shells Ionic Bonds occur when an atom rips away the electrons it needs from another atom, resulting in a negative atom and a positive atom which are attracted to each other by virtue of their polarity. The pair ionically bonded does not have to have stolen electrons from each other, but they have to be polar. Bonding Capacity is the number of covalent bonds an atom is capable of making based on its number of valence electrons (ie oxygen, with 2 valence electrons, has a bonding capacity of 2) Also called the atom’s valence. It equals the number of electrons needed to complete the valence shell. Electronegativity is the attraction of a given atom for electrons in a covalent bond. The higher the electronegativity, the harder that atom pulls on the shared electrons Nonpolar Covalent bond means that there is no net charge on either atom in a given covalent bond, occurs when the atoms have equal electronegativity Polar Covalent bonds are when there is an electronegativity imbalance, which results in a positive charge on the atom with lower electronegativity and a negative charge on the atom with the higher electronegativity Molecules are the smallest piece of a chemical reaction, a molecule is a group of atoms bonded together Ionic Compounds, AKA “salts” are not molecules. Salts are a set ratio of elements, not a set number of them like covalent compounds. Cation is a positively charged ion (Ions are just charged atoms) Anion is a negatively charged ion (Ions are just charged atoms) Chemical Reactions: Reactants are the things you put in to a chemical reaction to make things happen Chemical Reactions: Products are the things you get out of a chemical reaction after things happen Explanations, Elaborations, and Fun Facts The Important Elements Only 20-25% of the elements are essential to life; 17 for plants and 25 for humans Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen make up 96% of living matter Atom Stats Proton Mass is expressed as 1.7E-24 grams, which is one millionth of one billionth of one billionth, as 1 amu, which is an atomic mass unit, or as 1 dalton. Neutron Mass is expressed as 1.7E-24 grams, which is one millionth of one billionth of one billionth, as 1 amu, which is an atomic mass unit, or as 1 dalton. Yeah, they’re equal Electrons basically have negligible mass; 1/2,000 amu Radioactivity Radioactive Isotopes of elements have spontaneously decaying nucleases. Cells can still use radioactive isotopes just like they would non- radioactive isotopes This has led to RIs being used as tracers to help visualize cell metabolism Half lives range in duration from seconds to billions of years. Electron Energy and Valence Electrons have the greatest potential energy farthest from the nucleus Electron potential energy moves in stair steps, not as a gradual curve This is because electrons can’t spend much time between electron shells, they jump from level to level too quickly The distribution of electrons within the electron shells determines its chemical behavior Shell 1 only has a spherical s orbit, and so only holds 2 electrons Shell 2 has an s orbit as well as three dumbbell-like p orbits, and so holds 8 electrons The chemical behavior of atoms is determined by the number of valence electrons it has Only electrons are directly involved in chemical reactions because electrons are mostly empty space Atomic Bonds The strongest bonds are covalent bonds and (dry) ionic bonds A pair of atoms bonded by a covalent bond make a molecule A pair of atoms bonded by an ionic bond do not make a molecule rd Bonding Capacity for covalent bonds gets complicated in the 3 row of the periodic table and varies from element to element. For example Phosphorus has 3 unbounded electrons, but can form 3 single bonds as well as a double bond, giving it a bonding capacity of 5. Weak bonds play a huge role in atomic chemistry as well as just (dry) ionic and covalent bonds because weak bonds can be broken Hydrogen Bonds occur when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to an electronegative atom. The hydrogen becomes positively charged which allows it to be attract and connect to other negative atoms. Hydrogen bonds hold DNA together. When an ionic compound gets wet, it dissolves but is still weakly bonded within the solution allowing multiple atomic interactions Van der Waals Interactions are a result of constant electron movement, which allows even nonpolar molecules to have polarity, in that they have slightly positive and slightly negative regions. This can make things stick together, so long as they’re close together. The ability of geckos to run straight up walls has been attributed to Van der Waals Interactions. Molecular Shape Molecular shape determines how an atoms recognize and interact with one another If they have complimentary shapes, they can form temporary weak bonds This is how heroin works, the molecular shapes bond to endorphin receptors in the brain which means the real endorphins can’t link up the way they should. One Last Word on Chemical Reactions Matter is always conserved in a chemical reactions. Even though the thing you get out of it, the product, looks different from the thing you put in, the reactants, it’s the same amount of matter that has been scrambled up. All chemical reactions are reversible, they can all go both ways Chemical Equilibrium happens when the reaction is going forwards as fast as it is going backwards. It’s a dynamic equilibrium, which means that even though it has reached a form of stasis it’s still moving but it’s moving equally in both directions. All About Water! Water accounts for ¾ of the earth’s surface. All forms of life were aquatic for 3 billion years Water is considered the Biological Solvent; it’s the only one that occurs naturally in our Biosphere. Water is the only commonly, naturally occurring substance to exist in all 3 states in the natural environment Water has polar covalent bonds, with partially negative charged hydrogens and a partially positively charged oxygen. This is vitally important. This allows hydrogen bonds to form between other water molecules, which results in a phenomena called cohesion. o Cohesion; when a thing sticks to itself (like the sticky side of duct tape when it sticks to itself) o Adhesion; when a thing sticks to other things (like the sticky side of duct tape sticking to a wall) Water’s hydrogen bonds are 1/20 as strong as covalent bonds. This means they break and reform constantly, (each bond lasts about 3 trillions of a second) which allows water to be both adhesive and cohesive. Water forms a hydration