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test 1
David blaustein
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nya on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to biology 1103k at Georgia State University taught by David blaustein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY I in Biological Sciences at Georgia State University.




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Date Created: 02/07/16
Biology Test 1 Study Guide: What defines life/ or something as living? 1. Complex/Organized Structures: -Atom -Molecule -Organelle -Cell: Start of living system -Tissue -Organ -Organ System -Organism -Population -Community -Ecosystem -Biosphere *Also known as Emergent Properties: When living things become more and more complex as it goes from a cell to organ.* 2. Homeostasis: Working to maintain complex structures *ALL living system must do this* -We perform this because nature is disordered. Example: Human Body Temperature, keeping the same temperature range. 3. Growth: All living systems must grow before dividing 4. Nutrients and Energy: Two things that need to be acquired = metabolism 5. Adaptive: response capability: responding/adapting depending on the environment. 6. Reproduction: Mitosis/Meiosis - Considered the purpose of life 7. Evolution: Traits from natural selection are passed on -Genes: segments of DNA -Mutations: change in DNA (not negative or positive) -Natural Selection: Traits selected from adaptations… adaptations are changes based on mutations Classification of Life’s Diversity 5 Kingdom’s: classified by the following… CELL TYPE: PROKARYOTE (No nucleus) OR EUKARYOTE (w/ nucleus) -KINGDOM MONERA: ONLY PROKARYOTE KINGDOM. CELL NUMBER: MULTICELLUAR or UNICELLULAR KINGDOM MONERA&PROTISTA: UNICELLULAR -KINGDOM PLANTAE, ANIMALIA, FUNGI: MULTICELLULAR NUTRIENT ACQUSITION: INGESTION, ABSORBTION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS= ways to get GLUCOSE -KINGDOM PLANTAE: PHOTOSYNTHESIS -KINGDOM ANIMALIA: INGESTION -KINGDOM FUNGI: ABSORBTION SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. Observation: Collect & Organize Info. 2. Hypothesis: Must create a hypothesis *You need to test it, in a control experiment* 3. Experimentation: Testing variables so you can know if your hypothesis is correct 4. Reevaluation: conducting the experiment again 5. Conclusion: After reevaluating and double checking, you can form a conclusion. 6. Theory: Based off conclusion you have a theory, when it’s done and believed by multiple people. ECOLOGY: Interrelationships between organisms and their environment A. Organisms: Environment -Are you going to make it through your surroundings? B. Organism: Organism -Do you interact with Intraspecific or Interspecific? -Intraspecific: with a specific species -Interspecific: with different species 2. Population: Members of the same species which interbreed 3. Community: Dealing with members of different species 4. Ecosystem: Biotic (Living) and Abiotic (non-living) components of a habitat 5. Biosphere: All ecosystems on the planet Environment: Abiotic Conditions -Must be adapted to these in order to live: -SUNLIGHT, TEMPERATURE, WATER & SALT, OXYGEN, METABOLIC WASTE, NUTRIENTS, Ph. Trophic Level: Level of energy storage Rule of Ten: Max amount of energy transferred is 10% (LOOSE 90%) - Which is why the pyramid is shaped like a triangle… You get less energy as you go up. -Heat of Metabolism given off by all organisms Primary Trophic Level: Producers: Produce glucose (Base of all systems) *SUN IS THE ULTIMATE SOURCE OF ENERGY* -Nutrients are recycled and energy is wasted Autotrophs: Monosaccharides (glucose) & carbohydrates -Chemical Bond: energy (store) -Chlorophyll & Acc. Pigments Secondary Trophic Level Heterotrophs (Consumers): Energy from autotrophs -Primary heterotroph -Secondary heterotroph -Tertiary heterotroph Example: 1. Deer eats plants: Primary consumer (Herbivore) 2. Human eats deer: secondary consumer (Omnivore/Carnivore) 3. An animal that eats the deer: Tertiary Consumer (Carnivore/Omnivore) FOOD WEB: -All the combinations of the food chain. Bioaccumulation: the buildup of substances in an organism. -DDT : A pollution that affects organisms and its fat soluble, which means it can’t