EXAM STUDY GUIDE PART 1/3 --CHEM 130
EXAM STUDY GUIDE PART 1/3 --CHEM 130 Chem 130 (General Chemistry II-YANG)
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sinyoung Choi on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 130 (General Chemistry II-YANG) at UTK taught by Dr. Yvette Yang in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 272 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 130: General Chemistry II YANG in Chemistry at UTK.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
CHEM 130 – YANG PART 1 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 11 & 12 & 14 ***THESE ARE JUST THE IMPORTANT KEY FACTOR YOU MUST KNOW FOR THE EXAM*** -GO CHECK OUT MY CHAPTER BY CHAPTER NOTES!!! IT COVERS EVERYTHING FROM THE TEXT BOOK CHAPTER 11 Pressure – the force exerted per unit area by gas particles as they strike the surfaces around them. - Lower concentration = Lower pressure Force F Pressure= = Area A - Fewer gas particles, lower the force per unit area, lower the pressure. - Pressure DECREASES with INCREASING altitude. Pressure Imbalance – External pressure drops, internal pressure remains the same. [Ex. Ear Pop] Pressure Units: 1 mmHg = 1 torr 1 atm = 760 mmHg 1 atm = 14.7 psi 1 atm = 1.013 bar 1 atm = 29.92 Hg SI Unit for Pressure is Pascal (Pa) Manometer – U-shaped tube containing mercury; measures the pressure exerted by a sample of gas. (L) Mercury level > (R) Mercury level : gas sample pressure > atmospheric pressure, etc. Simple Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law: VOLUME & PRESSURE are inversely related; As pressure increase, volume decrease. - Constant T and n - P1V1 = P2V2 Charles’s Law: VOLUME & TEMPERATURE are linearly related; As temperature increase, volume increase. Absolute Zero: -273.15 Celsius = 0 Kelvin, coldest possible temperature. - Constant P and n - V1/T1 = V2/T2 ***ALWAYS EXPRESS TEMPERATURES IN KELVINS (K) Avogadro’s Law: VOLUME & AMOUNT (in Moles) are linearly related; As amount of gas increase, volume increase. - Constant T and P - V1/n1 = V2/n2 Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT Ideal gas – A hypothetical gas that exactly follows this law. Particles that compose an ideal gas have 2 properties: - Negligible intermolecular forces - Low densities Ideal gas constant (R): 0.08206 L*atm/ mol*K Gay Lussac’s Law – As temperature of a fixed amount of gas in a fixed volume increases, pressure increases. ***We must express each of the quantities in the ideal gas law in the units: Pressure(P) = atm Volume(V) = L Moles(n) = mol Temperature(T) = Kelvins Molar Volume as STP: Molar Volume – Volume occupied by one mole of a substance. STP – Standard temperature (T = 0 Celsius or 273 K) and pressure (P = 1.00 atm) - One mole of any gas occupies approximately 22.4 L at STP. Density of a Gas: molar mass Density= molarvolume - The density of a gas is directly proportional to its molar mass. - The greater the molar mass of a gas, the more dense the gas Calculating density of gas using ideal gas law: PM d= RT densityunit :g/L - Density increases with increasing molar mass - Density decreases with increasing temperature Throw back: Diatomic Elements- “Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer” – Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Fluorine, Oxygen, Iodine, Chlorine, Bromine Molar Mass= mass(m) moles(n) Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure: Pn Partial Pressure ( ) – the pressure due to any individual component in a gas mixture. X Mole Fraction ( a ): Mole Fraction of a component = Percent by Volume / 100% P Hypoxia – Oxygen starvation, O2 below 0.1 atm P Oxygen Toxicity – Increased oxygen concentration, O2 beyond 1.4 atm Nitrogen Narcosis (rapture of the deep) - PN2 beyond 4 atm Collecting Gas over Water: Vapor Pressure – Partial pressure of water in mixture that depends on temperature. - Vaper pressure increase with increasing temperature because higher temperature cause more water molecules to evaporate. Kinetic Molecular Theory – Quantitative model for gas. The theory has 3 main assumptions: 1. The gas particles are negligibly small 2. The average kinetic energy of a gas particle is proportional to the temperature in kelvins 3. The collision of one gas particle with another is completely elastic (the particles do not stick together). The gas laws all follow from the kinetic molecular theory. We can use kinetic molecular theory to derive the expression for the root mean square velocity of gas particles. This velocity is inversely proportional to the molar mass of the gas, and therefore – at given temperature- smaller gas particles are (on average) moving more quickly than larger ones. The kinetic molecular theory also allows us to predict the mean free path of a gas particle (the distance it travels between collisions) and relative rates of diffusion or effusion. Gas Stoichiometry: In reactions involving gaseous reactants and products, we often report quantities in volumes at specified pressures and temperatures. We can convert these quantities to amounts (in moles) using the ideal gas law. Then we can use the stoichiometric coefficients from the balanced equation to determine the stoichiometric amounts of other reactants or products. The general form for these types of calculations is: Volume A Amount A(in moles) Amount B(in moles) Quantity B(desired units) In cases where the reaction is carried out at STP, we can use the molar volume at STP (22.4L = 1 mol) to convert between volume in liters and amount in moles. Real Gases: Real gases, unlike ideal gases, do not always fit the assumptions of kinetic molecular theory. These assumptions ten to break down at high pressures, where the volume is higher than predicted for an ideal gas because the attraction between molecules combined with low kinetic energies causes partially inelastic collisions. We can use the van der Waals equation to predict gas properties under nonideal conditions.
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