Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 1010
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Payton Chance on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide 1. What is psychology? ____________________________________________________________ 2. What is psychology’s goal? ____________________________________________________ 3. Focuses on the brain, nervous system, and other biological functions. What approach is this? a. Biological Approach b. Behavioral Approach c. Psychodynamic Approach d. Humanistic Approach 4. Scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environment determinants. What approach is this? a. Cognitive Approach b. Humanistic Approach c. Sociocultural Approach d. Behavioral Approach 5. Looks at the conflict between biological drives and the demands of society and especially focuses on early childhood experiences. What approach is this? a. Psychodynamic Approach b. Humanistic Approach c. Cognitive Approach d. Behavioral Approach 6. This approach states that all individuals have an inborn drive to grow, develop, and be fulfilled. There is an emphasis on free will. What approach is this? a. Cognitive Approach b. Evolutionary Approach c. Sociocultural Approach d. Humanistic Approach 7. Focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world. The brain is viewed as a problem- solving computer. What approach is this? a. Sociocultural Approach b. Evolutionary Approach c. Cognitive Approach d. Psychodynamic Approach 8. This approach uses evolutionary principles such as adaptation reproduction and natural selection to explain the origins of human behaviors. What approach is this? a. Sociocultural Approach b. Evolutionary Approach c. Humanistic Approach d. Cognitive Approach 9. This approach examines the influences of society and culture on behavior. What approach is this? a. Humanistic Approach b. Behavioral Approach c. Biological Approach d. Sociocultural Approach 10. If you’re studying alcoholism what kind of question would you ask for the biological perspective? a. What reward do you receive when you drink? b. Does alcoholism run in the family? c. Where did the genetic basis start? d. How do you process your thoughts when you are drinking verses when you are sober. 11. If you’re studying alcoholism what kind of question would you ask for the behavioral perspective? a. What problems do you face that makes you want to drink alcohol? b. Where did the genetic basis start? c. In what cultures do we find alcohol is used on a daily basis versus those that don’t encourage it and what are the statistics for alcoholism? d. What reward do you receive when you drink? 12. If you’re studying alcoholism what kind of question would you ask for the Humanistic perspective? a. What problems do you face that makes you want to drink alcohol. b. Where did the genetic basis start? c. Is alcoholism hereditary? d. If you drink will you feel like you fit in? 13. What type of research is Naturalistic observation, surveys, and case study’s in? a. Correlation b. Experimental c. Descriptive 14. What is Naturalistic Observation? 15. What advantages and disadvantages for naturalistic observation? a. Advantages b. Disadvantages 16. What are surveys? 17. What are surveys advantages and disadvantages? a. Advantages b. Disadvantages 18. What are Case Studies? 19. What are case studies advantages and disadvantages? a. Advantages b. Disadvantages 20. The relationship between two variables is examined to determine if they are associated. What type of research is this? a. Correlation A b. Descriptive c. Experimental 21. What is an example of positive correlation? a. The sun rises and temperature rises with it. b. The more you exercise the more you weight you lose 22. Which correlation is the strongest? a. -.80 b. .10 23. What is treatment? 24. What is an experimental group? 25. What is a control group? 26. What is an independent variable? 27. What is a dependent variable? 28. What is random assignment? 29. Pharmaceutical Company X conducted an experiment to determine if its new migraine headache pill would alleviate migraine headaches. What is the independent and dependent variable? Independent: Dependent: 30. Does the study measure the real world issues it is supposed to measure… What type of validity is this? a. External b. Internal 31. Are changes in the dependent variable due to the manipulation of the independent variable… What type of validity is this? a. External b. Internal 32. What is experimental bias? 33. What are demand characteristics? 34. Name the 5 guidelines of an experiment - - - - - 35. Kim Driggers and Tasha Helms, members of Psi Chi, the National Honor Society for Psychology, performed a study that involved an evaluation of salary as a factor in dating at Oklahoma State University (Driggers & Helms, 2000). They asked college students to view pictures of people of the opposite sex, told the college students the people in each picture earned $20,000, $60,000, or $100,000 per year, and asked the students to indicate how willing they would be to go on a date with each of the people in the pictures. They found that the participants’ willingness to date increased with salary. This was especially true among women viewing men who earned $100,000 per year. The Informed Consent Form used by Driggers and Helms did not inform students that the purpose of the study was to explore salary as a factor in dating. Is this study in accordance with the American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Guidelines? 36. Kim Driggers and Tasha Helms, members of Psi Chi, the National Honor Society for Psychology, performed a study that involved an evaluation of salary as a factor in dating at Oklahoma State University (Driggers & Helms, 2000). They asked college students to view pictures of people of the opposite sex, told the college students the people in each picture earned $20,000, $60,000, or $100,000 per year, and asked the students to indicate how willing they would be to go on a date with each of the people in the pictures. They found that the participants’ willingness to date increased with salary. This was especially true among women viewing men who earned $100,000 per year. The Informed Consent Form used by Driggers and Helms did not inform students that the purpose of the study was to explore salary as a factor in dating. In order for the Driggers and Helms’ study to be ethical, the researchers would have to: a. Let the participants know that they can leave the experiment at any time after signing the Informed Consent Form without experiencing any adverse consequences. b. Offer the student participants another activity (besides participating in an experiment) to fulfill the research participation requirement or to earn extra credit in the course. c. Explain any reasonably foreseeable factors that may be expected to influence the student participants’ willingness to participate in the study (such as potential risks, discomfort, or adverse effects). d. All of the above are true. 37. Which nerves carry messages to the brain and spinal chord? a. Afferent nerves b. Efferent nerves 38. What are neural networks? 