be broken down. CYCLES Biogeochemical Cycles: Hydrological Cycle (Water Cycle)/ Carbon Cycle: -How humans activity affects both: Carbon Cycle: Humans are eliminating plants which removes the process of photosynthesis (deforestation ) and we are burning fossil fuels. = causes an increase in CO2 in the air creating a greenhouse effect. Hydrological Cycle: The removal of plants which catch the water and then evaporate off their leaves, when they’re removed there’s no way to carry out the process in the water cycle such as infiltration, evaporation etc. Population Growth: Birth rate vs. Death rate Growth: Birth Rate-Death Rate Exponential Growth: Birth rate is higher than the death rate Biotic Potential: Max ability to reproduce new life Carrying Capacity: Max organism that can be supported Equilibrium: Birth& death rate is the same ENVIORNMENTAL RESISTANCE= Facts that affect the death rate Density Dependent Limits: ABIOTIC FACTORS (COMMUNITY LEVEL)  Predation  Parasitism  Pathogens Competition: -Community and population level: b/c they need the exact same resources *KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PREDATOR VS. PREY, and PATHOGENS VS. PREDADIATION: community level* -Symbiosis: Scoring the relationship and know what the interaction is. (Plus, plus=mutualism)  Parasitism: One species is harmed, the other benefits (+,-)  Commensalism: one species benefits, while the other isn’t harmed(+,0) … (Birds nest in a tree)  Mutualism: Both species benefit (+,+)…( Lichen= a fungus that provides a base and protection and the algae provides nutrients) Ecological Niche : The role of an organism in its environment (includes physical home and lifestyle) -Overlapping niches= high competition How to reduce overlapping niches? It happens naturally in two ways… 1. Competitive Exclusion: One species is gone= they were out competed. (Only takes place on community level) 2. Niche Specialization : Better adapted, by natural selection, to the specific characteristics of a particular habitat Example: Finches- One bird has a smaller beak so they eat berries, and smaller food, while the same bird has larger beak and can eat larger food items. -The finches who’s adaptation (longer beak etc.) allowed them to survive best and reproduce passed their trait on to their offspring. Predation: -Keystone Predator: Top Predator is eliminated, which increases competition & niches=competitor exclusion. Predator/Prey Cycle: -Less prey=less predators -More prey=more predators -Less predators=more prey -More predators=less prey Population Patterns: Spatial: Where you are Temporal: Time Aggregate: when units come together to form a group. Ex: School of Fish Uniform: not random or in a group, equal spacing of individuals Temporal Timeline: Pre-reproduce Reproductive Post reproduce SURVIORSHIP STRATEGIES -Convex (Type1&K): MAMMALS -Concave (Type 3&R): SMALL ANIMALS, VERTIBARATES -Reproduce many times - Reproduce once -Increased parental care - Decreased parental care -Few young - Many young Ecological Succession: Primary Succession: Develop ecosystem from scratch Ex: Volcanoes are primary because the lava wipes out everything and forms new land. Secondary Succession: Previous community wiped out (have a soil base) ex: forest fire EVOLUTION: Pre Darwinism GREEK PHILOSPHERS: Historical Aspect: Hutton & Lyell: Geologist -Evoked uniformitarianism: natural laws and process that occur now have occurred in the past. -Things in the environment are constantly changing. -Hutton: laid the foundation, Lyell: built the structure -Biblical, young earth view to Evolutionary, old earth view. -Influenced the idea of evolution to Darwin by helping him see that the earth is bigger. -Gradualism: Gradual changes lead to larger changes in the future. Lamarck: Use/disuse: Individuals lose characteristics that they don’t need and develop characteristics they do need, and that these characteristics were passed on only if they were useful. *Helped Darwin think of inheritance* Malthus: -Wrote on populations: (Over productivity& Inheritance) -We reproduce faster than the productivity of food. (Exponential Growth) *Influenced Darwin on Competition* Charles Darwin & Alfred Russell Wallace -Realized initial thoughts were wrong -Found that things changed over time -C.D. went on a voyage to track plant and animal life, and saw there were several ways to adapt based on environments. 