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Dr. Streit Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Streit Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 1030 - 003

Marketplace > Auburn University > Chemistry > CHEM 1030 - 003 > Dr Streit Exam 1 Study Guide
Rachel Ferrell
GPA 4.0

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Chapter 1-4
Fundamentals Chemistry I
John D Gorden
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1030 - 003 at Auburn University taught by John D Gorden in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Rachel  Ferrell   CHEM  1030     Exam  1  Study  Guide:  Chapter  1-­‐3     Chapter  1  Vocab:   • Chemistry=  the  study  of  matter  and  changes  matter  undergoes   • Matter=anything  that  takes  up  space   • Law=a  concise  statement  that  makes  relations  b/w  phenomena   • Theory=  unifying  principle  that  explains  a  large  set  of  experimental  observations;  can  predict   future  phenomena   • Mixture=  a  combo  of  two  or  more  substances;  each  retain  unique  identity   • Homogeneous  mixture=  uniform  throughout;  solutions   • Heterogeneous  mixture=  not  uniform  throughout;  can  be  separated  by  physical  processes   • Physical  change=  does  not  change  identity  of  substance;  ex.  Changing  from  solid→liquid→gas   • Physical  Properties=  ex.  Color,  melting  point,  boiling  point   • Chemical  change=when  something  reacts  with  something  else;  changes  identity  of  substance;  ex.   Combustion,  oxidation,  rusting   • Extensive  properties=depends  on  amount  of  matter   • Intensive  properties=  does  not  depend  on  amount  of  matter;  ex.  Density  and  temperature   • Exact  measurement=  those  that  have  defined  values  or  can  be  counted   • Inexact  measurement=  length,  mass,  volume,  etc.   • Accuracy=  how  close  measurement  is  to  the  true  value   • Precision=  how  close  a  series  of  replicate  measurements  are  to  one  another     Concepts  to  Know:   Also:   ▯ • Base  SI  Units   Volume:  ???? =  L  or  cm =mL   •       • Equations:   ▯▯▯▯ o Density  =     ▯▯▯▯▯▯ o K  =  C  +273.15   o C  =  K-­‐273.15   o F  =  (    x  temp  in  C)  +32   ▯ • Sig  Fig  Rules   o 1)  Any  non-­‐zero  number→significant   o 2)  Any  0  between  non-­‐zero  number→significant   o 3)  0  to  the  left  of  first  non-­‐zero  (0.0023)→not  significant   o 4)  0s  to  the  right  of  the  last  non-­‐zero  number  if  the  number  has  a  decimal   (1.100)→significant     o 5)  0s  to  the  right  of  last  non-­‐zero  number  without  decimals  (340)→significant  or  not   significant       Chapter  2  Vocab:   • atom=  the  smallest  quantity  of  matter  that  still  retains  characteristics   • Democritus=  first  person  to  propose  atom   • John  Dalton=  proposed  subatomic  particles   • Coulomb’s  Law=  opposite  charges  attract;  like  charges  repel   • JJ  Thomson=  used  Cathode  ray  to  discover  electron  (negatively  charged)   ???? o Charge-­‐to-­‐mass  ratio  of  electrons=  1.76  X  ????????  C/g   • Millikan=  used  oil  drops  to  discover  charge  of  one  electron  =  -­‐1.602C  and  the  mass    of   one  electron  =  9.10  X  g   • Rutherford=  used  gold  foil  experiment  to  propose  that  nucleus  was  positive  (protons=  +  and   neutrons=  neutral)   • Chadwick=  discovered  neutrons   • Alpha(????)  Rays=  (+)  charge   • Beta  (????)  Rays=  (-­‐)  charge,  electrons   • Gamma  (????)  Rays=  neutral  charge,  like  X-­‐rays  because  no  charge     Ch  2  Conepts  to  know:   ▯ • ▯ ????→  X=  element  and  symbol;  A=Mass#(protons+neutrons);  Z=  atomic  #  (protons)   • Neutron-­‐to-­‐proton  ratio=  the  more  protons  there  are,  the  more  they  repel  each  other,  therefore   they  need  more  neutrons  to  counteract  these  forces;  if  more  protons→more  neutrons   • Periodic  Table     o Periods=  rows   o Groups=columns   o Group  6A=Chalcogens   (not  listed  on  chart)   o Group  2A  =  Alkaline   Earth  Metals       • Equations:   o Average  Atomic  Mass=     (???????????????????????????