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UCD / Animal Science / ANSC 042 / What are the common traits of reptile and avian

What are the common traits of reptile and avian

What are the common traits of reptile and avian

Description

School: University of California - Davis
Department: Animal Science
Course: Introductory Companion Animal Biology
Professor: Anita oberbaur
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: UC Davis, University of California Davis, Animal Science, Animal Science 042, ANS 042, ANS 42, Doctor Oberbaur, and Animal Science Week 4
Cost: 25
Name: ANS 042 Week 4 Lecture
Description: February 1 - 5, 2016 Lecture Notes featuring topics about avian/birds form and function, zoonotics, and a guest lecture on reptiles. February 1st includes my discussion notes as well, hopefully they will help. Thank you for viewing my notes, good luck in the class!
Uploaded: 02/08/2016
9 Pages 59 Views 2 Unlocks
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Feb 1 Pocket Pet and Avian


What are the common traits of reptile and avian



I. Pocket Pet

a. Chinchilla

i. Look at physical attributes to see what their purpose is

ii. Big ears  hearing is food

b. Gerbil

i. Burrows

ii. Not good pets technically, not legal in California

iii. Originally from Mongolia

1. Evolved in the desert, which translates into water  

conservation

2. Don’t urinate a lot  lower odor

3. Monogamous, which means in a natural situation they  

tend to pair for life

a. Contrasts with domestication, which favors random  

breeding

b. Humans insert themselves into animal relations,  

thus will breed outside their “monogamous”  


Why do birds usually hide their illness?



We also discuss several other topics like How does da vinci call sensory messages?

relation

4. Desert has very unusual weather  forms a good  

tolerance for weather

5. Worry that gerbils can be a problem for overrunning the  

population since they will work well in California

6. Careful with tail, can cause tail slip  skin on tail will come

off when handled incorrectly

c. Rabbit

i. NOT A RODENT

1. has qualities similar to rodents though

ii. look at anatomy and skeletal structure to indicate differents

iii. Lagamorph

1. Continuously growing incisors, like rodents

iv. Originally from Western Europe

1. From a species of common ancestor

2. Important geological information due to temperature


How are most animal flus transmitted?



a. Domesticated rabbit cannot tolerate temperatures  

over 85 degrees Farenheit, especially those that are

obese

b. Needs to be temperature control

v. Live in communities

1. Good to be paired when put into a home

2. They ARE territorial though

vi. Believed to be domesticated in Rome

1. Used for hunting

2. Cray item

3. Skeletal structure evidence

a. Rabbit vs. Cat

i. Rabbit will use speed to get awayIf you want to learn more check out What is the significance of the supreme court decision in abrams v united states?

ii. Front leg used to help rabbit not tip forward,  

also helps with digging

iii. Hind leg used for propulsion in speed and  

stride length

iv. Easier to control and better stability due to  

the vast amount of area the hind leg uses

v. Rabbit – 8% weight is skeleton

1. Can go faster

2. But since it’s so lightweight, it must be

handled carefully

3. Can hyperextend their spine if they  

push off their hind legs without a  

support

vi. Cat – 13% weight is skeleton

vii. Do not handle via ears

1. Ears are important for hearing and also for controlling  

heat in body temperature

viii. 3rd most prevalent species in shelters

d. Ferret

i. Carnivore pocket pet

ii. NOT LEGAL IN CALIFORNIA  

iii. Prone to cancer

1. Banned in 1980’s

2. Worried due to the fact that they are carnivorous,  

especially favoring in avian meat

a. Will affect the avian population in the wild If you want to learn more check out What is the p-value approach to finishing a hypothesis test?

3. Long body can make ferret able to easily escape and  

crawl into tight spaces

4. Anal glands that react when in panic situation

iv. Domesticated from weasel/pole cat

1. Which is related to the skunk family

2. 2,000 years ago domesticated in Greece

a. Believed to be used for rodent control

II. Avian/Bird

a. The nearest living animal to a bird is a crocodile

b. Oldest bird evidence

i. Archaeopteryx

1. Shows quality of both reptile and avian characteristics

2. Reptile:  

a. Teeth, long tail, hand with claws

3. Avian:

a. Feathers, furula (paired wish bone), feet with  

opposable digits

c. Adaptation for flight

i. Biomechanics

1. Decrease drag  streamline

2. Lift  force needed to keep in air

3. Thrust  power to maintain lift & counteract drag

ii. Thrust

1. The flap of the wings that enable flight If you want to learn more check out What are the 4 basic characteristics of culture?

iii. Wing loading

1. = (Body weight) / (surface area of wing)

a. More weight means more power needed to lift up,  

thus bigger wing

b. More surface area of wing means more muscle  Don't forget about the age old question of What phase of meiosis do sister chromatids pair?

