ARH 253-002 Exam 1 Study Guide
ARH 253-002 Exam 1 Study Guide ARH 253-002
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 253-002 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rachel Robbins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art II in Art History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
ARH 253002 Exam 1 Study Guide Selection of images to study from: First large scale male nude since antiquity 1. Nicola Pisano Page 456 in textbook Pulpit of the Baptistery Pisa, Italy 12591260 Page 402 in textbook 6. Masaccio Holy Trinity 2. Giovanni Pisano Italy Annunciation, Nativity, and Buon fresco Adoration of the Shepherds Perfect linear perspective Relief on pulpit of Sant’Andrea Donors Pistoia, Italy Memento moiré (reminder of death) Naturalism o Plague, humanism Mary is the center, but not heiarchy Page 463 in textbook of scale Page 403 in textbook 7. Sandro Botticelli Birth of Venus 3. Jan Van Eyck Italy Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride Renaissance Oil paint Humanism Renaissance Patron: Medicci Flanders Page 469 in textbook symbolism Page 430 in textbook 8. Andrea Mantegna Camera Picta 4. Jan Van Eyck Italy Ghent Altarpiece Fresco Flanders Renaissance Early Renaissance Oculus Plyptic Imperial court life Page 429 in textbook o Reception room depicted o Images of casers 5. Donatello Page 482 in textbook David (statue) Bronze 9. Donatello Patron: Medicci Feast of Herod Renaissance Siena, Italy Nude young vulnerability Linear perspective Relief panel from a baptismal font Page 453 in textbook Entombment of Christ Mannerism 10. Limbourg Brothers Italy Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Page 520 in textbook Berry French 16. Matthias Grüenwald Illuminated manuscript Isenheim Altarpiece Page 439 in textbook The Holy Roman Empire 11. Leonardo da Vinci Saint Anthony’s fire, In hospital Mona Lisa Page 536 in textbook Italy Renaissance 17. Caterina van Hemessen 15031505 SelfPortrait Page 491 in textbook North 12. Raphael Painted by a woman Philosophy (School of Athens) Page 549 in textbook Renaissance Fresco 18. Pieter Aertsen Vatican, Italy, located in a library Butcher’s Stall (humanism) Netherlands Page 495 in textbook Allegory of life and death Still life Protestant, covert religious elements 13. Michelangelo Buonarroti Page 548 in textbook David (marble statue) Renaissance 19. Herrera and Toledo Florence El Escorial Page 499 in textbook Spain Renaissance 14. Titian Page 553 in textbook Venus of Urbino Renaissance 20. El Greco Venice, Italy Burial of Count Orgaz Oil Spain Page 517 in textbook Renaissance 1586 15. Pontormo Page 554 in textbook th 13 Century: Late Medieval OR ProtoRenaissance Some using Maniera greca (In the Greek Style) Some working the revived classical tradition NOT EVERYTHING IS THE SAME 1. _____ Confraternities A. Taking pieces of architecture from different important buildings 2. _____ Maniera Greca B. Taking the most important thing and making it the biggest 3. _____ Spolia C. Religious figures in Christianity who devote their lives to good works (monks) 4. _____Stigmata D. Everything covered in marble E. Lay people who are devoted to 5. _____ Monastic Orders performing good works but aren’t affiliated 6. _____Hierarchy of Scale with any religious organizations F. Wounds of the passion G. In the Greek style; flat, two dimensional, 7. _____ Incrustation figures look like they’re floating in space, GOLD backgrounds, etc. Three major stylistic elements of late medieval/protoRenaissance art: 1. Gothic Art 2. Classical Art 3. Maniera greca Lorenzo Maintani Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy Cathedral complex, Pisa, Italy o Three things that make up a Cathedral complex Baptistery Cathedral Bell Tower (campile) o 10631174 Pietro Lorenzetti Birth of the Virgin Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy 1342 Triptych – 3 panels Ambrogio Lorrenzetti Peaceful City, detail from The Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country o Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy o 13381339 Influences of the time: Black death Humanism Natural world Giotto as turning point in painting Sienese school of painting Maniera greca and humanizes figures Secular themes 14 Century Italy French gothic as a front on