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ARH 253-002 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jennifer Gintovt

ARH 253-002 Exam 1 Study Guide ARH 253-002

Jennifer Gintovt
GPA 3.361

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About this Document

Here is my personal study guide for our first exam in ARH 253. This study guide focuses on all the major topics we've discussed that will be covered on the first exam and includes a small section t...
Survey of Art II
Rachel Robbins
Study Guide
ARH 253-002, ARH 253, Art History, Study Guide, Exam 1, Italy, Northern Europe, The Holy Roman Empire, Renaissance
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 253-002 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rachel Robbins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art II in Art History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/07/16
ARH 253­002 Exam 1 Study Guide Selection of images to study from:   First large scale male nude since  antiquity 1. Nicola Pisano  Page 456 in textbook  Pulpit of the Baptistery  Pisa, Italy   1259­1260  Page 402 in textbook 6. Masaccio  Holy Trinity 2. Giovanni Pisano  Italy  Annunciation, Nativity, and   Buon fresco Adoration of the Shepherds  Perfect linear perspective  Relief on pulpit of Sant’Andrea  Donors  Pistoia, Italy  Memento moiré (reminder of death)  Naturalism o Plague, humanism  Mary is the center, but not heiarchy   Page 463 in textbook of scale  Page 403 in textbook 7. Sandro Botticelli  Birth of Venus 3. Jan Van Eyck  Italy  Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride  Renaissance  Oil paint  Humanism  Renaissance  Patron: Medicci   Flanders  Page 469 in textbook  symbolism  Page 430 in textbook 8. Andrea Mantegna   Camera Picta 4. Jan Van Eyck  Italy  Ghent Altarpiece  Fresco  Flanders  Renaissance  Early Renaissance  Oculus  Plyptic  Imperial court life   Page 429 in textbook  o Reception room depicted o Images of casers   5. Donatello  Page 482 in textbook  David (statue)  Bronze 9. Donatello  Patron: Medicci   Feast of Herod  Renaissance  Siena, Italy  Nude young vulnerability  Linear perspective   Relief panel from a baptismal font  Page 453 in textbook  Entombment of Christ  Mannerism 10. Limbourg Brothers  Italy  Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de   Page 520 in textbook Berry  French 16. Matthias Grüenwald  Illuminated manuscript  Isenheim Altarpiece  Page 439 in textbook  The Holy Roman Empire 11. Leonardo da Vinci  Saint Anthony’s fire, In hospital   Mona Lisa  Page 536 in textbook  Italy  Renaissance 17. Caterina van Hemessen  1503­1505  Self­Portrait  Page 491 in textbook  North 12. Raphael  Painted by a woman  Philosophy (School of Athens)  Page 549 in textbook   Renaissance  Fresco  18. Pieter Aertsen  Vatican, Italy, located in a library   Butcher’s Stall (humanism)  Netherlands  Page 495 in textbook  Allegory of life and death  Still life  Protestant, covert religious elements 13. Michelangelo Buonarroti   Page 548 in textbook  David (marble statue)  Renaissance 19. Herrera and Toledo  Florence  El Escorial   Page 499 in textbook  Spain  Renaissance 14. Titian  Page 553 in textbook  Venus of Urbino  Renaissance 20. El Greco  Venice, Italy  Burial of Count Orgaz  Oil  Spain  Page 517 in textbook  Renaissance  1586 15. Pontormo  Page 554 in textbook th 13  Century: Late Medieval OR Proto­Renaissance  Some using Maniera greca (In the Greek Style)  Some working the revived classical tradition  NOT EVERYTHING IS THE SAME 1. _____ Confraternities A. Taking pieces of architecture from  different important buildings 2. _____ Maniera Greca B. Taking the most important thing and  making it the biggest 3. _____ Spolia C. Religious figures in Christianity who  devote their lives to good works (monks) 4. _____Stigmata D. Everything covered in marble E. Lay people who are devoted to  5. _____ Monastic Orders performing good works but aren’t affiliated  6. _____Hierarchy of Scale with any religious organizations F. Wounds of the passion G. In the Greek style; flat, two dimensional,  7. _____ Incrustation figures look like they’re floating in space,  GOLD backgrounds, etc. Three major stylistic elements of late medieval/proto­Renaissance art: 1. Gothic Art 2. Classical Art 3. Maniera greca Lorenzo Maintani  Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy  Cathedral complex, Pisa, Italy o Three things that make up a Cathedral complex  Baptistery   Cathedral  Bell Tower (campile) o 1063­1174 Pietro Lorenzetti  Birth of the Virgin   Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy 1342  Triptych – 3 panels  