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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leighton Browne on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 101 at Illinois State University taught by ALL in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Basic Issues Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Logic study of the methods & principles used to distinguish correct reasoning from incorrect reasoning. Argument set of statements, one of which is called a conclusion is claimed to follow from or be supported by the premises.=valid Premises a proposition that provides evidence for a conclusion Conclusion a proposition in which a truth claim is being made Induction weak but provides a good but not necessary reason deduction true premise that yields a true conclusion analogical argument a type of induction based on comparison. It is assumed that 1 item has similar properties to another if the others do as well. predictive argument If 2 events occurred in the past, then they will occur in the future. (also inductive) Inductive generalization If all observed subjects have a quality, all observed and unobserved share that quality Philos= Love Sophia= wisdom Presupposition aware of something but you cant define it Philosophy study of general & argument ideas God Creation vs. evolution Skepticism Theory of meaning Sophists= “wise men” got paid to talk about their profession “man is the measure of all things” SOCRATES Wrote nothing but questioned everything as Plato recorded ideas. wise because he knows he isn't wise. stated meletuspoets lycancraftsman were Hubris= knowing something you dont actually know.cant simplify Wisdom is the greatest achievable thing, Ignorance is evil. believed in spirits, spirits gods sons, god wisest. Put to death for impiety corrupting the youth Plato founded school which he taught at, argued for nativism Theory of Forms should do good cus is the path to happiness. material objects are imperfections of a perfection that exist somewhere out in the universe. perfection is impossible ANSELM & Ontological Argument something than which nothing greater can be thought exist in mind and reality Reduction of absurdation (aka contradictionFools argument) if you understand the existence of something than it must exist. (painter visuals picture before) GAUNILO what exist in reality existed in the mind first. and things that exist only in the mind are equal. Island of abundance greater than any. Its perfect and perfect must exist or else anything materially existing is greater. cus reality and mind the greatest RENE DESCARTES God is the sum of all perfections. deduction evidence. c ogito ergo sum “I think therefore I am.” god exist and has an understanding just as a triangle has 3 sides and valley is to a Mnt. Reasoning & understanding and the mind is more known to us than the body/objects. Dream argument how do we know were not always dreaming. no sign of being awake. sensations same Demon argument deceives us just like god can, god created the math world and zaps us THOMAS AQUINAS Summa Theologiae 5 reasons 1.motion(things must be moved and have a mover) 2.efficient cause( must be a cause because no cause is an end to itself) 3.possibility(tobe) and necessity(not tobe) (things begin to exist through something else already existing) 4.gradation( some things are good some bad. both are degrees of extremes/maximums) fire extreme of heat 5.governance of the world( all natural things are acting towards an end or guided to and end by something) DAVID HUME IITheological argument/Design argument one great machine divided into little machines. everything possess a final cause that must be directed by god everything guided towards end. unintelligent in the action. goals are intelligent. must be guided by intelligent Empiricism knowledge comes only from experience. simiar effects we infer similar causes. clenches belives V.Expiermental argument like effect prove=like causes. carpenter built shops so god built world. We have no ground to conclude god infinite, a body, only one or lacks a physical body. VI. see something and we assume the rest is there. world like animal, god like soul acting simultaneous VII. World resembles animal/vegetable more.Universe could be a reproducing machine. comets like eggs. X. problem of Evil god exist, he is all powerful all good. evil exist, god would wipe out evil so hence there is no god. we can conquer all animals but cant conquer our own fears. Philo argues his argument of design. Demea and Philo paint a bleak picture of our lives Cleanthes claims its harmonious machine structure. knowledge by experience. BLAISE PASCAL The Wager God is or God is not. must choose. have nothing to lose in betting on believing in order to believe just do as everyone else has, take up holy water and go to mass. SIMON BLACKBURN states how pascal is using god as a utility apposes to a religious truth. shows the negatives and positives of the argument and also talks about god punishing and praising. doesn't find the