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯  ▯)(???????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯  ▯)  +  (???????????????????????????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯  ▯)(???????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯  ▯)   o Avagadro’s  Number=  6.022  x  10   23   Chapter  3  Vocab:   • Electromagnetic  spectrum=  continuum  of  radiant  energy   • Wavelength(????)=  distance  between  identical  points  on  succeeding  waves   • Frequency  (v)  =  number  of  waves  that  pass  through  a  point  in  1  second   • Amplitude=  vertical  distance  from  midline  of  a  wave  to  the  top  peak  of  bottom  of  a  trough   • Quantum=  smallest  quantity  of  energy  that  can  be  omitted  in  the  form  of  radiation   • Quantam  mechanics=  defines  region  where  electron  is  most  likely  to  be     • Electron  density=probability  that  an  electron  will  be  found  in  a  certain  region   • Pauli  Exclusion  Principle=  no  two  electrons  can  have  the  same  4  quantum  numbers  (can’t  be  in   the  same  place  at  once   • Aufbau  Principle=  electron  fills  lowest  energy  level  first   • Hund’s  Rule=every  orbital  gets  one  electron  before  one  gets  two   • Degenerate=  orbitals  have  equal  energy  (3  orbitals  of  2p(6  electrons)  all  equal)   • Quantum  Numbers   o Principle  quantum  number(n)=  size  of  orbital   o Angular  quantum  number  (l)  =  shape  of  orbital   o Magnetic  quantum  number(m )=  orientation l  of  orbital  in  space   o Electron  Spin  quantum  number  (m )=  spin  (+1/2  or  -­‐1/2)   s • Atomic  Orbitals   o S-­‐orbital→spheres;  l=0   o P-­‐orbital→dumbbells;  l=1;  m=-­‐1,0,+1 l  o D-­‐orbital→clover  shape;  l=2;  m=  -­‐2l-­‐1,0,1,2   o F-­‐orbital→abstract  shape;  l=3   • Lanthanide  (Rare  Earth  Metals)=  first  row  of  elements  at  the  bottom   • Actinide  Series=  second  row  of  elements  at  the  bottom   • Paramagnetic=  an  element  with  one  or  more  unpaired  electrons   • Diamagnetic=  all  electrons  are  paired         Ch  3  Conepts  to  know:   • Electromagnetic  Spectrum  (know  everything  on  this  pic)   •   • Equations   o C=  ????  ×  ????   8   8 § C=  speed  of  light=  2.99792458  x  10 m/s  OR  3.00  x  10  m/s   § ????=  wavelength  (nm)   § ???? =  frequency  (Hz  or  sec )   o E=  hv   § E=  energy  (J/mol)   -­‐34 § H=  planck’s  constant=  6.63  x  10  J/sec   • Electron  configuration  Rules   Use  this  chart  to   order  orbitals   by  increasing   energy   o   o Noble  Gas  Core  Notation=  Shows  in  brackets  the  completed-­‐shell  electron  configuration   of  the  noble  gas  right  before  the  element  in  question,  followed  by  the  electron  configuration   of  the  outermost  occupied  subshells   § Basically  a  shortcut  to  writing  out  the  whole  electron  config   § [Ar]  4s   § Exceptions→Chromium  and  Copper     Chapter  4  Vocab:   • John  Newlands=  law  of  octaves;  ordered  elements  by  weight   • Meyer  and  Mendeleev=  periodicity   • Moseley=  ordered  elements  by  atomic  number  (#  of  protons)   • Effective  nuclear  charge(Z )=  actual  magnitude  of  positive  charge  experienced  by  an  electron  in   eff the  atom   o Increasing  electron  shielding  from  left→right  on  periodic  table   • Atomic  radius=  distance  between  nucleus  and  valence  shell   o Increases  from  left→right  and  top→bottom   • Ionization  energy=  remove  electron  in  a  gas  phase;  absorbs  energy   o Increases  with  nuclear  charge   o Decreases  from  top→bottom   • Electron  affinity=  accepts  electron  in  gas  phase;  releases  energy                          


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