needed, thus more body weight

2. Influences biomechanics

3. Example: Swan

a. 36 pound mass of flapping power is the biggest  

iv. In order to fly

1. Needs 50% - 75% more energy compared to land animal  

to move

2. Needs more oxygen to get more energy

3. Flapping of wings help the diaphragm breathe

4. Anatomical requirements of flight

a. General lightening of body weight

i. Thin skin  little fat under skin

ii. Skeleton is incredibly modified

1. Fewer bones overall

a. Especially in spine, skull, and  

limbs

b. Also has fused bones

2. Thinner bones as well

3. Bones are hollow but strutted, which  

means it’s a crisscross pattern Don't forget about the age old question of Who are the members of marketing research industry?

a. Some bones are pneumatic,  

which means filled with air that  

allows invasion of air sacs

iii. Does not have a bladder  decreased weight

1. They excrete more of a paste as a  

combination of excrement and urine

iv. Lay eggs  do not need to carry child

1. Gonads regress when not reproducing

v. No teeth or lips

1. Heavily enforced jaw and muscle if  

you have teeth  adds on body weight

2. BUT birds don’t have that

vi. Committed forelimb to flying

1. Strengthen the wings

d. Up to 9,000 variations

i. Although very homogeneous in characteristics

ii. Mammals are very different in contrast

Discussion

I. Form and Function

a. Form = the animal’s makeup

b. Function = motion permissible due to the form

II. Movement

a. Constant balance of propulsion and equilibrium

b. Many things affect how an animal moves

i. Shape/ skeletal structure

ii. Muscle make up: size and type

iii. Nasal and lung capacity

III. Example: Herding dogs

a. Shoulders well laid back

b. 90 degrees angle between shoulder and humerus

c. Places elbows below center of gravity  good support

d. Flexible forequarters for quick turns

e. Agility

f. Balance  

IV. Example: Sighthounds

a. Dogs that hunt by sight and speed: greyhound, afghan hound,  deerhound, etc

b. Speed

c. Flexible back

d. Long legs

e. Shoulders not as laid back  deep chest

V. Gait

a. Regularly repeated manner of moving the feet

b. Physical structure affects gait selection

c. Minimize energy expenditure

Feb. 3 Avian Form and Function, Zoonotics – Viral and Bacterial

I. Avian Form and Function

a. Aerodynamic

i. Minimize the drag, lifting of the wings

b. Body modifications

i. General anatomical requirements for flight

1. Lightening of body weight

a. Hollow skeleton

b. Thin skin

c. Fewer bones

d. Less fat

e. No bladder

2. Commitment forelimb to flight

3. Specialization of pectoral muscles

a. Muscles of the bird can account up to 50%+ of the  body weight

4. Modified sternum/keel

a. The muscles attached can move in a flapping  movement

b. If not modified muscle would rip off the bone 5. Accentuated vision and balance

a. One way to think about this situation is the steering wheel and controlled mechanisms in car

i. Now look at a cockpit in a plane, it’s much  

more complicated

b. Through this accentuation it allows the bird to be  able to fly in balance

c. Ostrich example: their eye is the biggest in the  terrestrial mammals  

i. Birds with 5 cones in their eyes, bigger  

proportion of visual detection than human’s

ii. That means a bigger proportion in the brain  to synthesize the image

6. Enhanced respiratory system

a. Birds need a lot more ocygen and need more  energy compared to a mammal

b. In order to achieve that amount is through an  enhanced system

c. Respiratory tract

i. Very efficient

ii. When they need oxygen, the air comes into  the lung  which need to go into the blood 

from the blood you need to get metabolic  

waste from the body  Carbon dioxide need  

to go out the lungs to be secreted in order to  

get rid of that anaerobic  

iii. BIRDS respiratory system

1. Oxygen exchange from the air on both

inhalation and exhalation  to do this  

birds have rigid lungs, human have  

compressible lungs that push the air  

out, where inhalation is getting oxygen

and exhalation is getting out the  

waste  BIRDS need to continue to  

gain air at all times, so air goes into  

the lungs AND air sacs

2. With get oxygen through their  

“nostrils”

3. Has a bigger surface area proportion  

to body

4. Decreased distance between lung  

tissue and blood vessels

a. Makes it easier for oxygen to  

get extracted into the blood  

system

5. Hemoglobin is very efficient  

a. In the blood vessel, it has a  

great propensity to grab oxygen

and hold it

b. Allows them to get the ability to

get the energy to fly

6. Buoyancy levels must remain constant

a. Rigid lungs and constant air  

flow will allow it to have a  

uniform position in the air

7. EXAMPLE: canary in mines, the canary  

would indicate if the area has a low  

amount of oxygen

7. Bird’s center of gravity

a. More forward in the hip

b. Birds sit and the center of gravity will help it not fall

over

8. Circulation of blood is very well

a. Never really stops and thus won’t get frostbite in  

the snow

9. Neck and beak

a. Neck has 25 vertebrae so it’s easier to pick up  

items or preen itself

c. Bird immune system

i. Birds usually hide illness so flock doesn’t kick them out of the  group

ii. If a bird is shown to be sick it is REALLY REALLY SICK  go to  immediate veterinary care