Ambrogio Lorrenzetti   Peaceful City, detail from The Effects of Good Government in the City and in the  Country o Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy o 1338­1339 Influences of the time:  Black death  Humanism  Natural world  Giotto as turning point in painting  Sienese school of painting­ Maniera greca and humanizes figures  Secular themes  14  Century Italy ­ French gothic as a front on timber­roofed, early­Christian style  churches  14  Century: The Seeds of the Renaissance  City states o All separate, ruled by small groups of people/princes/dukes  Vernacular o Common tongue  Dante o Author o Published books in the vernacular (common tongue)  Humanism o What it means to be part of your society o Outside of religion   Petrarch o Author o Published books in the vernacular   Vasari o Author o Published books in the vernacular   Regional pride o Proud of where you came from o Being a good citizen Difference between 13  and 14  century Proto­Renaissance?  Use of the vernacular  Humanism Giotto Di Bondone  Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets o Looking at the real world o Attempts shading o Moving towards Naturalism   Lamentation, ca. 1305 Arena Chapel  Paid for by a private citizen ­ Enrico Scrovegni  Fresco (painting on plaster)  Progression of story  Buon Fresco  ­ tru fresco (wet fresco) Giornata  What you can paint in a day Northern Europe  Dates and places o 1400­1500 o Burgundy, Flanders, France and the Holy Roman Empire  People o Nobles and merchants o Pious and prosperous o Interest in visible world  Themes o Life of the Virgin Mary, Christ o Secular images, portraits o Disguised symbolism  Forms o Detailed renderings of surfaces and textures o Naturalistic figures and spaces o Oil paint for glowing color Flanders  Robert Campin (Master of Flémalle), Mérode Altarpiece, ca. 1425­1428 o Annunciation in common domestic interior o Disguised symbolism o Donor portraits o For home use o Triptych o Oil paint, glazes   Jan Van Eyck o Ghent Altarpiece, 1432  Naturalism is becoming huge  Oil  God the Father, Adam & Eve, Mary, Crown at the feet of God symbolic of humanity bowing in recognition to God  Polyptych  Monumental, free­standing altarpiece  Donor portraits  NATURALISM  Redemption (Adam & Eve for Fall)  Original Sin of humanity­ brings the fall of humanity from eating the forbidden fruit Italy  For princely patron  Propaganda  Images of court life  Pictoral illusionism  Trompe l’ oeil oculus painted di sotto in su  Unified perspectival spaces  Dates and Places o 1500­1600 o Rome, Florence, Milan and Venice  People o Humanism o Reformation/counter­reformation o Powerful courts o Artist­genius  Becoming an artist is a long, drawn out process  Leonardo di Vinci and Michael Angelo seemingly come out of nowhere  during the Renaissance  Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel  1508­1512  Michael Angelo  o Numerous contributors  o Contains prophets and sibyls  Themes of Italy:  Christ, Virgin Mary, saints  Portraiture  Mythology, antiquity  Allegory, poesia Forms:  Balance, harmony, ideal beauty  Venetian color, Mannerist distortion  Raphael  Madonna in the Meadow o 1505­1506  Philosophy (School of Athens) o 1509­1511 o Papal library, allegories of philosophy, theology, poetry, law o Philosophers of antiquity o Semi­circular composition, illusionistic space Leonardo da Vinci  Last Supper o 1495­1498 o Fresco   Added oil paint into mix to try and improve fresco techniques – unsuccessful   Renaissance idea of balance, proportion, and beauty  o Mathematical linear perspective o Compositional emphasis on Christ o Unity through pose and movement o Studied emotion o Capturing the observable world  Mona Lisa o 1503­1505 o Woman looking at audience – huge break in convention  o Sfumato­ so blended that its soft and hazy; chiaroscuro (intense light source),  atmospheric perspective  o Wife of wealthy merchant o Convincing likeness o Personality, boldness o Window onto landscape­ atmospheric perspective/linear perspective  Madonna of the Rocks o Milan, Italy, 1483 Michael Angelo Buonarroti  David  1501­1504 o Visually pleasing proportion, not mathematical rules o Classical figure with emotion o Anticipation of battle Goliath, not victory o Symbol of Florentine liberty  Sistine Chapel o Fresco in pope’s chapel o Old testament scenes on ceiling, Judgment on wall o Creation, Fall, Redemption narratives o Ignudi, ancestors, prophets, sibyls o Architectural framework o Expressive human body Donato d’ Angelo Bramante  Tempietto   1502(?)  