POLS 1101 Test One Study Guide
POLS 1101 Test One Study Guide Pols 1101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by alk88738 on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Pols 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Michael Lynch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 392 views. For similar materials see Introduction to United States Government in Political Science at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
POLS 1101 Chapter 1 Study Guide ➔ Politics: the process that determines what government does ➔ Government: the system for implementing decisions made through the political process ➔ Why do we need government? The two broad purposes of a government is to provide order and to promote the general welfare ➔ Factions: groups of likeminded people who try to influence the government; American government is setup to avoid domination by any of these groups; America’s government seeks to control the effects of factions by dividing governmental power in three main ways: (1) Separation of Powers (2) Checks and Balances and (3) Federalism ➔ Separation of Powers: the division of government power across the judicial, executive, and legislative branches ➔ The Prisoner's’ Dilemma and how it applies to politics: A paradox in decision analysis in which two individuals acting in their own best interest pursue a course of action that does not result in the ideal outcome. The typical prisoner's dilemma is set up in such a way that both parties choose to protect themselves at the expense of the other participant. As a result of following a purely logical thought process to help oneself, both participants find themselves in a worse state than if they had cooperated with each other in the decisionmaking process. ➔ Public Goods: services or actions that, once provided to one person, become available to everyone; government is typically needed to provide public goods because they will be under produced by the free market ➔ Collective Action Problems: situations in which the members of a group would benefit by working together to produce some outcome, but each individual is better off refusing to cooperate and reaping benefits from those who do the work ➔ Free Riders: the incentive to benefit from others’ work without making a contribution, which leads individuals in a collective action situation to refuse to work together ➔ Definition of politics: the process that determines what government does ➔ Understand the concepts used by the book: ● politics is conflictual ● the political process matters ● politics is everywhere ➔ What are the sources of political conflict in the United States? Economic Interests; Cultural Values; Racial, Gender, and Ethnic Differences; Ideology ➔ Ideology: a cohesive set of ideas and beliefs used to organize and evaluate the political world; Ideology may seem most obviously related to political interests through political parties, since Republicans tend to be conservative and Democrats tend to be liberal ➔ Liberty: political freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion; these and other legal and due process rights protecting individuals from government control are outlined in the Bill of Rights of the US Constitution; Founders wanted to create a system of government that would embrace freedom while providing means to resolve conflict ➔ Democracy: government by the people; in most contexts, this means representative democracy in which people select leaders to enact policies; democracies must have fair elections with at least two alternatives; Democracy depends on the consent of the governed: if the views of the people change, then the government must eventually be responsive to those views or the people will choose new leaders; Having a functioning democracy means compromising on issues. ➔ Equality: in the context of American politics, equality means equality (one person per vote), and equality of opportunity (the equal chance for everyone to realize their potential), but not material equality (equal income or wealth) ➔ Who are Georgia’s two U.S. Senators? David Perdue and Johnny Isakson ➔ What is your TA’s name? POLS 1101 Chapter 2 Study Guide ➔ Collective Action and Founding Fathers ➔ Declaration of Independence: freed us from Great Britain's Control ➔ Articles of Confederation: 1776 ● Structure: ○ states had most of the power under the Articles of confederation allowing for a wide range of thoughts, ideologies, and conflicts. ○ The main concept under the Articles was a limited government. ○ Limited government: A political system which the powers of the government are restricted to prevent tyranny by protecting property and individual rights ○ There was no president or executive leader because of the fear of another monarchy ○ There was also no judicial branch and instead all of the legal matters were left to the State’s ○ Power of veto was given to the states with a 9/13 vote ○ Members of congress were elected by state legislatures rather than directly by the people ● Weaknesses (at War and in the Peace): ○ The major weakness of the Articles is that little could be accomplished ○ States and national government could BOTH coin money and make treaties (peace time) which could lead to many issues because there is different currencies floating around ○ Congress lacked any real authority over the states because they could suggest the amount of money each state owed to support the revolutionary war army but could not enforce payment. There was no way to make the states pay their debts after the war ○ If Congress made an agreement with a foreign government, states had the power to veto or amend the agreement so the foreign government had to make an agreement with