Wager persuasive. explains how pascal first states we know nothing besides experience. but the setup of the Wager assumes we do. so why a good theory? says god cares more about beliefs and reasoning. W.K. CLIFFORD Ethics of Beliebeliefs influence actions, our actions affect others. weak beliefs can lead to thoughtless action and harm others. don't stifle your doubts. obtain beliefs by honest truth. genuine beliefs are most significant. believe in a belief and allow future evidence to support it but its your duty to support the belief with evidence before acting on it. and is your duty to question all that you believe. not to question the doubts of your belief is one big sin to mankind. Metaphysics god freedom mortality, existence infers existing qualities. nature of reality Ordinary Expierence Nature, Humans world Libertarinism Free, predictions arent the truth, we may be inclined to but still have the option not to Hard Determinism all actions determined by heredity, make up. not responsible for out actions Soft Determinism all actions determined BUT freewill&morals decide decision. Internal vs. External Compatiblism free will & determinism both believed Pg.161 Thomas Nagel Against HD and SD 1. determinism/decisions= the sorting out of already determined results Ex. Peach vs. slice of cak 2. Argues against HD how can we even think of or say to ourselvwe could of chose a peach “instead if techincally isnt even a possibil you shouldnt even be able to think that thought. and since they had no other choice how can they be held responsible. determinism beleives were not accountable for our decisions & punishment is merely future persuasion 3.States determinism and free will are uncompatible. 4.Then merely describes SD you feel likeat the time you had the choice and it wasnt actually deterimned until yougrabbed the cake and determined it . if it wasnt deterimned before by your beliefs or desires then you did it for no reason and it randomly happened, then how was it your doing? There is a difference between something happening w/o a cause. and performing an action w/o a cause Offers alternate possibility of Circumstances and education, desires 5.States he would eel trapped or like a puppet f everything was determined by circumstances and psychological conditons. Pg.166 W.T. StaceCompatiblist 1st States that thFree will debate is merely verbal and a play on words 2ndly that people infer free will means indeterminism, thimistake has led to the denial of free will 3rd he defines compatibilits a½ determined by external effects an ½ determined by internal free will 4thEx. Gun to the head isnt a force, but scared for your life is an internal guider. & philosopher in jury example pg179FrankfurtPrinciple of Alterntive PossiblitiesDefends Compatibilism this principle states that a person is morally responsbile for what he has done only if he could have done otherwise (believes this false) FSC’s Black gonna force(potion) Jones to do so(not responsbile) unless Jones chooses himself(morally responsible) chooses by himself to do so so he is morally responsible although he had no other choice? Frankfurt concludes thamoral responsiblity doesnt require alternative possiblities pg181Levy Capacities of Agents Proves frankfurts argument wrong and tates FSC’s and FEC’s should be treated the same Jillian doesnt have the capacity to save the swimmer but decides on own to and the intervener still intervenes and gives her the capacity to do so, how is she moral responsible if she acted on her own? If w dont hold the counterfactual intervener responsible in Jillians ce shouldnt in Jones/Black case. FEC’s gain or lose a capacity due to a counterfactual intervener Ex. Connie goes into vote and is forced to vote one way by a intervener implanting a chip(l ses) (pg169) Cahn Freedom or Determinism Hard Determinism Premis 1 no action is free if it must occur Premis 2 in the case of every event that occurs, antecendent conditions, known or unknown, ensure the events occurence =Conclusion therefore, no action is free. Defines Hard D as both premisis, and genetics inhertence etc. and that the strongest motive wins at the time Uses the example of a rock having no power over the wind blowing it off the mountain and forming it. like humans by the world and our decisions. Defines a SD as believe genetics deterimine all but if wish to do something they can or can not. Argues against SD SD deny premis 1 but accept premis 2 which is a contradiction, only way to reject HD in this case is to reject premis 1 also but that is a whole different view point(Libertarian) Defines Lib an event can occur uncaused iing so out of intention Argue against Libagrees premis 1and has to deny premis 2 and therefore their definition of free will relies on events having no cause. IF an event has no cause it must of happened at random and if it happened at random how can it be your doing? and they how can you be responsible for it or hold others responsible for their actions? Uses Ex. of Darrow LIepold Loeb murder case and shows that even theerent meant to be frd although they arent morally responsible, he states we still need to be protected from them and we still have courts rules that are necessary for life to go on as deterimned. pg185 David Hume Compatibilist Necesseisty vs. Liberty 1.Its impossible to think of anything new and conjure it unless you have felt it (internal or external) 2.Power We never actualy discover a power or neccesary connection binding the effect to the cause, we dont know the underlying power so therefore why do we assume humans transmit power or use power? 