timberroofed, earlyChristian style churches 14 Century: The Seeds of the Renaissance City states o All separate, ruled by small groups of people/princes/dukes Vernacular o Common tongue Dante o Author o Published books in the vernacular (common tongue) Humanism o What it means to be part of your society o Outside of religion Petrarch o Author o Published books in the vernacular Vasari o Author o Published books in the vernacular Regional pride o Proud of where you came from o Being a good citizen Difference between 13 and 14 century ProtoRenaissance? Use of the vernacular Humanism Giotto Di Bondone Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets o Looking at the real world o Attempts shading o Moving towards Naturalism Lamentation, ca. 1305 Arena Chapel Paid for by a private citizen Enrico Scrovegni Fresco (painting on plaster) Progression of story Buon Fresco tru fresco (wet fresco) Giornata What you can paint in a day Northern Europe Dates and places o 14001500 o Burgundy, Flanders, France and the Holy Roman Empire People o Nobles and merchants o Pious and prosperous o Interest in visible world Themes o Life of the Virgin Mary, Christ o Secular images, portraits o Disguised symbolism Forms o Detailed renderings of surfaces and textures o Naturalistic figures and spaces o Oil paint for glowing color Flanders Robert Campin (Master of Flémalle), Mérode Altarpiece, ca. 14251428 o Annunciation in common domestic interior o Disguised symbolism o Donor portraits o For home use o Triptych o Oil paint, glazes Jan Van Eyck o Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 Naturalism is becoming huge Oil God the Father, Adam & Eve, Mary, Crown at the feet of God symbolic of humanity bowing in recognition to God Polyptych Monumental, freestanding altarpiece Donor portraits NATURALISM Redemption (Adam & Eve for Fall) Original Sin of humanity brings the fall of humanity from eating the forbidden fruit Italy For princely patron Propaganda Images of court life Pictoral illusionism Trompe l’ oeil oculus painted di sotto in su Unified perspectival spaces Dates and Places o 15001600 o Rome, Florence, Milan and Venice People o Humanism o Reformation/counterreformation o Powerful courts o Artistgenius Becoming an artist is a long, drawn out process Leonardo di Vinci and Michael Angelo seemingly come out of nowhere during the Renaissance Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel 15081512 Michael Angelo o Numerous contributors o Contains prophets and sibyls Themes of Italy: Christ, Virgin Mary, saints Portraiture Mythology, antiquity Allegory, poesia Forms: Balance, harmony, ideal beauty Venetian color, Mannerist distortion Raphael Madonna in the Meadow o 15051506 Philosophy (School of Athens) o 15091511 o Papal library, allegories of philosophy, theology, poetry, law o Philosophers of antiquity o Semicircular composition, illusionistic space Leonardo da Vinci Last Supper o 14951498 o Fresco Added oil paint into mix to try and improve fresco techniques – unsuccessful Renaissance idea of balance, proportion, and beauty o Mathematical linear perspective o Compositional emphasis on Christ o Unity through pose and movement o Studied emotion o Capturing the observable world Mona Lisa o 15031505 o Woman looking at audience – huge break in convention o Sfumato so blended that its soft and hazy; chiaroscuro (intense light source), atmospheric perspective o Wife of wealthy merchant o Convincing likeness o Personality, boldness o Window onto landscape atmospheric perspective/linear perspective Madonna of the Rocks o Milan, Italy, 1483 Michael Angelo Buonarroti David 15011504 o Visually pleasing proportion, not mathematical rules o Classical figure with emotion o Anticipation of battle Goliath, not victory o Symbol of Florentine liberty Sistine Chapel o Fresco in pope’s chapel o Old testament scenes on ceiling, Judgment on wall o Creation, Fall, Redemption narratives o Ignudi, ancestors, prophets, sibyls o Architectural framework o Expressive human body Donato d’ Angelo Bramante Tempietto 1502(?) Using ancient architecture correctly for the first time since antiquity o Central plan chapel (equidistant on the inside) o Classical order o Added dome o Sculptural architecture of volume and masses, solids and voids o Site of St. Peter’s martyrdom More on Italy Villa