7 Essential Theories Over productivity Competition Some die before reproduction Variability in characteristics Survival of the fittest=natural selection Variabilities are inherited Change through time=evolution EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION 1. Biogeographical: Different places: Different adaptation/characteristics -Distribution of species… Darwin’s finches: saw that finches on the Galapagos Island were similar to the ones on the main land but they had different shaped beaks due to the type of food available. 2. Fossils: Graded Series of Descendants: -Horses: teeth, hooves, and legs change over time. Fossils appear In Sequence: Primitive Organisms: Intermediate Stage: Modern Form 3. Comparative Anatomy: Common origin which is evident in anatomical structures -Homologous structures: Same origin, diverged into different functions Ex: Forelimbs on mammals and vertebrates have the same origin but different functions. -Analogous structures: Different origin, same functions Ex: Bird wing and Butterfly wing 4. Vestigial Structures: no function currently, but in the past it had one. We have diverged, still have the same genetic info from our common ancestors. Ex: Molar teeth in vampire bats Nipple on males 5. Comparative Biochemistry: -The study of evolutionary relationships between organisms. -All living organisms share a common genetic code in the form of DNA, which provides information for making the protein machines that do the day-to-day work of cells. -Comparative biochemistry studies proteins and enzymes, but both are encoded by DNA sequences. By comparing similarities and differences in the DNA and amino acid compositions, scientists can piece together evolutionary relationships between organisms. -The purpose of this is to better understand the history of life. 6. Artificial Selection: Breeding domestic plants or animals to produce desirable features. *Divergent Evolution: accumulation of differences in a species which leads to a new species.* Ex: Dogs: Origin=wolves, Dogs were created by men. VEHICLES OF HEREDITY MITOSIS: NUCLEAR DIVISON: (START AND END WITH THE SAME NUMBER) -Eukaryote: w/ nucleus-houses chromosome -Cell Membrane: living outer boundary on cell -Cytoplasm: In between cell membrane and nucleus (fluid) Cell Growth: Surface Area: Increases at slower rate than volume Surface Area: (cell membrane) =rubber Volume: (everything inside) =water Water balloon: Water inside the rubber balloon fills quicker than the balloon grows. -Cell either divides or dies Division: A. Duplication: Copy the DNA B. Separation: two daughter cells created. Life Cycle: 1. Interphase: 90% of time spent here G1 Phase: Growth S Phase: Replication G2 Phase: Prep. For cell division 2. Cell Division: 10% of time spent here Late Interphase: cell is ready to divide Prophase: (Can’t see chromosome strand until prophase) -Chromosomes condense and shorten -Nucleus and nucleolus disappear -Spindle poles, spindle fibers and chromosome appears. Metaphase: - Chromosomes align in the middle, chromatids facing opposite poles, -kinetochore of each chromosome attached from opposite spindle poles. Anaphase: -Chromatids are pulled by microtubules to poles and become chromosomes. -Cohesion which holds the chromatids together is broken down and they are now chromosomes. Telophase: -Finished dividing -Two nuclei form, one for each set of chromosomes. -nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear -chromosomes return to their stringy form Cytokinesis: -Division of cytoplasm so each cell gets a nucleus Animal cytokinesis: cleavage: pinching of the cell into two cells Plant cell=cell plate formation *all cells have membranes not a wall!