3.Connection when we see this “Cause and effect” relationship over and over we infer a relationship and say they are conjoined but after long enough feel” like there compleatly together so you call them “connected” 4. Cause shoould be beetter be defined as one object following another object similar to the first so on. w/o 1st never 2nd. Necessityjust like the illusion of connection, just because we see similar object constantly conjoined together we assimilate they are necessary for each other. LIberty a power of acting or not acting according to the determinations of the will: want to move move, want to sit, sit. it is both plain mater of fact and consistent with its self. pg.193William James dilemma of determinismAgainst HD 1. first when we make theories about the world and discuss them with one another we do so in order to attain a conception of things which shall give us subjective satisfaction 2. if there be two conceptions, and the seems to us more rational=must infer its truer. Determinism since day 1 everything was laid out to happen a certain way with no surprises up the sleeve counter describes INdeterminism that theres loose ends and one action doesnt neccesarily mean another defineschance as =indeterminis/something thats not guaraenteed. argues the example oalking 2 different streeand having an deterministonlooker view both options happening at the same time, how could they tell which street to walk is ultimately correct for the walker? by taking one street thats disagreeable with the deterministic view they whance” an t “c outcry. And he states determinism Machtspruch a dogma(an understood theory) that were never in the position to prove or show detailed evidence. we infer that chance now means indeteriminism. Next defineRegrets and how we feel it all the time and states an example of a murdering and that the determinist must argue turder must happen for eternity and destiny to go on but how can you argue the world wouldnt be a better place without that murder happening? Starts Pessimistic Determinism” Because even if the determinist calls regrets wrong he infers a wrong and right, or a good and bad, or that something else should takes its place. and something cant be bad if its not responsible or nothing else could have happened anyway. Were not moral responsible for anything and with out responsibility, chance, regrets or a way of reasoning as defined above the world seems unihabitable. Even if the determisit says these are illusions, they are the illusions worth living for. fperry 369RachelCultural Relativisim Ex. Callatians eat their dead relatives, Greeks bury. Eskimos let wives sleep as courtesoy definition: No such thing as universal truth in ethics; only the various cultural codes 1.Different societies have different moral codes 2.There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one code better than the other 3.moral code of your culture holds no special status. just one amongst many 4.no universal truth that can hold for all people at all times 5.moral code of society determines what is “right” within that society 6. arrogance to judge other cultures should tolerate Cultural Differences Argument premis 1&2, argue the difference of oppinions is wrong because no simple moral understood truth ex. earth is round even if someone believes its not doesnt make it not. Consequences 1. could no longer say that the customs of other societies are morally inferior to our own. ex.stophitler religion tyraid. stop criticisim 2.decide whether actions are right or wrong just be consulting the standards of our society 3.The idea of moral progress is called into doubt cant describe ‘better’ than the current social practice How Cultures all have in common 1.human infants are helpless and cannot survive if not given extensive care 2.therefore a group cares for there young otherwise the olds would die out 3.therefore all cultures that carry on care for their young. kill young=an exception not a rule 379Tom Regan How not to answer moral questions 1.ex. possible for two opposing expressions of personal preference to be true at the same time difference between expressing personal preference vs. conflicting moral judgement. (cant use) 2”thinking” also doesnt make it right or wrong, think its correct but whether it is correct is independent of itself 3.statistics are irrelevent, and the majority isnt always right. ex. 20 years ago no death penalty 4.Appealing to a higher authority(God) cant be interpreted