Using ancient architecture correctly for the first time since antiquity  o Central plan chapel (equidistant on the inside) o Classical order o Added dome o Sculptural architecture of volume and masses, solids and voids o Site of St. Peter’s martyrdom More on Italy  Villa Rotonda o Private villa o Near Venice o Central plan o Dome over crossing  Likely inspired by pantheon o Four facades like temple portals o Pantheon likely model o Wrote architectural treatise  Titian o Venus of Urbino, 1538  Well off  Rotund body shape   Reclined nude   Still not acceptable to paint any nude woman  Hence the name Venus  Oil, Voluptuous body, smoky shadow (sfumato)  Venetian painters love color (colorito), atmosphere, texture  Portrait or mythology  Color organizes composition  Jacopo da Ponntormo o Entombment of Christ, 1525­1528  Mannerist, short lived period after 1520  Self­conscious, not window into world, vogue  Complex, exaggerated, difficult  Unnatural colors, unstable composition  Not about balance, symmetry, clarity­ more about fanciness   Bronzino o Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, 1546  Allegories of love, very complicated  Multiple interpretations   Mannerist, unnatural coloration, contortion, exaggerated    Lascivious, sensuous  Complexity shows artists skill  Paolo Veronese o Christ in the House of Levi, Italy, 1573  Comes out of the inquisition, challenges Veronese’s work, so he changes  the title to make it acceptable    Late Venetian painting  Luxurious event  Classical setting  Invented characters  Renaissance balanced composition  Meant as an allegory Holy Roman Empire  Dates and places: o 1500­1600 o Germany  People: o Martin Luther o Protestant Reformation o Political change   Themes: o Christ, Mary, Saints o Portraits  Forms: o Renaissance illusionism o Surface description o Naturalism  o More focused on education, plays into Protestantism   Hans Holbein the Younger o The French Ambassadors, 1533 o Portraits important o Allegories, distorted skull   Matthias Grüenwald o Isenheim Altarpiece, 1515­1515 o Altarpiece for monastery church with hospital o Gruesome description of wounds o Emphasize suffering o Catholic inclusion of Lamb, Christ’s blood, plague saints  Albrecht Dürer o Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504  Engraving   Animals that stand in as humors of the body  Idealized body images, strange proportions  Interest in renaissance proportion of human body  Combined with European surface description and disguised symbolism  The Netherlands  Dates and places: o 1500­1600 o Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg  People: o Protestants o Merchant class and peasants o Seek independence from Spain  Themes: o Scenes of everyday life with subtle religious content o Practical, peasant life o Fewer altarpieces  Forms: o Naturalism o Surface description o Illusionistic space   Caterina Van Hemessen o Self­portrait, 1548  Female artist  Very modest  Very devout   Self­portrait of woman can be considered prostitution   Pieter Aertsen o Butcher’s Stall, 1551  Biblical scene in background  Party scene in background, oysters as aphrodisiac   Allegories  Scene represents that things aren’t going to last forever  Christian symbolism  Hieronymus Bosch o Garden of Earthly Delights, 1505­1510  Triptych  Adam and Eve, God, biblical scenes  Sin enters the world  Hell  Unusual painting  Possible wedding gift  Alchemy? Judgement?  Quinten Massys o Money­Changer and His Wife, 1514  Distraction of earthly desires   Protestant scene  Moralizing lesson for greedy  Subtle religious symbols  Study of domestic interiors and daily life  Replaces art in churches to instruct faithful  Pieter Bruegel the Elder o Hunters in the Snow, 1565  Hunters returning from the hunt  Ice skating  Fun winter activities   Atmospheric perspective, novel composition  Observation  Relation of man and nature  Simple people  Illusionistic rendering of genre scene from daily life Spain:  Dates and Places: o 1500­1600 o Iberian Peninsula and the Americas  People: o Pious, Catholic o Conservative monarchs o Expanding empire   Themes: o Christ, Mary, Saints o Portraits  Forms: o Selective application of ideas from Italian Renaissance + Mannerism o Exaggeration to support religious content  Exaggerate emotion, colors, meant to hook you and draw you in  El Greco o Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586  Herrera and Toledo o El Escorial, 1563­1584  Palace and monastery  Built for king  Grid plan refers to martyrdom of titular saint  Unornamented style  Sienes school of paintint Giottio  Giant series of fresco’s in arena chapel   Moving away from manera greca


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