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ECU / History / HIST 1031 / What was the scientific revolution?

What was the scientific revolution?

What was the scientific revolution?

Description

School: East Carolina University
Department: History
Course: World Civilizations Since 1500
Professor: Michael gross
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: 1/14 - 2/4 Notes
Description: Introduction, Global Contact, Early Modern State, Modern Science.
Uploaded: 02/08/2016
10 Pages 153 Views 2 Unlocks
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Introduction Notes:


What was the scientific revolution?



History → Historia “to ask question” 

● Historians separated info into 2 sources­

○ Primary (first hand encounter & recorded)

○ Secondary (source written after events been recorded, second hand account) ○

What is Modern? …”too complex” 

● Modern vs Contemporary

○ Contemporary → Con (with) Tempor (time) = Concurrent in time or occurring at the sametime.

○ ie: Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin = Contemporary

■ John F Kennedy and James Addison ≠ Contemporary

Global Ambition 

● Global Exploration

○ Spain, Portugal, and Dutch Republic (“Europeans”) were the first to embark on global exploration/ambition.


What made scientific revolution so important to have affected the early modern period so greatly?



■ they had access to the Atlantic Ocean, advantage in geographic features ○ “New Age of global (ocean) exploration”

■ Kick start to modern world as a result of trade.

● went to China, India, Africa, SE Asia, “The New World”/ N.

America, Cent. America, S. America, Philippines, Australia, and

Japan.

Global Contact

Motives for expansion, Means for expansion

I. Motives: Why did they do it?


Who is the creator of everything?



A. gold, silver, $$$ Don't forget about the age old question of There is more evidence of somali history where?

B. convert people to christianity → catholicism: “religious zealots” live to spread, evangelise catholicism so everyone could be saved.

C. Curiosity → The Renaissance/ “Rebirth” mentality.

D. Glory → wanted to be the first, wanted to be remembered, super human ego. E. Spices → cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, pepper, mace: luxury items.

■ Europeans were living on bread and survived on a bland diet before refrigeration and perishables.

II. Means:

A. Europeans invented the compass → a reliable instrument that shows direction while sailing. We also discuss several other topics like How to solve equilibrium problems?

B. Caravels → galley, self propel with sails, more seaworthy and movable, also had cannons.

C. Better Maps → medieval maps were not accurate and thought that the world was smaller.

D. Astrolabe → was used by sailor in the early 1400s, sailors used this tool to find the position of the sun or the North Star above the horizon, then they consulted tables to determine their location in the ocean. Don't forget about the age old question of What does surface tension mean?

■ latitude= north & south of equator

■ longitude= east & west of equator

III. Portuguese Voyages

A. Bartolomeu Diaz went as south as possible to get to India

■ Africa blocks India

■ Terrible trip due to conditions (food, exhaustion, etc)

■ Doesn’t make it to India

B. Vasco de Gama went south to go east (Portugal Strategy to get spices) ■ makes it to India

■ results to Europe sending fleets of ships on this voyage

■ Europe become world wide Maritime Empire

C. Christopher Columbus went west to prove that you can navigate the long way around to get to India (Spanish Strategy to get spices)

■ no countries in his way

■ ran into the Americas, thought it was the outer islands of India.

■ discovered the world was round

■ established the New World, larger spanish empire

IV. Spanish Conquest

A. Conquistadors

B. Cortes and an army of 600 men took over Aztec Empire We also discuss several other topics like Do collinear points lie on the same line?

■ out numbered but had many advantages:

a) guns, horses, disease (smallpox, measles), higher psychological

level, allies, immune system

C. Pizarro invaded the Inca Empire

■ Portuguese → Est. Maritime Empire

■ Spanish → Est. “New World” Land Empire

D. Encomienda System If you want to learn more check out What is responsible for water's high heat of vaporization?

■ those who followed Cortes, Columbus, etc. (Conquistadors) were given land on the new world.