perfectly and the bible cant help where theres little info on. ex. machine running a person life And to trust the higher authority we would need a independent truth to check with Ex. plumber 418MillUtilitarianmism(maximizing Utility, minimizing unhappiness) Greatest Happiness Principle Actions right=promote happiness; Action wrong =reverse of happiness. happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain. theory of morality utili 1.pleasure and freedom from pain are the only things desirable as ends; and that all desirable things are desirable either for pleasure inherent in themselves or to the prevention of pain .Of 2 pleasure, the 1 that has been decided more pleasureable is desirably more pleasurable despite morals The higher educated and intellectual will never stoop to be lower although it requires more to please him the happiness that forms the utilitarian standard of what is right =concerning everyones happiness not just the individuals the golden rule is the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality The great majority of the world is made up of individual benefit which makes up the good of the world. Actions are good when they benefit yourself and dont violate the rights/happiness of anyone else. Desire and Utilitarianism is proved by peoples actual desires. just like your eyes prove something visible Virtue and the truth is what human happiness relies on, d eviation from the truth weakens human trustworthiness of assertion principle of utiyhappiness/virtue is desirable and the only thing desirable as an end;all others are means to that end. virtues are desirable ends in themself like money, because its associated with happiness. mixing bowl to happiness (virtues, morals etc.) 386. Pojman Assessing Utilitarianism Act Utilitarianism An act is right if and only if it results in as much good as any alternative Rule UtilitarianismAn act is right if and only if it is required by a rule that is itself a member of a set of rules whose acceptance would lead to greater utility for society than any available alternative best chance of maximizint utility is by followin the set of rules that will give us our desired results Positives of both simple action guiding principle applicable to every occasion. promote most utility! and promote human flourishing minimize suffering. morals are for humans Objections1.No rest objection(go to movies but should be helping others) impossible need sleep 2.AbsurdImplications objection(same results but one path requires a lie) white lies, why lies bad? 3.Integrity objection(leads to personal alienation) indians against fence lesser of evils 4.Justice Objection(misuse medical/justice system for better of the majority)transplantrights&innocent 5.Publicity Objection(not everyone should be utilitarian cus takes to long to decide)agree on moral law 398 Mayo Virtue Ethics valuing good charcter/right type of person. valuing altruisim Moral qualities and their relation to actions really reflect the person who is doing those actions What ought I to do can better be answered by what ought i be. virtues like be a man, be brave What shall I be relates to the unity of character, and the represetives of an idea Saints and Heros are people we imitate by being like them. learning from example. try to be 400 Held Ethics of Care both value and practice Valuecharacterization of a social relation not an individual state Practicehow to respond to needs and why we should. caring practices gradually transform children and others into morally admirable people 1. central focus of ethics of care is meeting and attending to the needs of whom were responsible for. all persons need care 2.what would be morally best for us to do and to be, values emotion;sympathy, sensitivity, responsiveness are traits that better help with the understanding of what morality reccommends. anger interprets moral wrongs 3.rejects the view of dominant moral thoeries of abstract reasoning of possiblites as the best practiceThose who conscientiously care for others arent promoting individual interests becasue the relationship is intertwinned, but are promoting the actual relationship amongst them and others Requires cooperation and the caring for the relation and for those in the relation valueUse phrases like take care as a goodbye really means take care becasue i care about you has more to do with the expression of feelings appose to the actual task 408Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics Good fulfillment of human potetntial to> live well; live well> is living in accordance with virtue. Moral virtue > goodness of character > formed by habit. become good by doing good Intellectual virtue wisdom, acquired by teaching Virtuous acitives are those that avoid the two extremes of excess. courage=scared vs. rash Virtues are adapted by nature for us to recieve and to be perfected through habit Virtues are destroyed by excess and defect (argument of too scared or too rash) If arises by nature cant act any other way than nature(stone cant move up, fire