Rotonda o Private villa o Near Venice o Central plan o Dome over crossing Likely inspired by pantheon o Four facades like temple portals o Pantheon likely model o Wrote architectural treatise Titian o Venus of Urbino, 1538 Well off Rotund body shape Reclined nude Still not acceptable to paint any nude woman Hence the name Venus Oil, Voluptuous body, smoky shadow (sfumato) Venetian painters love color (colorito), atmosphere, texture Portrait or mythology Color organizes composition Jacopo da Ponntormo o Entombment of Christ, 15251528 Mannerist, short lived period after 1520 Selfconscious, not window into world, vogue Complex, exaggerated, difficult Unnatural colors, unstable composition Not about balance, symmetry, clarity more about fanciness Bronzino o Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, 1546 Allegories of love, very complicated Multiple interpretations Mannerist, unnatural coloration, contortion, exaggerated Lascivious, sensuous Complexity shows artists skill Paolo Veronese o Christ in the House of Levi, Italy, 1573 Comes out of the inquisition, challenges Veronese’s work, so he changes the title to make it acceptable Late Venetian painting Luxurious event Classical setting Invented characters Renaissance balanced composition Meant as an allegory Holy Roman Empire Dates and places: o 15001600 o Germany People: o Martin Luther o Protestant Reformation o Political change Themes: o Christ, Mary, Saints o Portraits Forms: o Renaissance illusionism o Surface description o Naturalism o More focused on education, plays into Protestantism Hans Holbein the Younger o The French Ambassadors, 1533 o Portraits important o Allegories, distorted skull Matthias Grüenwald o Isenheim Altarpiece, 15151515 o Altarpiece for monastery church with hospital o Gruesome description of wounds o Emphasize suffering o Catholic inclusion of Lamb, Christ’s blood, plague saints Albrecht Dürer o Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504 Engraving Animals that stand in as humors of the body Idealized body images, strange proportions Interest in renaissance proportion of human body Combined with European surface description and disguised symbolism The Netherlands Dates and places: o 15001600 o Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg People: o Protestants o Merchant class and peasants o Seek independence from Spain Themes: o Scenes of everyday life with subtle religious content o Practical, peasant life o Fewer altarpieces Forms: o Naturalism o Surface description o Illusionistic space Caterina Van Hemessen o Selfportrait, 1548 Female artist Very modest Very devout Selfportrait of woman can be considered prostitution Pieter Aertsen o Butcher’s Stall, 1551 Biblical scene in background Party scene in background, oysters as aphrodisiac Allegories Scene represents that things aren’t going to last forever Christian symbolism Hieronymus Bosch o Garden of Earthly Delights, 15051510 Triptych Adam and Eve, God, biblical scenes Sin enters the world Hell Unusual painting Possible wedding gift Alchemy? Judgement? Quinten Massys o MoneyChanger and His Wife, 1514 Distraction of earthly desires Protestant scene Moralizing lesson for greedy Subtle religious symbols Study of domestic interiors and daily life Replaces art in churches to instruct faithful Pieter Bruegel the Elder o Hunters in the Snow, 1565 Hunters returning from the hunt Ice skating Fun winter activities Atmospheric perspective, novel composition Observation Relation of man and nature Simple people Illusionistic rendering of genre scene from daily life Spain: Dates and Places: o 15001600 o Iberian Peninsula and the Americas People: o Pious, Catholic o Conservative monarchs o Expanding empire Themes: o Christ, Mary, Saints o Portraits Forms: o Selective application of ideas from Italian Renaissance + Mannerism o Exaggeration to support religious content Exaggerate emotion, colors, meant to hook you and draw you in El Greco o Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586 Herrera and Toledo o El Escorial, 15631584 Palace and monastery Built for king Grid plan refers to martyrdom of titular saint Unornamented style Sienes school of paintint Giottio Giant series of fresco’s in arena chapel Moving away from manera greca
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