GEOL 160 Exam #1 Study Guide
GEOL 160 Exam #1 Study Guide GEOL 160
Long Beach State
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaila-Marie Hardaway on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 160 at California State University Long Beach taught by Bruce Perry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Intro to Oceanography in Geology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Geology 160 Exam 1 Study Guide Spring 2016 Refer to your class notes and answer the following questions. This will help you as you prepare for Exam 1. Chapter 1 Origins 1. What does the term "world ocean" refer to? Are seas part of the world ocean? “World ocean” is the idea that all of Earth’s oceans and seas are one interconnected entity. 2. Why do gulfs and seas exist, and how are they different from an ocean? Use the Sea of Okhotsk and the Cortez Sea/Gulf of California as examples. Gulfs and seas are formed as a result of portions of oceans becoming isolated. 3. What does "salinity" refer to, and what is the average salinity of the ocean? Salinity refers to the level of salt in the ocean. The average salinity is 34.4 ppt. 4. In general, how is the southern hemisphere different from the northern hemisphere? The northern hemisphere contains most of Earth’s continental masses, whereas the southern hemisphere contains more water masses. 5. What are the three oceans, and how are they different from each other? Pacific Ocean- largest and deepest ocean; it’s size is gradually decreasing Atlantic Ocean- smallest and shallowest ocean; it’s size is gradually increasing Indian Ocean- the “in-between” ocean, it’s size is gradually shallowing 6. How are individual oceans defined? By land masses and by ocean currents 7. What has happened to the "Arctic Ocean"? It is now considered to be apart of the Atlantic Ocean 8. Why is oceanography a collaborative science? It draws from the fields of geology, physics, chemistry, and biology 9. List the steps of the scientific method. Which step is least certain, and which step is most certain? 1. Curiosity/Ask a question about nature 2. Make observations/measurements 3. Propose a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis (valid or nah?) 5. If valid, then the hypothesis becomes a theory 6. If theory is proven invariable, then it becomes law The steps go in order from least certain to most certain. 10. Know the four steps of the Nebular Theory. 1. The sun and planets condensed from a mass of dust and gas molecules (aka nebula) 2. Gravity caused the nebula to contract and spin, forming a star (the Sun) at the center and a cooler disc of matter around the new star 3. Solid bodies including the plants, moons and asteroids are condensed from the disc of matter 4. 8 planets formed from the disc of matter and began orbiting the sun (Creating a solar system) 11. What does "planetary accretion" refer to, and when did the accretion of Earth end? Planetary accretion= solid Earth formed as matter condensed into a large, rocky ball. Accretion of Earth ended about 4.6 billion years ago. 12. Explain why the impact of a Mars-sized body was important for the evolution of Earth. Include the terms "homogenous" and "planetary differentiation" in your response. The impact on Earth caused the planet to melt throughout. This formed different layers of Earth, by the process called planetary differentiation, and Earth was no longer homogenous. 13. How did Earth's atmosphere develop? Include the terms "outgassing, "photosynthesis" and "oxygen revolution" in your answer. When Earth began to slowly cook, gases began to become trapped in Earth’s interior. These gases escaped via volcanoes to form Earth’s primitive atmosphere (this process is called outgassing). The release of free oxygen into the atmosphere began due to photosynthesis by cyanobacteria. This modified the original, volcanic atmosphere enabling complex life forms to evolve over time, called the oxygen revolution. 14. After the impact of a Mars-sized body with Earth, our planet was very hot. How long did it take the ocean to form after this event, and what were the sources of water for the ocean?’ Condensed rainfall formed the world ocean over a period of 400 billion years. Comet impacts also added water to the atmosphere and ocean. 15. Briefly describe the two possibilities for the biosynthesis of life on Earth. What was the energy source for each option? 1. Biosynthesis in tide pools- atmosphere that was rich in volcanic gases is zapped by lightning strikes. This combination formed sugars and amino acids, which are the building blocks of life. The main energy source was abundant solar energy. 2. Biosynthesis of life around hydrothermal vents on the deep ocean floor – these vents spewed very hot water containing a variety of organic, sulfide-rich compounds, which bacteria thrive on. The main energy source is the hot water. 16. Some biologists hypothesize that life on Earth originated elsewhere. Explain. Some scientists believe that an asteroid blasted from another planet may have carried life. (Mars?) 17. What are the lines of evidence that life developed within the ocean? Water protects fragile life forms and present-day life forms all contain a saline solution similar to the ocean’s salinity within their cells. Chapter 2 History of Ocean Study 1. Why did humans begin voyaging on the ocean thousands of years ago? To establish trade routes for warfare, religious freedom, and colonization. 2. Describe the ships used by the early voyagers. What did these ships have in common? They were typically made to travel a short distance. 3. Voyaging for science began in the 1700's. Why did nations begin voyaging for science then? People needed more detailed information about the ocean such as location of safe harbors, natural resources, and flow of ocean currents. 4. Captain Cook and Lt. Wilkes led early voyages for science. What did they accomplish? They both discovered lands that helped people create more detailed maps that would be used for later explorations. 5. Why was the British Challenger Expedition so significant? This was the first purely oceanographic investigation of the world ocean. They collected deep ocean sediment, biological samples, and chemistry data that was later processed and used as baseline data for analyzing the world ocean. 6. How do DSDP and ODP gather information about the ocean floor, and what does this tell scientists about the ocean? Both use large ships fitted with on-board drill rigs to gather core samples of rock and sediment from the ocean floor. 7. What do WOCE and ATOC have in common? Which project was discontinued due to potential environmental harm? Explain. They both use ship and buoy oceanography, where buoys send data via radio signal to researchers. ATOC was discontinued due to the cause of many marine life deaths. 