cant down) Human good turns out to be the soul exhibiting excellence, and that is mans purpose first must have knowledge, second must choose the acts for own sake, and last the action must proceed from a firm unchangeable character. must do the virtue acts to become the virtue person 413Kant Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals Everything in nature acts according to law only rational people have the capacity; which is Will Imperative objective principle valid for every rational being, and the principle in which it ought to act hypothetical imperativ e action is good only as a means to something else categorical imperativ e. act according to maxim as if it were to become a universal law 1.suicide wrong using himself as means to tolerate his life til he ends it 2.promise in which intend not to fulfill using person as means with deception 4.nature gift but stay lazy doesnt further the end of humanity 4.helping out others should help because person is ends in themself so could be my end. Every rational being exist as an end in itself. person indicated end in itself. object is merely means serving practical imperativeShould never treat a person as mere means. they depend on our will not nature 383. O’Neillkant’s ethics The Formula of the End in Itself Act in a way that your never treat someone simply as a means but always as an end maxim is intention, the underlyings of why and how your about to behave like you do Right or Wrong look to maxim, not outcome of misery or happiness, just not using person as means. mere means involve someone in schema of action in which they cant in principle consent ex. false promising wrong. and deception(dont payback) &(coercionblackmail) are wrong 426NietzscheBeyond Good & Evil Life is simply the willl to power, or power is the will to life explotation is part of the fundamentals of living, and alive things naturally want the upperhand Master Moralities good vs. despicable 1.the Noble people or as greeks said “we truthful ones” they judged their own selves, and satisfied their own valuesdidnt need approval. 2.viewed liars, cheaters, petty, anxious etc. as despicable, but connected those values/actions to the person not to the action being done. 3.The noble person knows he creates value and this selfglorifying is fullfillment in itself.this overflowing power leads to a warm heart and helpfullness to others cus of so much “power” Slave Moralitites good vs. evil 1.express a pessimistic suspicison about all of humanity.distrustful of what the powerful call good and doesnt even think that happiness is genuine. 2.evil person gives arise to fear where in the master moralities the good person evokes fear. 3.in Slave morality the good person is more of a stupid, happy person, harmless. 43Sartre Existentialism like a papercutter, it is produced and understood before it actuallly exist. Athestic Existenialism if god doesnt exist, there is a at least one being whose existence comes before essence and that is man. Ex. a man just shows up on the scene and then defines himself> hence there is no human nature cus no god concieved it. 1. man is nothing else but what he makes himself. no god to cling to. cant make excuses for self. 2.wtih no essence before existence, theres no determining what we do. no justifications or excuses. Boy faces going to war or stay with more. either or is using either or as mere means(kant ethics) says hell follow instinct or values. but finds out value is only arrised by an act that confirms and denies it. YOU choose all advice you seek, and make all values you make, no ethics can show you. Forlorness implies you choose your being. WILLIAM JAMES disagreed with clifford and stated when cant wait for further evidence must use passions to choose. Pragmatism meaning and truth.. Clifford Intellectual(science) vs. JamesPassion(religion value morals) conditions for a belief 1. livening option vs. dead (intention) 2. forced option( cant not choose) take it or leave it 3.momentum (chance of opportunity) we have the choice at beliefs and the relationship of ideas like Hume said. the pascal wager can be seen as irresponsible and cheating your beliefs to stupe down to taking up holy water and mass for infinite gain must first be a living hypothesis and a option belief to you that you choose without evidence to be true. Pg 321 BRIAN SMART A case of Identity Proteus brothers ship rebuilders Morion orders a brand new ship Z, but the brothers trick him into buying a “seasoned ship”(X’s old planks) Morions new ordered ship burns down in Dock B and the brothers dont have it insured, so Morion should have the right to the “new ship” that he ordered, the one in dock A. the new shipZ was only a part of ship X temporarily until completead. they now have no pieces in common. Bombos Sends the first ship X into get renewed into ship Y Bonobos lawyer argues body parts can undergo a change in time and remain the same identity, that the overall form was retained and occupies a continuous time in space. And that ship Y is identical