POSC 100 - Exam #1 Study Guide
POSC 100 - Exam #1 Study Guide POSC 100
Long Beach State
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaila-Marie Hardaway on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by Charles Mahoney in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Intro to American Government in Political Science at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Political Science 100 – Test #1 Review Sheet Important Terms and Concepts to Review Federalism o A system under which government powers are divided between the central government and small, more local units o No government completely controls the other and each has room for independent action o Tends to be found in countries that are large and diverse Federalists o Believe in a strong, central government o Alexander Hamilton, Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, and FDR are examples of Federalists Anti-Federalists o Believe that states are coequal to the national government Confederation o Member states can retain autonomy and can veto the central government Unitary State o The central government controls all subunit governments (states and regions) Central gov’t has all the power Supremacy Clause o States that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, taking precedence over state and local law Commerce Clause o Gives Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among several states” Devolution o The act of process by which the central government gives power, property, etc. to local groups or governments A form of decentralization State’s Rights o Political powers reserved for the US state governments rather than the federal government Representative democracy o A system in which citizens select others to govern on their behalf o Rule by the people exercised indirectly through representatives elected by the people Direct democracy o Requires that all citizens be able to meet regularly to debate and decide upon policies o Very impractical for larger cities (in the past) Monarchy o Rule by one o Ex: North Korea Oligarchy o Rule by the few o Ex: China, Iran Articles of Confederation o Passed by second Continental Congress in 1777 and ratified in 1781 o Delegated little power to central government Most important decisions were left to state legislatures o No chief executive or federal courts o Left the US unable to conduct effective foreign policy Constitutional Convention o Took place in 1787 in Philadelphia, PA o Objective was to draft a new Constitution that would replace the Articles of Confederation o Goals were to prevent “tyranny of the majority,” balance state’s right vs. federal power, and protect the right of individuals Constitution o Divides power and responsibility among government branches o Outlines the relationship between the states and the federal government o Provided specifics on how individuals are to be selected for office and their eligibility Amendments o Constitution is very hard to amend Must go through a formal process to be amended o There have been 27 amendments since the Constitution was ratified 10 were the Bill of Rights Electoral College o The president is not elected by direct vote, but rather by “electors” o Each state is given electoral votes equal to the number of members in the House of Representatives plus two senators. Checks and balances o President: Nominates judges to the Supreme Court, can veto congressional legislation o Congress: May impeach, convict, and remove federal judges from office, controls the courts’ budget, and all Supreme Court justices must be confirmed by the state. They can also approve/reject the president’s administrate and judicial nominees, bills, and treaties. Congress controls federal budget and can override a presidential veto. Can impeach, convict, and remove the president from office. o Supreme Court: Can declare congressional legislation and executive acts unconstitutional. Separation of Powers o Executive – implements the law o Legislative – writes and passes law o Judicial – interprets law/judicial review
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