8. How does the Jason satellite tell us when an El Nino event is beginning? Jason orbits the Earth and precisely measures changes in the elevation of the ocean’s surface using radar. Warmer water inflates while colder water condenses, and this water and temperature movement helps scientists determine an El Nino event. 9. Explain how Geosat data has been used to make detailed maps of the ocean floor. This satellite used radar to make very precise measurements of permanent irregularities in surface-ocean elevation. Chapter 3 Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics 1. Know the two lines of evidence that Earth's interior is still very hot. Volcanic eruptions and hot springs. 2. List the three sources of Earth's interior heat. Which one is still working today? 1. The process of accretion as Earth formed 2. Impact of Earth by a Mars-sized body 3. The radioactive decay of unstable elements in Earth’s interior – this is still occurring 3. How is conduction different from convection? Conduction occurs in solids, and material does not move. Convection occurs in liquids, and material does move. 4. Be able to label the "Zonation of Earth's Interior" diagram like we did in class. 5. What are two lines of evidence used by Alfred Wegner to support his Continental Drift Hypothesis. Continents and fossils fit together like a puzzle. 6. Why wasn't Continental Drift Hypothesis widely accepted by earth scientists? There would have been too much friction, because CD lacked a mechanism that would have enabled continents to slide across the ocean floor. 7. How does seismic energy inform us about the physical properties of Earth's interior? Seismic energy travels faster through solids and slower through liquids. 8. With regard to Plate Tectonics Theory, what causes the plates to move? The semi-liquid asthenosphere convects slowly, causes this plates to move. 9. Know how geologists identify the edges of the plates (4 methods), and which method is the best for locating the edge of a plate. 1. Earthquakes 2. Volcanic eruptions 3. Mountain Ranges 4. Trenches and fracture zones on the ocean floor – this is the best method to locate the edge of a plate. 10. Make a side-view sketch of a divergent boundary and label it like we did in class. 11. Explain how a new ocean basin forms where divergence splits apart a continent. Where is this occurring in California? This process creates tension in the ocean crust, generating numerous low- magnitude earthquakes within the rift valley. Lava erupts from cracks in the rift valley floor, cooling to form basalt. (East Pacific Rise, Atlantic ridge) 12. What is a transform boundary, and why do they exist? These boundaries transform motion from one divergent boundary to another. 13. Technically speaking, is a fracture zone a transform boundary? Explain. Yes. They are major ocean-floor features, and on maps they will include the actual transform boundary as well. 14. What is so unusual about the San Andreas Fault? It is a transform boundary that connects the East Pacific Rise to the Gorda Ridge. 15. Make side-view sketches of Andean and Japanese subduction boundaries. How are they similar to each other, and how are they different from each other? With Andean, oceanic crust is forced beneath continental crust. With Japanese, oceanic crust is forced beneath oceanic crust. 16. What happens at a collision zone? Sketch the collision of India with Asia like we did in class and label all features. A continent collides with another continent. 17. Why is knowledge about Earth's interior essential for understanding the ocean? (Hints: origin of the ocean, formation of ocean basins and many features) Ocean crust ages as it is moved further away from the rift valley? 18. Why does hotspot volcanism occur, and how does it lead to the formation of a chain of hotspot volcanoes? A hotspot volcano occurs when a jet of hear, called a mantle plume, burns through the lithosphere. Chapter 4 Continental Margins and Ocean-floor Features 1. How are passive margins different from active margins? (Consider distance from nearest plate boundary, as well as earthquake and volcanic activity.) Passive margins are continents far from the nearest plate boundary. They experience FEW earthquakes and no volcanism [east coast] ,while active margins are closer to the nearest plate boundary experience numerous earthquakes and possibly volcanism [west coast]. 2. What is a continental shelf, and what is a shelf made of? A Continental shelf is a shallow, flat submerged edge of a continent. They are composed of vast quantities of sediment [clay, silt, sand, and gravel derived from the erosion of mountains]. 3. Why are passive-margin shelves wider than active-margin shelves? Passive-margin shelves are wider than active-margin shelves because of the vigorous shaking of shelf sediment during an earthquake. This causes the edge of the shelf to break off and slump into deeper water. 4. Explain why oil and natural gas are present within continental shelf and slope sediment. Oil and natural gas are present within continental shelf and slope sediment because the deeply buried organic matter is heated over time and turned into petroleum. 5. What is a submarine canyon, and how does it form? Give an example of a submarine canyon. A submarine canyon is a steep-walled, submerged valley that cuts into a continental shelf and slope. It forms where powerful currents carry sediment downward through a pre-existing valley. Ex: Monterey Submarine Canyon. 6. What is a submarine fan, and how does it form? Give an example of a submarine fan. A submarine fan is the accumulation of land-derived sediment on the deep seafloor. Ex: Bengal Fan 7. Submarine canyons and submarine fans are related features. Explain this statement. Where the turbidity currents emerge from the lower end of a submarine canyon, they spread out, slow down and deposit their sediment load. This deposition forms large submarine fans at the toe of submarine canyons. 8. What types of sediment are deposited on a continental rise? Sediment that slowly rains down from shallow water in the form of clay and silt [derived from a continent]. 9. Continental rises are poorly developed where Andean subduction occurs. Why? It is destroyed and the sediments end up subducting. Earth is pretty much recycling. 10. What is the Continental Borderland, and why does it exist? The Continental Borderland is the ocean floor off the coast of southern California. It exists due to long-term movements along our active margin. All these things affect waves, current, and life in the Continental Borderland. 11. How does an abyssal plain form? Abyssal Plain forms a flat and featureless region on the deep ocean floor. The plains are composed of the smallest detrital particles [clay] and plankton skeletons rich in calcite and quartz.
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