shell around dissolved ionic compounds 4 Super Special Properties about water Water Molecule Cohesion; there are two really important things about the fact that water is cohesive. Water’s cohesive properties allow for enough surface tension to support small bugs walking across its surface, and it allows plants to transport nutrients against gravity. Trees suck water up their roots, and as the water evaporates off of the leaves, it pulls the chain of water molecules up, resulting in a vertical flow of water supporting the plant. This is also helped along by water’s adhesive properties, because the water molecules can ‘stick’ to the walls of the plant. Temperature Moderation by Water; water is a heat bank. It has a high specific heat of 1.0 calories/gram*C because of its hydrogen bonds. Heat must be absorbed to break the bonds and heat must be released when the bonds form. That means it takes forever to heat water up but also forever to cool it back down. This is important because it means the ocean keeps the coast line a little warmer in the winter and a little cooler in the summer time. It’s stable and it stabilizes the environment. The Floating of Ice on Liquid Water; this is so important. If ice sank, everything would freeze over and there would be no life on earth. In the summer only the top few inches of the ocean would thaw and the rest of all of the oceans would remain frozen solid. Life on earth only survived the last ice age because it was under an insulating layer of ice. That layer of ice protects the rest of the water from also being frozen into ice. This is because the hydrogen bonds in water expand when it freezes, which results in a density 10% less than water at 4*C (the densest water ever gets) Evaporative Cooling; this is mostly self explanatory. When the hottest bits of the water evaporates, what’s left is slightly cooler. What is not immediately apparent is why that’s so important. This is the main way that thermoregulation happens; this is how people and animals cool down, and the way bodies of water moderate heat. Dogs pant, and as the water evaporates off their tongues, they’re able to cool down. Humans sweat, and as the sweat, and as the sweat evaporates, our bodies are able to cool. A Quick Unit on Temperature and Heat Everything that moves has kinetic energy In relation to atoms, kinetic energy is thermal energy Thermal energy =/= Temperature. o Temperature is the average kinetic energy, without regard for the volume. o Thermal Energy is the total kinetic energy, and is highly concerned with volume Heat is the transfer of thermal energy One calorie, c, is the amount of energy required to heat 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius (or the amount of energy required to cool 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius) One Kilocalorie, C, is the amount of energy it takes to heat 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius (or the amount of energy required to cool 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius) One Joule equals .239 calories. One calorie equals 4.184 joules. And Water Dissolved Things Water can dissolve nonionic polar molecules and ionic compounds. Even proteins can dissolve in water, as long they’re polar enough for water to grab on to Hydrophobic substances have no affinity for water and cannot be dissolved by it. The oil family is hydrophobic, and so most cell membranes and structures are made out of oil related materials (oils have nonpolar covalent bonds) Hydrophilic substances have an affinity for water and thusly can be dissolved by it Molarity, Moles and Ms Molecular mass is the sum of all the protons and neutrons in a compound (the sum of all the masses of all the atoms in the compound) A Mole is 6.02E23 molecules. 6.02E23 daltons is a gram. Molarity is the number of moles of a given compound in a solution, this tells you the strength of the concentrate of the solution. The PH Scale Sometimes when hydrogen bonds are forming and breaking, one atom of H2O will steal a Hydrogen from another H2O, forming H3O (Hydronium) and OH (Hydroxide) Acids have a lot of hydronium and a little hydroxide. Bases have a lot of hydroxide and a little hydronium. Pure water is exactly in the middle of the scale. It’s a 7. Solutions with a higher number are basic, solutions with a lower number are acidic. Bleach, a basic compound, has a PH of 13. Battery Acid, an acidic compound, has a PH of 2. Macro Molecules 4 major types o Proteins o Lipids o Carbohydrates o Nucleic Acids Carbs come in 3 forms; polysaccharides, disaccharides, and monosaccharides. Most abundant macromolecules o Monosachhrides are simple sugars, primary example is glucose o Disaccharides are made of 2 sugar monomers bound together, primary example is sucrose o Polysaccharides are made of chains of sugar, in plants the main example is starch, in animals it’s glycogen. Cellulose is a polysaccharide and is the most common of the carbohydrates Lipids are not water soluble and include oils, fats, and phospholipids. Plants use oil, animals use fats. o Phospholipids are a major part of cell membranes. Its tail is hydrophilic and its tail is hydrophobic. Cell membrane is made of a double layer of phospholipids. o Steroids are made of fused hydrocarbon rings. Natural steroids include both estrogen and testosterone. Proteins are made of amino acids which are composed of anime, carboxyl acid, and a side chain. Peptide bonds create protein polymers. The next level of protein structure is the folding of this string of amino acids. The third level is made of the interactions between those folded strings. Includes enzymes, keratin, and antibodies. Proteins help regulate physical processes. Nucleic Acids includes DNA and RNA. The monomers that make this up are called nucleotides. Made of a phosphate group, a base, and a sugar. o DNA has 4 nucleotides, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. They form a double helix; A matches with T, and C matches with G. The nucleotides are held together with hydrogen bonds, and the deoxyribose sugar/phosphate groups are the backbone. o RNA is basically the same as DNA, except RNA’s sugar is ribose, which has one less oxygen. There’s Uracil rather than Thymine to match with the Adenine. And finally, RNA is single stranded rather than double helix. There’s messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA. mRNA translates DNA information, tRNA is involved primarily in protein synthesis, and rRNA watches over the protein synthesis of the cell
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