with X,whereas the old pieces that make up the ship Z share nothing in common or a continuous space in time after completion The new planks were replacing the old planks and the ship was saving its identity. because X and Z are still identical. WINNER Pg323JOHN PERRY The problem of personal identity Peter Pressher lobbyist Senator supporter of the bill to pass a new shoe Wake up and a body transplant has happened, and your body isnt yours but your brain and ideas are the same. cant tell the public because then peter in your body now will sue you and get you put away. case 1. this disproves that we are just a live human body. if we have the same person in two different bodies, how can you associate identity with body identity. we assume the two go together case 2.they identify you by fingerprints and say your thoughts are mere illusions of who you thought u were. but really they both underwent radical changes in character and personality and acquired delusive memories because of the surgery. result both cases agree on what happened, so neither can be proven incorrect on the occurence of these events, but thats a contradiction so one must be wrong right? Pg325John H. Hic Ressurrection reseruection as a spirtual body in a spirtual world John smith dissappears into another country, then dies and is replicated, replicated into another world the supposition of a recreated personality is the model that we arise same as before. like a seed to a tree. belief in ressurection arsises a corollary of faith, which isnt restricted by death and hold man beyond his nature so if its gods plan to create finite persons to exist with himself, its a contradiction of his love for us to let us pass away when our purpose remains largely unfulfilled. PG328Steven CAHN Heaven&Hell questions why should the bad be forever punished and the good forever praised? is heaven only for one religin and alll other religions wrong and going to hell? what about infants who die? animals that enriched lives? Twilight Zone hillbilly Simpson and his dog Rip walking through the woods and come to a gate that they are told his heaven and simpson can go but the dog cant. so simpson denies and walks away and encounters an angel that will guide both of them to heaven and that the other guy was lying and that was hell. Rip would of smelled the brimstone and turned simpson away. ”a man will walk right into hell with both eyes open the the devil cant fool a d” this envisions that we can understand hell better, and easily imagine the horrors that await. what does heaven bring? what would willie mays want in heaven, he loved baseball will there be bats and gloves there for him, could heaven match the world series catch he made on earth? Peter wants to live forever withPeterson , but Peterson wants to be free from Peter for forever, how can they both obtain heavenly bliss? what will thebody look like upon ressurection, if you die from disease and are reincarneted as befoer that disease how are you hardly the same? if you die and a new identical body arrisees it must be different from the first? Or is it a case osouls? is their one soul per person or they accompany together? All these questions make a afterlife hard to understand and infer no information that helps us understand today. Pg 331LIFE AFTER DEATH Terence Penelhum is inconcievable and incoherent Two concepts of Survival: 1.envisioning the kind of life that death survivors would lead *must ascribe the survivors personal characteristics they resembled prior because total transformation would rob the notion of ‘survival’ surviving entails the resulting person is a being also *personal charecteristics(intelligence,emotion,action) all are bound with what he hear or say, the way we talk or behave, and how we physically move. some same maybe they only have mental functionsbut they cant ‘meet’ other dead souls. best way to define it is to see how the belief restricts those concepts we apply to them 2.difficulties about selfidentity of the survi face the problem of continuing on the identity *if the new mode of life is to crazy different then the one we live now they cant be idenied with us, cus they lack personal relevance. must resemble a person who existed in this life and posses those features. so is it the reappearence of a former person or the appearence of a duplicate person resembling but not identical Disembodied personality(1st difficulty) **can conduct no physical appearence, cant percieve others or be percieved by us. can we say they physically exist or make sound or maybe they just live in their own dream world. *but regardless they cant percieve others so they cant be part of a community of souls. *they have no body so can we say what has the expierence, or what does the action and that they will have thes actions in the future? The problem of Identity(2nd difficulty) the doctrine of spiritual substance in despite of our changeningness of mind there is a core that stays unchanged and can be used as a backdrop to compare change.