* *Control of Cell division: Out of control cell division= cancer* *Contact Inhibition: If they touch they don’t divide, but if they don’t regulate they pile on top of each other leading to out of control cell division. MEIOSIS (DIPLOID-HAPLOID) -Plants and animals -Occurs in the ovaries and testes. -Used to make sperm & eggs, which are haploid. -Sperm & Egg fuse creating fertilized eggs. -Start with 46 then 23 (Diploid then haploid), no information lost. GAMETE: SPERM OF EGG (ALWAYS HAPLOID) -Male gamete: (1n + haploid) + female gamete (1n +haploid) =Zygote (2n, diploid) NEW SEX CELLS PRODUCED THROUGH: MEIOSIS 1. First meiotic division: homologous chromosomes separate 2. Second meiotic division: chromatids separate PLOIDY: THE SET UP CHROMOSOME: HOUSES DNA AND PROTEINS STRAND OF DNA: CONTAINS GENES -HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS: -ONE CHROMOSOME FROM EACH PARENT (2) THAT PAIR DURING MEIOSIS. -BOTH HAVE THE SAME TRAIT BUT DIFFERENT EXPRESSIONS OF THAT TRAIT. -HAPLOID: ONE CHROMOSOME WITH INFORMATION (1N) -DIPLOID: TWO SETS OF CHROMOSOMES (2N) -Everyone is diploid after fertilization = Zygote 2n=20 Sperm=10 (H), KIDNEY=20(D), LIVER=20(D) 1N=10 SPERM=10(H), KIDNEY=20, LIVER =20 MEIOSIS 1: Prophase: Homologous chromosomes undergo synapsis and cross over. -Synapsis: replicated homologous pair of chromosomes come together. -Crossing over: exchange of information and recombination of genes between homologous chromosomes. -Tetrads: 4 chromatids (2 chromosome pairs) Metaphase: Tetrads line up in the middle Anaphase: CHROMOSOMES separate Telophase: Nuclear envelope reforms and spindles disappear = HAPLOID SET CREATED -Parent cell -Daughter cells aka separation of cytoplasm resulting in cytokinesis. Meiosis 2: Similar to mitosis Produces four cells with ½ the number of chromosomes. Inheritance Patterns of a trait -Gregor Mendel: Pea plant experiment Monohybrid= 1 trait -PRINCIPLES OF SEGREGATION (DIPLOID: HAPLOID): -Alleles separate in the form of a gamete, half carry one allele while the other carries the other half -Heredity via genes -Segregated in the reproductive cell (MEIOSIS) -Distinct units that you move along: genes -Alleles: alternate expression for a trait Ex: flower color (Trait: color, Allele: white/purple) -PRINCIPLES OF DOMINATION: -One allele dominant over another, when both are in the same organism. -Gametes are on the outside of the Punnett square -Zygotes are on the inside GENOTYPE: the allelic combination (Pp&PP) PHENOTYPE: What you see (Purple& White) -Product of genes and environment. Environmental Influence: Over rules the Punnett square, your surroundings can affect traits. Ex: Fruit flies: curly wing expression CC or Cc Lower temp.: normal wings Higher temp: curly wings Homozygous: Identical alleles for the same gene Dominant: PP, Recessive: Pp Heterozygous: Contrasting alleles for same gene: Pp -Always know recessive phenotype. (pp) -They can both physically be purple, but genetically different. (Pp or PP) -This is when you conduct a test cross: KNOWN: PHENOTYPE UNKOWN: GENOTYPE Pp x pp: 50 %( homo recessive and heter.) PP x pp: 100 %( homo recessive and dominant) Dihybrid experiment: Mendel’s third principle - 2 traits and 2 sets of alleles -Always 9:3:3:1 Independent Assortment: -Segregation of alleles for one gene does not affect segregation alleles for other genes because they’re on different homologous pairs. -Happens after the egg is fertilized COMPARED TO SEGREGATION which happens when gametes are formed, one allele goes to each parent. Non Mendelian patterns: (Bateson and Punnett) =LINKED GENES -linked to single genes so they’re on the same homologous pair. - Something other than the parents influenced this trait (environment or mutation) - Can’t use a Punnett square for this. Genetic Mapping: the closer two genes are to each other on the chromosome the more likely they will be inherited. -INCREASED % CROSSOVER: INCREASED DISTANCE, MORE LIKELY TO BE INHERITED -DECREASED % CROSSOVER: DECREASED DISTANCE LESS LIKELY TO BE INHERITED. Sex Determination: -Male: 22 homo, 23 not completely homo (Xy) -Dad determines the sex, 50/50 chance -Female: 23 homo (XX) -sex linked: on the X it’s the mother. Incomplete Dominance: Violates Mendel’s 2dprinciple -Blending Occurs: RED x WHITE=PINK CO-DOMINANCE: -Blood Types: A, B, O -A: AA, AO -B: BB, BO -AB: AB (BOTH PRESENT, NEITHER MASKED) -O: O Alleles: A, B, O Genotype: AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, OO CONTINOUS VARIATIONS: NORMAL DISTRUBTION-MOST FALL IN THE MIDDLE. POLYGENIC: MANY GENES FOR 1 TRAIT ALONG THE CHROMOSOME EX: HEIGHT


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