Dr. Streit Exam 1 Study Guide
Dr. Streit Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 1030 - 003
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1030 - 003 at Auburn University taught by John D Gorden in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Rachel Ferrell CHEM 1030 Exam 1 Study Guide: Chapter 1-‐3 Chapter 1 Vocab: • Chemistry= the study of matter and changes matter undergoes • Matter=anything that takes up space • Law=a concise statement that makes relations b/w phenomena • Theory= unifying principle that explains a large set of experimental observations; can predict future phenomena • Mixture= a combo of two or more substances; each retain unique identity • Homogeneous mixture= uniform throughout; solutions • Heterogeneous mixture= not uniform throughout; can be separated by physical processes • Physical change= does not change identity of substance; ex. Changing from solid→liquid→gas • Physical Properties= ex. Color, melting point, boiling point • Chemical change=when something reacts with something else; changes identity of substance; ex. Combustion, oxidation, rusting • Extensive properties=depends on amount of matter • Intensive properties= does not depend on amount of matter; ex. Density and temperature • Exact measurement= those that have defined values or can be counted • Inexact measurement= length, mass, volume, etc. • Accuracy= how close measurement is to the true value • Precision= how close a series of replicate measurements are to one another Concepts to Know: Also: ▯ • Base SI Units Volume: ???? = L or cm =mL • • Equations: ▯▯▯▯ o Density = ▯▯▯▯▯▯ o K = C +273.15 o C = K-‐273.15 o F = ( x temp in C) +32 ▯ • Sig Fig Rules o 1) Any non-‐zero number→significant o 2) Any 0 between non-‐zero number→significant o 3) 0 to the left of first non-‐zero (0.0023)→not significant o 4) 0s to the right of the last non-‐zero number if the number has a decimal (1.100)→significant o 5) 0s to the right of last non-‐zero number without decimals (340)→significant or not significant Chapter 2 Vocab: • atom= the smallest quantity of matter that still retains characteristics • Democritus= first person to propose atom • John Dalton= proposed subatomic particles • Coulomb’s Law= opposite charges attract; like charges repel • JJ Thomson= used Cathode ray to discover electron (negatively charged) ???? o Charge-‐to-‐mass ratio of electrons= 1.76 X ???????? C/g • Millikan= used oil drops to discover charge of one electron = -‐1.602C and the mass of one electron = 9.10 X g • Rutherford= used gold foil experiment to propose that nucleus was positive (protons= + and neutrons= neutral) • Chadwick= discovered neutrons • Alpha(????) Rays= (+) charge • Beta (????) Rays= (-‐) charge, electrons • Gamma (????) Rays= neutral charge, like X-‐rays because no charge Ch 2 Conepts to know: ▯ • ▯ ????→ X= element and symbol; A=Mass#(protons+neutrons); Z= atomic # (protons) • Neutron-‐to-‐proton ratio= the more protons there are, the more they repel each other, therefore they need more neutrons to counteract these forces; if more protons→more neutrons • Periodic Table o Periods= rows o Groups=columns o Group 6A=Chalcogens (not listed on chart) o Group 2A = Alkaline Earth Metals • Equations: o Average Atomic Mass= (???????????????????????????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯)(???????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯) + (???????????????????????????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯)(???????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯) o Avagadro’s Number= 6.022 x 10 23 Chapter 3 Vocab: • Electromagnetic spectrum= continuum of radiant energy • Wavelength(????)= distance between identical points on succeeding waves • Frequency (v) = number of waves that pass through a point in 1 second • Amplitude= vertical distance from midline of a wave to the top peak of bottom of a trough • Quantum= smallest quantity of energy that can be omitted in the form of radiation • Quantam mechanics= defines region where electron is most likely to be • Electron density=probability that an electron will be found in a certain region • Pauli Exclusion Principle= no two electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers (can’t be in the same place at once • Aufbau Principle= electron fills lowest energy level first • Hund’s Rule=every orbital gets one electron before one gets two • Degenerate= orbitals have equal energy (3 orbitals of 2p(6 electrons) all equal) • Quantum Numbers o Principle quantum number(n)= size of orbital o Angular quantum number (l) = shape of orbital o Magnetic quantum number(m )= orientation l of orbital in space o Electron Spin quantum number (m )= spin (+1/2 or -‐1/2) s • Atomic Orbitals o S-‐orbital→spheres; l=0 o P-‐orbital→dumbbells; l=1; m=-‐1,0,+1 l o D-‐orbital→clover shape; l=2; m= -‐2l-‐1,0,1,2 o F-‐orbital→abstract shape; l=3 • Lanthanide (Rare Earth Metals)= first row of elements at the bottom • Actinide Series= second row of elements at the bottom • Paramagnetic= an element with one or more unpaired electrons • Diamagnetic= all electrons are paired Ch 3 Conepts to know: • Electromagnetic Spectrum (know everything on this pic) • • Equations o C= ???? × ???? 8 8 § C= speed of light= 2.99792458 x 10 m/s OR 3.00 x 10 m/s § ????= wavelength (nm) § ???? = frequency (Hz or sec ) o E= hv § E= energy (J/mol) -‐34 § H= planck’s constant= 6.63 x 10 J/sec • Electron configuration Rules Use this chart to order orbitals by increasing energy o o Noble Gas Core Notation= Shows in brackets the completed-‐shell electron configuration of the noble gas right before the element in question, followed by the electron configuration of the outermost occupied subshells § Basically a shortcut to writing out the whole electron config § [Ar] 4s § Exceptions→Chromium and Copper Chapter 4 Vocab: • John Newlands= law of octaves; ordered elements by weight • Meyer and Mendeleev= periodicity • Moseley= ordered elements by atomic number (# of protons) • Effective nuclear charge(Z )= actual magnitude of positive charge experienced by an electron in eff the atom o Increasing electron shielding from left→right on periodic table • Atomic radius= distance between nucleus and valence shell o Increases from left→right and top→bottom • Ionization energy= remove electron in a gas phase; absorbs energy o Increases with nuclear charge o Decreases from top→bottom • Electron affinity= accepts electron in gas phase; releases energy
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