(can have minimal change ) cant look into ourselves and find it though. and if didnt change then identity and change would always be inconsistent. *how do we know when we judge others identitys that they are true? we use their body to judge them *without body we cant attach an identity or accept mental changes cus that changes them alltogether. *criteria of identity relies on bodily continuity with memory . if have memory then same identity/person. *Summary:1. attempting to understand identity only through memory is impossible . cant communicate 2.bodily continuity is neccessary condition for personal identity. for attachment Pg 342 Grace JantzenDO we need immortality? summary: immortality isnt essential to religion, it gives value to the present, and we should always seek fulfilment pleasures Self regarding motives: some would like the idea of immortality to continue on there projects forever and fullfill there potentials some dont accept fullfillment though and always want something else, and wouldnt like immortality but if there is only one life we cant deny enjoyment or fulfillment at all. must do at all times Moral view: the universe is chaotic, second like Kant ethics internal intrisinc motives should be valued and cant just say this life is meaningless and nothing matters in it. morals are intrinsic motivation and death can end them but there still valued religious motives : *freedom requires consequences, and these evil consequences happen for a reason just like death(another evil). we serve the punishment for our sins on this earth and endure death as a punishment to before were reseructed happy. God is constantly working for his children and doesnt stop till he fulfils his saving purpose *without any point denying freedom. while you can say they might continue on these evil choices, but all wrongs must turn good and death its self even dies. Jesus says god doesnt let any death go unnoticed(sparrows) and even if there is no after life the relationship with god is worthwile just like morals are intrinsic and relationships amongst people are valu ed Pg353John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding summary: body isnt needed for identity, only mind and thinking personal identity a thnking intelligent being that has reasoning and reflection, considering itself itself in different occasions, must be able to percieve that he does percieve. our consciousness guides thinking and makes one think they are themself if an intelligent being can repeat the idea of the past with the same conscious thats all that matters. bodiesX, minds dont. forsay a limb is cut off you no longer have the conscious feelings of its senses. physically altered but not mentally no matter what substance you occupy or body you look like, its memories that identify spirit,man, or person because u must use your mind to even think about these ideas. even when you forget ideas or turn mad, that infers 2 persons, because people say hes “not being himself.” but same body. Pg356David Hume Tretise of Human Nature Ordinary people doesnt explain personal identity, we think of it wrong Key is we are a “bundle of perceptions” nothing more than a totality of our perceptions and thats our identity. although these perceptions are always in flux, no moment where our perception remain constant thru life perceptions are like train cars making up the train moving, but cant go beyond the train or say its a train without the cars. Non conscious objects are defineable however becasue they stay the same through time and are for practical purposes memory discovers personal identity through cause and effect relations we associate between our whole life so why should identity go beyond memory? Pg361Essays on the Intellectual powers of man Thomas Reid summary : critique of Lock, memory is the basis of knowledge of our personal identity.memory provides evidence but doesnt build me Identity= relation between a thing that is known to exist at one time and that has existed at another time. if you ask if there the same or different things everyone understand the question so they understand identity after ceasing to exist cant be the same with what afterwards is concied; becasue that would mean it existed before it was concieved hence identity cant be applied to operations of mind because they differ from day to day and arent the same at any moment a person is indivisible, regardless they lose a limb, money, strength. we are a continuied existence despite acts, feelings, thobecause we just attach them to our self, I, we call them ours but dont say they make us. a person is indivisible and is a continued existence where thoughts are successive and have no continuation besides attachment to. against lockif you remember something & then dont it makes you two different people at the same time existing in the same mind body. Part 10 Pg492MLKLetter from a Birmingham Jail summary:he believed the laws were unjust so he broke them but gladly accepted the legal punishment for his actions, respecting doctrine. he insisted on nonviolent civil