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AU / Chemistry / CHEM 1030 / What homogeneous mixture means?

What homogeneous mixture means?

What homogeneous mixture means?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Fundamentals Chemistry I
Professor: John gorden
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Dr. Streit Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapter 1-4
Uploaded: 02/08/2016
4 Pages 75 Views 8 Unlocks
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Rachel Ferrell


What homogeneous mixture means?



CHEM 1030

Exam 1 Study Guide: Chapter 1-3 

Chapter 1 Vocab: 

• Chemistry= the study of matter and changes matter undergoes

• Matter=anything that takes up space

• Law=a concise statement that makes relations b/w phenomena

• Theory= unifying principle that explains a large set of experimental observations; can predict  future phenomena

• Mixture= a combo of two or more substances; each retain unique identity

• Homogeneous mixture= uniform throughout; solutions

• Heterogeneous mixture= not uniform throughout; can be separated by physical processes • Physical change= does not change identity of substance; ex. Changing from solid→liquid→gas • Physical Properties= ex. Color, melting point, boiling point


What heterogeneous mixture means?



• Chemical change=when something reacts with something else; changes identity of substance; ex.  Combustion, oxidation, rusting

• Extensive properties=depends on amount of matter

• Intensive properties= does not depend on amount of matter; ex. Density and temperature • Exact measurement= those that have defined values or can be counted

• Inexact measurement= length, mass, volume, etc.

• Accuracy= how close measurement is to the true value

• Precision= how close a series of replicate measurements are to one another We also discuss several other topics like What is the principle agent problem?

Concepts to Know: 


What is physical change?



• Base SI Units

• Equations:

o Density =  !"## 

!!"#$%

o K = C +273.15

o C = K-273.15

Also:

Volume: �!= L or cm3=mLIf you want to learn more check out What is the stratum corneum?

o F = ( !! x temp in C) +32

• Sig Fig Rules

o 1) Any non-zero number→significant

o 2) Any 0 between non-zero number→significant

o 3) 0 to the left of first non-zero (0.0023)→not significant

o 4) 0s to the right of the last non-zero number if the number has a decimal  

(1.100)→significant  

o 5) 0s to the right of last non-zero number without decimals (340)→significant or not  significant Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of a state constitution?

Chapter 2 Vocab: 

• atom= the smallest quantity of matter that still retains characteristics

• Democritus= first person to propose atom

• John Dalton= proposed subatomic particles We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of oikos?

• Coulomb’s Law= opposite charges attract; like charges repel

• JJ Thomson= used Cathode ray to discover electron (negatively charged)

o Charge-to-mass ratio of electrons= 1.76 X ��� C/g

• Millikan= used oil drops to discover charge of one electron = -1.6022 X 10-19 C and the mass  of  one electron = 9.10 X 10-28 g

• Rutherford= used gold foil experiment to propose that nucleus was positive (protons= + and  neutrons= neutral)

• Chadwick= discovered neutrons

• Alpha(�) Rays= (+) charge

• Beta (�) Rays= (-) charge, electrons

• Gamma (�) Rays= neutral charge, like X-rays because no charge

Ch 2 Conepts to know: 

• !�! → X= element and symbol; A=Mass#(protons+neutrons); Z= atomic # (protons) • Neutron-to-proton ratio= the more protons there are, the more they repel each other, therefore  they need more neutrons to counteract these forces; if more protons→more neutrons • Periodic Table  We also discuss several other topics like What are the four dietary reference intakes?

o Periods= rows

o Groups=columns

o Group 6A=Chalcogens

(not listed on chart)

o Group 2A = Alkaline

Earth Metals

• Equations:

o Average Atomic Mass=  

(���������!"#$#%& !)(����!"#$#%& !) + (���������!"#$#%& !)(����!"#$#%& !)

o Avagadro’s Number= 6.022 x 1023 

Chapter 3 Vocab: 

• Electromagnetic spectrum= continuum of radiant energy

• Wavelength(�)= distance between identical points on succeeding waves

• Frequency (v) = number of waves that pass through a point in 1 second

• Amplitude= vertical distance from midline of a wave to the top peak of bottom of a trough • Quantum= smallest quantity of energy that can be omitted in the form of radiation • Quantam mechanics= defines region where electron is most likely to be  If you want to learn more check out How are equivalent units of production calculated?

• Electron density=probability that an electron will be found in a certain region

• Pauli Exclusion Principle= no two electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers (can’t be in  the same place at once

• Aufbau Principle= electron fills lowest energy level first

• Hund’s Rule=every orbital gets one electron before one gets two

• Degenerate= orbitals have equal energy (3 orbitals of 2p(6 electrons) all equal) • Quantum Numbers

o Principle quantum number(n)= size of orbital

o Angular quantum number (l) = shape of orbital

o Magnetic quantum number(ml)= orientation of orbital in space

o Electron Spin quantum number (ms)= spin (+1/2 or -1/2)

• Atomic Orbitals

o S-orbital→spheres; l=0

o P-orbital→dumbbells; l=1; ml=-1,0,+1

o D-orbital→clover shape; l=2; ml= -2,-1,0,1,2

o F-orbital→abstract shape; l=3

• Lanthanide (Rare Earth Metals)= first row of elements at the bottom

• Actinide Series= second row of elements at the bottom

• Paramagnetic= an element with one or more unpaired electrons

• Diamagnetic= all electrons are paired

Ch 3 Conepts to know: 

• Electromagnetic Spectrum (know everything on this pic)

• Equations

o C= � × �

▪ C= speed of light= 2.99792458 x 108 m/s OR 3.00 x 108 m/s

▪ �= wavelength (nm)

▪ � = frequency (Hz or sec-1)

o E= hv

▪ E= energy (J/mol)

▪ H= planck’s constant= 6.63 x 10-34 J/sec

• Electron configuration Rules

Use this chart to  

order orbitals  

by increasing  

energy

o

o Noble Gas Core Notation= Shows in brackets the completed-shell electron configuration  of the noble gas right before the element in question, followed by the electron configuration  of the outermost occupied subshells

▪ Basically a shortcut to writing out the whole electron config

▪ [Ar] 4s1 

▪ Exceptions→Chromium and Copper

Chapter 4 Vocab: 

• John Newlands= law of octaves; ordered elements by weight

• Meyer and Mendeleev= periodicity

• Moseley= ordered elements by atomic number (# of protons)

• Effective nuclear charge(Zeff)= actual magnitude of positive charge experienced by an electron in  the atom

o Increasing electron shielding from left→right on periodic table

• Atomic radius= distance between nucleus and valence shell

o Increases from left→right and top→bottom

• Ionization energy= remove electron in a gas phase; absorbs energy

o Increases with nuclear charge

o Decreases from top→bottom

• Electron affinity= accepts electron in gas phase; releases energy

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