both congress and the states ➔ Republicanism: as understood by James Madison and the framers, the belief that a form of government in which the interests of the people are represented through elected leaders is the best form of government ➔ Natural Rights: also known as “unalienable rights,” the Declaration of Independence defines them as “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness”; the Founders believed that upholding these rights should be the government’s central purpose ➔ Federalists: those at the Constitutional Convention who favored a strong national government and a system of separated powers ➔ Antifederalists: those at the Constitutional Convention who favored strong state governments and feared that a strong national government would be a threat to individual rights ➔ Constitutional Convention: delegates came to the convention in May 1787, and drafted an entirely new framework that would give greater powers to the central government which became the Constitution ➔ Virginia Plan: a plan proposed by the larger states during the Constitutional Convention that based representation in the national legislature on population; the plan also included a variety of other proposals to strengthen the national government ➔ New Jersey Plan: in response to the Virginia Plan, smaller states at the Constitutional Convention proposed that each state should receive equal representation in the national legislature, regardless of size ➔ Great Compromise: a compromise between the large and small states, proposed by Connecticut, in which Congress would have two houses: a Senate with two legislators per state and a House of Representatives in which each state’s representation would be based on population (aka Connecticut Compromise) ➔ Three/Fifths Compromise: the state's’ decision during the Constitutional Convention to count each slave as ⅗ of a person in a state’s population for the purposes of determining the number of House members and the distribution of taxes ➔ Debates at the Constitutional Convention ● Majority rule versus minority rights ➢ Pluralism ● Small states versus large states: ➢ Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Great Compromise ● Legislative power versus executive power ● National power versus state power ➢ Reserved Powers, National Supremacy Clause ● Slave states versus nonslave states ➢ ⅗ Compromise ➔ Structure of the Government under the Constitution ◆ The structure of the government under the constitution is that it has a bicameral legislature, meaning that in congress there is a House of representatives and a senate. ◆ The amount of people in the House of representatives is based on the State’s population but the max number of people that can be in the house is 435 ◆ The number of people in the Senate is the same per state, 2 representatives from each state ➔ Amendment/Ratification Process: Congress may propose an amendment that has the approval of ⅔ of the members in both houses OR an amendment may be proposed by a national convention that has been called by ⅔ of states’ legislatures. In either case, the amendment must be ratified by ¾ of the states’ legislatures or state conventions. ➔ Interpreting the Constitution ● The 18th Amendment as an example ➔ Who is the Speaker of U.S. House of Representatives? Paul Ryan: speaker since Oct 2015, elected by the member of the House; needed 218 out of 435 votes; got 236 but 9 republicans were against him ➔ Who represents Athens in the U.S. House of Representatives? Representative Jody Hice (RGA): Freshman Athens Rep; Promised to vote against Boehner; Ended up voting for Boehner; “ForkedTongued Five”; Points to splits among House Republicans POLS 1101 Chapter 3 Study Guide ➔ Federalism: the division of power across the local state and national governments ➔ Sovereign Power: the supreme power of an independent state to regulate its internal affairs without foreign interference ➔ Confederation: a form of government in which states hold power over a limited national government; the US under the Articles of Confederation is an example ➔ Unitary Government:a system in which the national, centralized government holds ultimate authority; it is the most common form of government in the world (80%); states can only carry out policies if the national government opposes them ➔ Powers of Federal Government: print money, regulate interstate commerce and international trade, make treaties and conduct foreign policy, declare war, provide an army, provide an army and navy, establish post offices, make laws necessary and proper to carry out these powers ➔ Powers of the State Government: issue licenses, regulate intrastate businesses, conduct elections, establish local governments, ratify amendments to the Constitution, promote public health and safety, may exert powers to the Constitution does not delegate to the national government or does not prohibit the states from using ➔ Concurrent Powers: responsibilities for particular policy areas, such as transportation, that are shared by federal state, and local governments ➢ Examples: collect taxes, build roads, borrow money, establish courts, make and enforce laws, charter banks and corporations, spend money for the general welfare, take private property for public purposes with just compensation ➔ Federalism in the Constitution: The nation’s Founders wanted a national government that was stronger than it had been under the articles of confederation, and they also wanted to preserve state's’ autonomy and this can be reflected in different parts of the Constitution. ◆ A strong National Government: Founders wanted the national government to be responsible for national security and an healthy, efficient economy. ● Congress has