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CLARION / Earth Science / ES 111 / Generally, what are the physical properties of minerals?

Generally, what are the physical properties of minerals?

Generally, what are the physical properties of minerals?

Description

School: Clarion University of Pennsylvania
Department: Earth Science
Course: Basic Earth Science
Professor: Christopher hughes
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Basic Earth Science Week 3
Description: These notes cover the identification of different minerals and Bowen's Reaction Series
Uploaded: 02/08/2016
4 Pages 143 Views 0 Unlocks
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Physical Properties: Minerals:

  • Generally, just one property isn’t enough to uniquely identify it.
  • Some minerals have variations of one property

Optical Properties: Luster:

  • Metallic - shiny metal
  • Submetallic - dull metal
  • Otherwise (non - metallic)

Optical Properties: Transparency:

  • Pass light, or images through
  • Translucent - light passes through
  • Opaque - no light passes through

Optical Properties: Color:

  • Bad choice of I.D.
  • Diagnostic for only a few minerals

Optical Properties: Streak:

  • Color in powdered form
  • Sometimes unpredictable
  • Usually a good indicator

Optical Properties: Double Reflection:

  • Best seen in calcite
  • Major importance in history of science

Habits:

  • Common characteristics of mineral crystals
  • Some have more than one
  • Some intergrown

Strength and Tenacity:

  • Resistance to breaking or deforming
  • Brittle - shatter when struck
  • Malleable - can be bent into shapes
  • Elastic - bend and snap back
  • Sectile - can be cut into thin shavings

Silicate structure:

  • Most abundant of minerals in the crust
  • Bonding of a tetrahedral known as polymerization

Silicate FormationsDon't forget about the age old question of What is a spherical system?

Rocks:

The rock cycle

  • Rocks get recycled
  • Outer loop - basic cycle
  • Inner paths - alternative paths

Energy Sources

  • Melting, metamorphism - Earth’s internal Heat
  • Weathering - solar ariven

Rock CycleIf you want to learn more check out Describe the characteristics of the sculpture during the Early Renaissane.
We also discuss several other topics like What are the different types of managers?

Magma → lava → crystallization → weathering → sediment → lithification → metamorphismWe also discuss several other topics like What is a probability of an event?
Don't forget about the age old question of What do you mean by stakeholders?
We also discuss several other topics like How do archaelogists use data to say something about the past?

Igneous Rocks

  • Start from melt
  • Minerals start to crystalize from melt as it cools
  • Minerals clump together to form igneous rocks

First level

  • Extrusive
  • Aka: volcanic
  • Forms from lava on surface
  • Rapid cooling - small crystals
  • Intrusive
  • Aka: plutonic
  • Forms from magma beneath surface
  • Slow cooling big (relative) crystals

Second Level

  • Granitic
  • Aka: Felsic
  • Mostly feldspar and silica (quartz)
  • Granite (intrusive) Rhyolite (extrusive)
  • Obsidian, pumice are glasses of this
  • Andesitic
  • Intermediate composition
  • Diorite (intrusive) andesite (extrusive)
  • Almost exclusively along continental
  • Basaltic (most common)
  • Aka: mafic
  • Heavy on magnesium, iron, calcium
  • No quarts
  • Gabbro (intrusive) basalt (exclusive)
  • Most common lava composition on Earth
  • Ultramatic
  • Very rare at surface now
  • Peridotite - Earth mantle

Bowen’s Reaction Series

  • Magma / Lava will evolve
  • N.L Bowen did experiments 100 years ago
  • First mineral to crystalize is Olivine
  • Last one is Quartz
  • Discontinuous - mineral change based on temperature
  • Olivine, Pyroxene, Amphibole, Biotite

Strength: Hardness:

  • One of the most useful identifiers
  • Resistance to abrasion / scratching
  • Quantified using Mohl’s Scale

Strength: Cleavage:

  • Breaking along planes of weak bonds
  • Described by numbers of directions and angles
  • Don’t confuse with shape

Strength: Fracture:

  • Chemical bonds equals in all directions
  • Irregular fracture - irregular shape

Specific Gravity:

  • Density
  • Metals heavier than non metals

Tast, smell, feel:

  • Halite / sylvite - tastes salty
  • Sulfides smell like eggs
  • Talc feels soapy
  • Graphite feels greasy

Magnetism:

  • Some can be magnetic (magnetite)
  • Ferromagnetic - strong magnetic attraction
  • Paramagnetic
  • Diamagnetic - repel magnetic fields

Acid Test:

  • Fizzes when reacted with acid (carbonates0

Mineral Groups:

  • 45,100 separate mineral names
  • Only 20 - 30 are common in Earth’s crust
  • Silicon and Oxygen are the most common elements
  • Together these are silicate minerals

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