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Exam One Study guide

by: Daniel Meyer

Exam One Study guide SOC 223

Daniel Meyer
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This is a completed study guide based off the textbook and excellent in class notes
Social Psychology
Susan Sprecher
Study Guide
social psychology
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Meyer on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 223 at Illinois State University taught by Susan Sprecher in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Sociology at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter Three 1. What are theABCs of the self? a. Affect, Behavior, Cognition 2. Illustrate how the cocktail party effect demonstrates the importance of the self. a. Human beings are selective in their attention, the self is an importance object of our attention 3. Self-concept: a. Sum total of beliefs people have about themselves b. The self-concept is made up of self-schemas, which are what? i. Beliefs about oneself that guide the processing of information c. What is the “Who am I” task to measure the self-concept? 4. When do humans begin recognizing themselves in a mirror? a. Do any nonhuman animals show self-recognition and how is this demonstrated? i. Chimpanzees, gorillas orangutans. They use the mirror to pick food out of their teeth, groom themselves, blow bubbles and make faces for entertainment. Red dye was painted on their brows and they would reach for their brows indicating they noticed something different about themselves. ii. bottlenose dolphins were observed in a zoo observing themselves in a mirror after being marked with black ink. iii. elephants situated in front of mirrors were observed moving their trunks to see inside their mouths 5. The self-concept comes from various sources, including introspection. How accurate are people about the causes of their own behavior, according to theorists such as Nisbett and Wilson? a. People cannot accurately explain the causes or correlates of their behavior. Attitudes about different objects correspond with their behavior towards the objects. Humans are mentally busy processing information, so we fail to understand our own thoughts, feelings and emotions. People overestimate their positives. b. When people engage in affective forecasting, how well can they predict their future emotional states? i. people overestimate the strength and duration of their emotional reactions c. What factors lead to overestimates of emotional reactions to events? i. for negative events we don’t appreciate in advance our psychological coping mechanisms ii. When people introspect about the future they focus on a single event 6. According to Bem's self-perception theory, we learn about ourselves by observing our behaviors and making inferences. Identify when and how people use observations of their own behavior as a source of self-knowledge i. people can learn about themselves the same way outside observers do-by watching their own behavior ii. people infer what they think or how they feel by observing their own behavior and the situation in which that behavior takes place b. Explain the Self-Other KnowledgeAsymmetry. i. participants rate themselves and friends rate them on personality traits ii. self- and friend- ratings were equally high for highly observable traits iii. self- more accurate for internal, non-evaluative traits iv. friend- more accurate for internal evaluative traits c. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, how do changes in facial expression affect the subjective experience of an emotion? i. changes in facial expression can trigger corresponding changes in emotions ii. if you are smiling you are more likely to enjoy things. we put our writing utensils in our mouths and those who held the piece in their teeth ranked things more funny than those who held it in their lips 7. You are a school teacher who wants to increase the amount of reading your students do. If you were to start passing out rewards for reading, explain why you might become concerned about the overjustification effect. a. extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation. the reading rewards may fail to motivate the reaching behavior b. How could you give out rewards but still maintain intrinsic motivation for reading in the children? i. make the reward unexpected c. What were the findings of the classic Lepper study on intrinsic motivation in children? i. children provided with markers to play with, they did it happily ii. then divided into three groups 1. asked to draw pictures 2. told they would receive a reward 3. received a reward but wasn’t informed about the reward Those who expected and received a reward for playing with markers lost intrinsic motivation 8. Explain how other people come to help define one's self-concept. Specifically, refer to Cooley’s looking-glass self, social comparison theory, and the two-factor theory of emotion. a. looking glass self: i. others serve as a mirror in which we see ourselves ii. we imagine how we appear to others iii. we imagine how others judge the appearance we think we present iv. if we think the evaluation is favorable, self-concept is enhanced v. if we think the evaluation is negative our self-concept is diminished b. social comparison theory i. we are uncertain about our abilities and opinions so we evaluate our selves through comparisons with similar others c. two-factor theory of emotion i. People turn to others to determine their emotions. emotions depend on physiological arousal and cognitive labels for arousal; labels can “come from others.” These two factors create the experienced emotion 9. According to Festinger’s social comparison theory, when do people evaluate themselves through comparisons with others? a. People evaluate themselves through comparisons with others when they are uncertain about their own abilities b. And with whom do people usually compare themselves? i. Similar others 10. Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotion states that there are two components necessary for having an emotion. What are they? a. physiological arousal b. cognitive label for the arousal c. Describe the classic Schachter and Singer (1962) study and the findings. i. male volunteers injected with epinephrine 1. drug heightens physiological arousal ii. one group was warned, one was not, one received a placebo iii. a confederate performed antics in the room with the volunteer iv. the reported emotion of the volunteer reflected the antics of the confederate 11. Autobiographical memories are important for the self-concept. How are memories from the past distorted? people recall memories from the recent past more than memories from the distant past. older adults retrieve memories from adolescence and early adult years people remember transitional “firsts” a. Describe the Bahrick et al. study of distortions in memory of grades from high school. Flashbulb Memories: 99 college students tried to recall their high school grades and recollections were checked against their transcripts majority of grades were recollected accurately but most of the errors are grade inflations made when the grades were low 12. Discuss how the self-concept is influenced by cultural factors. For example, how does culture affect the degree to which we have an independent versus an interdependent view of ourselves? a. How might individuals in different cultures complete the “I am…” test differently? They identify themselves with group affiliations b. What is the distinction between an individualistic culture vs. a collectivistic culture? Individualistic cultures value independence, autonomy, and self-reliance Collectivistic cultures value interdependence, cooperation and social harmony c. Furthermore, how is self-esteem affected by culture? 13. According to Mark Leary’s sociometer theory, what does our self-esteem indicate? a. self-esteem is a cue of the extent to which we get along with others b. In addition, what is the Terror Management theory as another theory for why we need self-esteem? people are motivated by a fear of death and self-esteem is a way to conquer that fear 14. Which racial group has been found to have the highest self-esteem, and how has this been explained? a. blacks score higher than whites on meta-analysis studies b. collectivist cultures cause individuals to downplay accomplishments? c. Age differences? Children have high self-esteem protected by parents few stressors 13-17 self esteem drops puberty bullying feelings of rejection 60-69 self esteem is high people are settled into their lives comfortable in their shoes at the peak of their careers 70 and older self esteem decreases mobility decreases friends die 15. From the perspective of self-discrepancy theory, what would lead to a low self- esteem? a. a large amount of self- discrepancy between the actual and ideal self. The discrepancy means a lot to the individual and the individual focuses a lot on the discrepancy 16. All of the following are strategies that could be used to maintain or enhance self- esteem. Describe each strategy and then give an example of how it could operate and/or how it might be associated with self-esteem. a) positive illusions (about self) and optimism better than average effect b) self-serving beliefs inflated memories / self-enhancing attributions c) implicit egotism unconscious expression of self-esteem such as evaluating letters with I or their own name more favorably 17. What is self-presentation and impression management? i. self-presentation is when people try to control the image they present to others ii. when we are “back-stage” or think we are, we might engage in different behaviors b. What is the distinction between strategic self-presentation (including self- promotion and ingratiation) and self-verification? i. Self-Verification: Desire to have others perceive us as we perceive ourselves ii. Strategic: trying to shape other’s impressions to gain influence, power, sympathy, approval 1. integration/ self-promotion 18. a. What is the distinction between a person who is a high self-monitor and a person who is a low self-monitor? i. High Self-Monitor: sensitive to strategic self-presentation concerns (changes in different situations) ii. Low Self-Monitor: More concerned with self verification 1 Introduction to Social Psychology 1. Social psychology has been defined as the scientific study of how individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by other people or concern other people (occur in a social context). Explain each part of this definition. Scientific study: Social Psychologists use Scientific Method it is a systematic observation, description and measurement Social Context: how people are affected by situations in which they influence each other ideas, preferences, identity and needs are all interrelated 2. What does it mean that social psychology is a science, and which research method is most characteristic of social psychology? The experimental study is the hallmark of social psychology 3. Social psychology focuses on the importance of the social context or social situation. Describe the Walton and Cohen study described in the textbook that illustrates the power of the (perceived) social context. Their goal was to improve academic performance ofAfricanAmerican students in their first