II. Zoonotics

a. Diseases that are specifically transferred from companion animals or  general animals that pose a health hazard to humans

i. Animals health and wellbeing is important to the animal BUT  also for the owner

ii. Approximately 30 infectious agents in both dogs and cats that  can be transferred to humans

1. We can even give the common cold to our pets

iii. Avian flu and Zika virus – diseases examples from general  animals

b. Transmission

i. Contact with animal via

1. Skin

2. Excrements

3. Respiratory secretions (sneezes, coughs)

4. Animal’s environment

a. Henta virus

b. Rodent’s excrement can go into the air  you are in  

the area and inhale such infectious virals

5. Bites

6. Scratches

7. Vector

a. Mosquitos

8. Tissue transplant

a. Becoming more recognized

b. EXAMPLE: A person had a pet hamster that was sick

and when the owner died, their organs were given  

to people who need them. Those people got sick

c. Categorize zoonotics by agents of transmission

i. Viral

1. Which are basically diseases caused by viruses that are  

replicated in the host’s body

2. Rabies

a. In all countries (except for Antarctica)

b. Enzootic  natural wild population is a reservoir for  

that zoonotic

i. North America is enzootic to rabies

c. 2014, 200 cases of rabies

i. 160 were from bats

1. Third highest is YOLO COUNTY

ii. Bacterial

1. Which are caused by bacteria that are free living cells that

can survive outside the host

2. Usually treated by antibiotics

iii. Fungal

1. Yeast or mold that are specialized organisms

iv. Parasitic  

1. Tapeworms, protozoa, mice

v. Rickettsial

1. Both viral and bacterial  limes disease, spotted fever,  

usually by ticks

d. Can cause a particular threat

i. Threat is greatest in the very young and the very old humans 1. That’s because the immune system is not fully developed  

in young animals and humans

2. The immune system start to fail when you get older

ii. Immunocompromised

1. Health condition that inhibits immune system

2. When you get an organ transplant, you get medication to  

help your body not reject the organ, but your immune  

system is compromised through that

Feb 5 Guest Lecturer – Reptiles Dr. DeNardo Arizona State University

I. Reptiles

a. History and the snake

i. Although reptiles are in a bad stigma and we are trying to get rid of that, there are venomous snakes that can harm humans

ii. Pythons can consume a full adult

iii. Crocodiles can also consume human limbs and meat

b. Reptile Diversity – all have scales

i. Snake and lizards

ii. Turtle and tortoises

1. Don’t know what their closest living relative is

2. We do know they are reptiles though

iii. Crocodilian

1. Very similar to birds compared to other reptile

iv. Birds are related but they are not reptiles

1. They have too many different characteristics

c. Habitat diversity

i. Locations they can live in – all but the poles

1. Californian desserts

2. Rain forests

d. Reptiles and Temperature

i. Thermoregulation – regulating body temperature

1. What:

a. How to distinguish fish, amphibians, & reptiles  

between mammals & birds

i. Cold-blooded vs. warm-blooded

ii. Experiment in England where two scientists  

measured body temperature of a variety of  

animals and realized that a specific group  

has a higher temperature than other groups

1. But they did this in a cold, dank room

iii. Homeotherm vs. poikiliotherm

1. Homeotherm that has a constant  

stable temperature over time

2. Poikiliotherm that does not have a  

stable temperature over time

iv. Endotherm vs. ectotherm

1. Endotherm produce own heat

2. Ectotherm does not produce their own  

heat and need to get heat in the  

surrounding environment

2. How:

a. How we best describe thermoregulation in active  

reptile

i. Warm-blooded homeothermic ectotherms

b. Morning

i. Behavior: pressed against dark rock,  

perpendicular to sun

1. Blood will go to the back where the  

heat is hitting then circulate  

throughout the body

ii. Physiology: dark color, increased heart rate,  

increase dorsal peripheral blood flow

c. Moderate Mid-day

i. Behavior: off rock, limbs extended, open  

mouth filtered sun, facing sun

ii. Physiology: light color, increase evaporative  

water loss, decrease dorsal blood flow

d. Hot afternoon

i. Behavior: escape into the burrow

3. Why:

a. To survive

i. We have a maximum and minimum  

temperature needed to maintain or else we  

will die

b. To maximize performance

i. If you have a 100 degree F temperature you  

can’t perform well, not even run or eat

ii. Experiment: put reptile in incubator and  

control the temperature, then measure how  

fast they can run in that temperature

iii. Need to maximize performance since an  

animal can be hunted and killed if not

4. Let reptiles have a choice in temperature with  

thermogradient

e. Domestication

i. NOT DOMESTICATED

1. Too much variety that needs different accommodations 2. They are not “domesticated” to the tanks they live in

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