■ est. rule/authority over Native Am. land

■ agreed to teach Native Am. christianity, and “worked them like dogs” (slavery)

■ primary source photo’s show the extreme brutality of how the

conquistadors killed the Native Am. population

a) cutting of hands, noses, dog attacks, weapons

b) slow painful deaths Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of rapid depolarization?

E. Slave Trade

■ labor crisis after destroying slave labor supply after disease and

massacre

■ finds another population of slaves “African Slaves” to replace the N.A. pop. (by millions) on slave ships

a) cruelty: stench, vomit, waste, packed no more than an inch on

long trips

■ modern thoughts of “white supremacy”

■ when arrived to new world were sold like cattle

V. Documents

A. p. 479

■ French man writing to French gov’t to improve the French slave trade. a) they dont have the a good map to africa

b) east coast of africa to south africa = cape of good hope “the

coast”, better trading route

■ French is doing trade with Kilwa

a) their deal: French → 200 Kilwa worriers, exclusive rights of slaves

Kilwa → protection from Arabs and Portuguese (they were

blackmailed)

b) if Kilwa did not comply with French they would be enslaved

B. ?

■ describes slave tradition, culture, personality.

■ had an sophisticated society and politics

■ depicts the racists image the Europeans had towards them

The Building of the Early-Modern State in Europe ­process taken place at the same time as European expansion

­ During the Middle Ages the Nobles (lords, dukes, kings, knights, counts, duchess, barons, princes, earls, queens) had all the power and the Church (Roman Catholic:

bishops, popes­ head of the church, cardinals­ immediately beneath the pope elects new gospel, nuns, arch bishops, priests, deacons, monks).

­ Church had land and religious authority → baptism: original sin (Adam and Eve) ­ Relatively, in the Middle Ages, a lot of people had power.

­ Early Modern Kings believe they had absolute power. How did the exclude others from power? → Able to declare sovereignty.

I. Sovereignty

A. containing all power, ability to make laws, “self­govern”, kings are above the law. II. Bureaucracy

A. Bureau­ (departmental office) ­cracy (form of gov’t), a new type of administrative infrastructure (collect taxes).

B. the kings bureaucrats can be 1000s, they do heavy lifting and administration of state.

C. to be apart of the Kings bureaucracy you have to be literate, have financial training, math skills, social skills (well spoken, rhetoric, cultured), represent the king's ideas, multilingual, assertive, persuasive and compelling arguments, geographic skills → highly skilled!

1. they became skilled by Liberal Arts and Sciences college.

III. New Armies

A. The right to make was exclusively to the kings

1. gunpowder, cannons, gun allowed rulers to make new armies

B. Middle ages → face to face combat, seasonal (winter), knights and peasants. Early Modern period → uniforms, paid professional soldiers, permanent

year­around, actual weapons, training, bright colored uniforms and flags, more killings (democratic and anonymous)

IV. Finances

A. Royal Domain

1. building bureaucracies and new armies were expensive to maintain

2. kings were in desperate search for gold to build the new armies

3. warfare is as expensive now as it was then

4. kings needed to pay for diplomatic courtship as was well as castles, feasts, parties (ie: french palace of versaille)

5. king generates revenue from the king's land (people payed rent)

B. indirect taxes: tax to bring goods into the kingdom, sales tax, prop. tax, gas tax, etc. (voluntarily paying for taxes)

C. borrowing money from great bankers in Europe

a) loaned huge sums of money to the kings so that they can build

their large estates and keep their kingdoms running. (Fugger and

Medici)

b) problem: “risky creditors” couldn't pay back loans → paid by taxes,

but still not enough.

D. direct taxes: directly taken from you by the gov’t.

a) problem: subjects thought King should not tax and live off of their

own revenue and pay for their own expenses.

b) caused development of two gov’t:

(1) Absolute Monarchy

(2) Constitutional Monarchy

V. Absolutism in France

A. gave them the right of direct tax without consultation

VI. Constitutional Monarchy

A. Power shared by King and Parliament = greater power. Parliament's right to refuse to pay direct tax. Takes away kings power/execute.