39. You are listening to a lecture when the bell rings in the hallway. In order to hear this stimulus, ______ neurons must carry electrochemical messages from your ears to your brain. 40. What is the Central Nervous System? 41. What is the Peripheral Nervous System? 42. Which division of the peripheral nervous system is voluntary? a. Somatic division b. Autonomic division 43. Which division of the autonomic includes calming and slow heart rate and slow breathing? a. Sympathetic b. Parasympathetic 44. What are neurons? 45. What are dendrites? 46. What is the axon? 47. What is the myelin sheath? 48. What are the terminal buttons? 49. Is the neuron negatively charged or positively charged at resting potential? 50. What charge is action potential? 51. What is the allornothing principle? 52. What is the synapse? 53. What are neurotransmitters? 54. What do Selective Seratonin Reputake Inhibitors (SSRIs) do? 55. What relays information between lower and higher brain centers? a. Medulla b. Cerebellum c. Thalamus 56. What is a diffused collection of neurons involved in arousal and stereotyped patterns such as walking? a. Pons b. Reticular formation c. Hypothalamus 57. What governs sleep and arousal? a. Thalamus b. Pons c. Cerebellum 58. What governs breathing and reflexes? a. Pons b. Cerebellum c. Medulla 59. What is a rounded structure involved in motor coordination? a. Medulla b. Cerebellum c. Amygdala 60. What governs eating, drinking, and sex and plays a role in emotion and stress? a. Hippocampus b. Cerebral Cortex c. Hypothalamus 61. What is involved in memory? a. Hippocampus b. Amygdala c. Cerebral Cortex 62. What is involved in fear and the discrimination of objects necessary for survival? a. Cerebral Cortex b. Medulla c. Amygdala 63. What is the extensive, wrinkled outer layer of the forebrain and governs higher brain functions such as thinking, learning, and consciousness? a. Cerebral Cortex b. Hypothalamus c. Amygdala 64. What lobe is associated with hearing and advanced visual processing? a. Parietal lobe b. Temporal lobe c. Frontal lobe 65. What lobe is associated with vision? a. Frontal lobe b. Parietal lobe c. Occipital lobe 66. What lobe is associated with body sensation? a. Temporal lobe b. Parietal lobe c. Frontal lobe 67. What lobe is associated with cognition, recent memory, planning of movement, and some aspects of emotion? a. Frontal lobe b. Occipital lobe c. Temporal lobe 68. If a person’s cerebellum were damaged what would you expect to be damaged? 69. The most complex mental functions such as thinking and planning take place where? 70. What does it mean when the hemispheres operate contra laterally? 71. What is lateralization? 72. What hemisphere has to do with verbal abilities, thinking, reading, reasoning, and is sequential? a. Left b. Right 73. What hemisphere has to do with emotional expression and is artistic and visual/spatial and is global? a. Left b. Right 74. What is the dominaterecessive genes principle? 75. What is behavior genetics? 76. What is genotype? 77. What is phenotype? 78. Are a person’s phenotype and genotype always the same? Answer Key: 1.The scientific study of behaviors and mental processes 2. To describe, predict, explain, and control behavior 3. A 4. D 5. A 6. D 7. C 8. B 9. D 10. B 11. D 12. D 13. C 14. Behavior is observed in its natural environment with no interference 15. Advantages: Natural, spontanteous behavior Disadvantages: researcher has no control 16. a representative sample of people are asked questions about various topics 17. Advantages: quick and inexpensive Disadvantages: sample may not be representative, bias may skew results, people may not respond honestly. 18. Behavior of one person or a group of people is studied in depth 19. Advantages: provides detailed, descriptive information, useful for forming hypotheses. 20. A 21. A 22. A 23. Manipulation used by an experimenter 24. group that receives treatment manipulation 25. group that does not receive treatment manipulation 26. the variable being manipulated 27. the variable being measured 28. every person that participates in the study has an equal chance getting assigned to a certain group. 29. Independent: the drug Dependent: the migraine headache 30. A 31. B 32. The experimenter’s expectations can influence the research 33. anything that tells the participants how the researcher wants them to behave 34. protection of participants from physical and mental harm, right of participants to privacy, voluntary participation, debriefing at conclusion of study, deception ( researchers can lie to you up to a point there has to be a good reason 35. Yes, as long as the experimenters at the end explain their true purpose at the conclusion of the study, and give the participants a chance to withdraw their data. 36. D 37. A 38. Networks of nerve cells that integrate sensory and motor nerves 39. afferent 40. brain and spinal chord 41. network of long nerves 42. A 43. B 44. Nerve cells that process information and allow communication throughout the body 45. Receive messages from all the neurons around them (branches out of the neuron) 46. The long body of the neuron 47. Protein and fat that insulates the axon itself so the electrical signals can get where they need to go. 48. The message leaves the neuron and goes to the next neuron that is waiting 49. Negatively charged at rest 50. Positively charged 51. Neuron either fires or does not fire (no difference in strength) 52. Space between axon of sending neuron and dendrites of receiving neuron 53. Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse 54. Stop the reuptake of the serotonin so that the next time a neurotransmitter comes through there will be excess. 55. C 56. B 57. B 58. C 59. B 60. C 61. A 62. C 63. A 64. B 65. C 66. B 67. A 68. Balance and coordination 69. Cerebral cortex 70. The left controls the right half of your body the right controls the left half of your body 71. The dominance of one hemisphere 72. A 73. B 74. Dominant genes override recessive genes, recessive genes appear only if both genes in a pair are recessive 75. The study of heredity’s influence on behavior 76. A person’s genetic heritage 77. The individuals observable characteristics 78. No.
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