disobiedences, on all laws being obeyed besides the unjust ones, and on that resorting to breaking the law only be done so when fundamental moral principles are at stake. Unjust law is no law at all.. an unjust law is that law which is not in harmony with the Justlaws. any law that degrade personality is unjust like segregation distoring the soul and conscious any law that the majority inficts on the minority but doesnt bind themself to the law the law to have a permit to parade in unjust not in its self but becasue it is used to uphold segregation Breaking the law lovingly and openly with acceptance to its penalty simply to arrouse the suspision of its injustice to the community is the highest respect for a law. Civil Disobiedeince ,,,after all Hitler acted legally nonviolent act creators arent the creators of tension but merely bring it the hidden tension to the surface cant condem the robbed man of being robbed because it was his fault for possessing the money.(Socrates impiety) cant let time take its path because time is neutral and can lead to destruction or resserection and freedom is implanted unconscious and consciously, without allowing expression nonviolently it leads to violence just like jesus, abraham all assasinated for there “extremist” love truth and goodness, maybe we need one now? pg504Crito Plato dialouge takes place in socrates prison cell where he awaits execution then visited by Crito who presents an escape: his death will reflect badly on his friends, people will think they did nothing to save him he shouldnt worry about financial cost they are wiling to pay and please his rest of life he would be aiding his enemies in wronging him unjustly and thus be acting unjustly himself and he would be abandoing his sons and leaving them with no father Socrates answers: One shouldnt worry about public opinion, should only listen to the wise expierenced expert advice they shouldnt worry about reputation and should only worry about behaving well why its unjust to leave: Speaks of the Laws of athens and that breaking one law is the same as breaking them all. becasue were bound by a social contract by choosing to live there, like a child is bound to his parent and wouldnt strike against them. He is a citizen accepting the social contract and has done so happily for 70 yrs, and breaking the contract would cause it great harm, hes better off just trying to persuade the laws to let him go would make him an outlaw accepted no where and would be judged for doing so in the next life. so he stays. Part11 pg548Plato THE Republic DONT USE The Cave abunch of people are trapped in a cave with no light besides a fire outside illuminating silouette figures that appear to the people inside. Eventually they leave the cave and eyes cant handle the sun so start by learning through the shawdows and nightime, and by reflections in water. And last can look at the sun directly and ponder its nature pressence in itseelf. It represents the good in the world and the philosopher of the world who “seeks knowledge from within the truth” pg567LeviathanThomas Hobbes DONT USE pg574John Lock Second Treatise of Government the earth is given to man for comfort, they belong to mankind and the natural state belonging to noone privately. The indian that is nourished by the nature who knows no better than to use it: makes it a part of him every man has a property in his own person throught works of his hands. labor the property of the laborer when does handpicked nature becomes his? if its beyond his share it belongs to others as god supplied us all. It is laborer that supplies us and is the product and property of the laborer. as long as he uses before they spoil Money was created as a use of power through selling what is more than his. why are they entitled to this if its for beyond their family? Pg578Karl MarxEconomic and Philosohpic Manuscripts of 1844 summary: key to understanding is between those who own property and those who work for them labor produces wonderful things only for the owners. workers are alienated from their work. the cure lies in the creation of a new economic system based on common control of production worker becomes poorer the more work he produces, and cheaper the more commodities he produces more the worker spends on objects the more objects gain power and the less power he gains. the more he puts into god the more he loses. his life belongs to the object hes creating Nature provides the means life but cannot live without the objects created on which to operate 1. worker is a slave of his object that he recieves work and that work is what makes him a physical subject:worker 2.the enstrangement of the laborer is produced in the product itselfas he produces he alieniates himself from himself 3.doesnt feel at home when working but work is simply a mere means to satisfy external needs and the comfort of home 4.work is not his own but is someones elses, doesnt belong to him if he cant identify with it and is for someone else
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