B. ie: Charles I → tried to force British Parliament to pay taxes, refused and had the King assassinated. Replaced by Mary and William (agreed to share power → constitutional monarchy)

DOCUMENT

“The True Lawe for free Monarchies:” (1598) 

● James VI of Scotland, becomes James I of England to replace the queen of England. ● U=V in early modern english

● Alternative title: “Or the Reciprocal and Mutual Duty betwixt a Free King, and his naturall subicilles”

○ Reciprocal → Reciprocal (shared back and forth)

○ Mutually → shared

○ Subtitles → subjects

○ Or → you have a choice between two titles

● “free” is repeated in both titles, emphasizes that the King is free

● printed in the capital of Scotland (Edinburgh)

● 1598­ created because civil war in Scotland has taken place for the rebellion of the king. ● so much misery in kingdom because misknowledge of the proper relationship between King and people since they don’t know there are no mutual responsibilities. ● King est, proper relationship between subjects and him

○ king is above the law, offers two examples of their relationship:

■ 1. father and children

■ 2. head to the body

Modern Science

What was the scientific revolution? And what made it so important to have affected the early modern period so greatly?

­At first science was based off of religion and church (in the medieval world) ­Now, the bible is no longer the authority of knowledge (in the early modern period)

I. Medieval Cosmos

A. Aristotle: Geocentrism earth

1. The earth is at the center.

2. “Christian Mythology”: God → the creator of everything. Infinite all

powerful. Angles → saved souls. Pushes the planets around the earth.

a) Gabriel (god's messenger), Michael (god’s warrior), Raphael

(god’s healer) Urel (god’s light).

b) In hebrew: “el” means God.

c) Lunatics­ raised by the moon

3. Why are humans in the center?

a) Superior: Humans are experiencing the greatest drama of god’s

creation. (Early Modern Thinking)

b) Humans needs to be saved are born with sin (Medieval thinking).

B. Copernicus: Heliocentrism.

1. Sun is in the center→ reposition of the sun and the earth

2. Priest/ member of the church, face was on polish currency.

3. Waited till his death to publish

4. Used a telescope to discover the alignment in hopes of making a more accurate calendar to figure out when to pray and improve the church.

a) Advent → 12 days of Christmas → Epiphany → Fat Tuesday →

Ash Wednesday → 40 days of Lent → 3 days → Easter →

Rentacost.

5. Begins Copernican Revolution

II. Copernican Revolution

A. Galileo

1. Didn’t​invent the telescope but made his own

2. looks first at the moon (sees craters, shadows, and textures

a) the moon looks like earth

3. looks at jupiter next (sees moons of jupiter)

4. The moon's orbit around jupiter, earth's moon doesn’t orbit the sun it orbits earth.

DOCUMENT 

“Dialogo di Galileo Galilei Linceo Matematico” 

● Goes to the leaning tower of Pisa and drops objects from the top

● Discovers that all items fall at the same (constant) rate

● Object in motion will stay in motion until stopped by an outside force.

● Angels are ruled out of being responsible for orbiting the Planets

● It is the rule of motion that is responsible for orbit

B. Newton

1. discovered gravity → plays off of Galileo's discovery

2. The Universal Law of Gravity: F₁=F₂=G (m₁xm₂)/ r₂

3. earth has a great gravitational pull

4. force of attraction is a mathematical equation that happens everywhere and all the time

5. why is gravity significant for modern science?

a. Orbit is a result of gravitation

C. Kepler

1. used mathematics to create free laws of planetary motion:

a. Planets follow an elliptical path

b. Planets are sped up when they get around the sun, and slow down when they aren't around the sun

c. The planets orbit the sun at different times (lengths of time)

DOCUMENT 

“Discours de la methode” (Discourse on the Method) 

● profound importance in the world → Rene Descartes

● Scientific Method:

○ accept nothing as true unless you know it’s true

○ analysis

○ arrange your thoughts

■ deduction­ in order from simple to complex

■ induction­ empiricism (ie: all leaves are green, have veins, all have stems in general all share common properties)

○ be careful

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