the power to raise and support armies, declare war, and “suppress Insurrections and repel Invasion.” ● The necessary and proper clause ● National Supremacy Clause ◆ States powers and a limited National Government: ● Article 2 gives state's power to choose electors for the electoral college ● Article 5 grants states central role in in the process of amending the constitution (where 2/3rds vote it required from both houses to petition a change in Constitution and 3/4ths of votes from states to ratify the Constitution) ● 10th Amendment gives the powers not used by the federal government back to the states ● Chisholm vs. Georgia citizens of one state could sue the government of another state ◆ Clauses that Favored Both Perspectives: ● Article 4 contains elements that favor both a nationalcentered and statecentered powers ● Full Faith and Credit Clause: requires each state’s laws to be honored by the other states. ○ Ex: A legal marriage in one state must be recognized across state lines ● Privileges and Immunities Clause: requiring states to treat non state residents within their borders as they would treat their own residents. This was meant to promote commerce and travel between states; however, States are allowed to make some distinctions between residents and nonresident ● These clauses allow the states to determine and uphold these laws autonomously, but it also emphasizes that national citizenship is more important that state citizenship ➔ How did the Constitution help prevent free riding states?:The constitution prevents free riding problems when it comes to public goods by collecting taxes from each individual benefiting from the public goods allowing the suppliers to earn a profit from the goods ➔ Supremacy Clause: part of article VI, section 2, of the Constitution stating that the Constitution and the laws and treaties of the United States are the “supreme Law of the Land,” meaning national laws take over state laws if the two conflict; if any state law or state constitution conflicts with national law or the Constitution, the national perspective wins ➔ Enumerated Powers: powers explicitly granted to Congress, the president, or the Supreme Court in the first three articles of the Constitution ➢ Examples: Congress’s powers to “raise and support armies” and the president's power as commander in chief ➔ Necessary and Proper Clause:gave Congress the power “To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing powers ➔ Commerce Clause: This is a clause that gives states more power and was never clearly defined ◆ Case involving the Commerce clause: Gunfree School Zones Act of 1990 Congress passed a law stating that it was illegal/federal offense to have a gun within 1000 feet of a school and they passed this law because they believed that carrying a gun around was related to interstate commerce: ● most guns are made in one state and sold in another ● crime affects the economy and commerce ● the quality of education which is also crucial to the economy is harmed if students and teachers are worrying about guns in their schools ◆ United States vs. Lopez was a case which showed that congress could not support the commerce clause therefore the case was dismissed and the result was that next time congress passed legislation that affected law enforcement at the state level, it documented the impact on interstate commerce. ➔ Tenth Amendment and Federalism: The powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. A state law is void if it conflicts with the Constitution or with a national law based on an enumerated power, but in 2011, it is said that individuals/states have the right to challenge the constitutionality of a federal law under the 10th amendment ➔ Dual Federalism: (“layer cake” federalism) the form of federalism favored by Chief Justice Roger Taney in which national and state governments are seen as distinct entities providing separate services; limits the power of the national government ➔ States’ Rights: the idea that states are entitled to a certain amount of selfgovernment, free of federal government intervention ➔ Cooperative Federalism: (aka “marble cake” federalism): a form of federalism in which national and state governments work together to provide services efficiently; emerged in the late 1930s, representing a profound shift toward less concrete boundaries of responsibility in nationalstate relations ➔ How has federalism changed over the history of the U.S.?:Federalism went from strict differences to integrated areas of power. ➔ Coercive Federalism: a form of federalism in which the federal government pressures the states to change their policies by using regulations, mandates, and conditions (often involving threats to withdraw federal funding) ● Tools Federal Government uses to be Coercive ● The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, the American Disabilities Act, and the Motor Voter Act ● Federal Preemption: (Another method of coercive federalism) is the impositions of national priorities on the states through national legislation that is based on the constitution's supremacy clause ● Example of state drinking age: if you don’t change the drinking age, then the state will be punished somehow such as withholding funds ➔ Unfunded Mandates: federal laws that require the states to do certain things but do not provide state governments with funding to implement these policies ➔ How do activists view federalism? Activists want to benefit from the government ➔ Desegregating UGA and Federalism: Uga was desegregated in 1961 withe the arrival of Hamilton Hunter & Charlayne Holmes ● This site might be helpful (http://desegregation.uga.edu/history/)
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