semester of college at a predominately european american institution. one group was given information designed to reduce their doubts about fitting in. the information pointed out that social stress and uncertainty was typical during the first year of college. another group wasn’t given this information a. What were the major findings? Based on the findings, what advice would you get to a new college student? i. the information provided relief, reduced fears about being an outsider and allowed individuals to reach their academic potential. I would tell new college students to expect doubts about fitting in and social stress. I would make it clear that it is a typical, not unique experience. b. Also, know the experiment discussed in class, the Community Game – Wall Street game, and how it illustrates the power of the situation. i. Context matters. The same game had one of two name (above) and the name of the game set the context for the situation. The community game showed no difference in % of cooperation among players. The Wall Street game showed everyone was less cooperative. c. Also, what was the major finding of the study described in class in which clips from President Regan’s debate with Walter Mondale are different conditions was shown to participants? 4. In what ways is social psychology similar to and different from related disciplines or sub- disciplines such as… a. personality psychology i. professionals seek understanding of differences between individuals while social psychologists seek to understand how social factors affect most individuals regardless of their differences b. sociology i. shared interest in violence, prejudice, cultural differences and marriage ii. professionals share similar training and write in the same journals iii.sociology focuses on the group while social psychology focuses on the individual iv. social psychologists are more likely to conduct experiments in which they manipulate some variable and determine the effects using precise quantifiable measurements c. clinical psychology i. clinical psychologists seek to understand and treat people with psychological differences and disorders while social psychologists focus on how people think, feel, behave and influence others. ii. both may examine how people cope with anxiety or pressure in social situations or how being bullied or stereotyped affects people’s physical/mental health 2 d. cognitive psychology i. study mental processes like thinking, learning, remembering, reasoning ii. social psychologists expand on these processes by examining the social information and how the processes are relevant to social behavior e. how is social psychology different from common sense? i. it uses the scientific method to put its theories to the test 5. Triplett and Ringelmann were credited with doing the first experiments in the field. What did their experiments investigate and how did the results of the two studies differ? Triplett examined speed of bikers when racing others or against a clock. Ringelmann examined effort when pulling rope with a group or alone. Triplett’s study showed people raced faster in a group while Ringelmann’s study showed people performed worse in a group. a. When were the first textbooks in social psychology published? i. the early 1900’s b. Which of the 3 textbooks most helped establish social psychology as a discipline? i. William McDougal (1908) ii. Edward Ross (1908) iii.FloydAllport (1924) 6. The following are major periods of history in social psychology. Describe some of the major advances during each of these time periods. --Birth and Infancy of Social Psychology: 1880s-1920s Normal Triplett publishes this first research article in social psychology shows people race faster in a group than when biking against a clock Scientific approach to studying social contexts on individual’s behavior 1913, Ringelmann’s research is published shows people perform worse on simple tasks when in a group setting --ACall toAction: 1930s-1950s Hitler’s rise to power makes people around the world question what causes violence, prejudice, genocide, conformity and obedience Social psychologists fled Europe in the 1930s Their concentration in the U.S. would expand the field In 1936 GordonAllport helped form the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues In 1936 Muzafer Sharif published experimental research on social influence Drew from his experience watching Greek soldiers kill his friends as a Turkish youth Kurt Lewin flees Germany for the U.S. Establishes behavior is a function of the interaction between the person and environment Emphasized interplay of internal and eternal factors (interactionist perspective) In 1951 SolomonAsh performed demonstrations on conformity In 1954 GordonAllport published The Nature of Prejudice Leon Festinger introduces theories in 1954/’57 people try to learn about themselves through comparisons to others people’s attitudes can be influences by their behavior --Confidence and Crisis: 1960s-1970s Stanley Milgram’s research linked post WWII era to the coming era of social revolutions His research demonstrated individual’s vulnerability to the destructive commands of authority Researchers studied why people fail to help each other Debate over lab experiments certain practices were unethical expectations influenced behavior theories historically/ culturally limited 3 --An Era of Pluralism: Mid-1970s-1990s increased interest in cognitive psychology social cognition born; how we perceive, remember and interpret information in the 1990’s geographical and cultural backgrounds of researchers and participants diversified and increased 7. Who was Kurt Lewin? i. AGerman refuge to the U.S. in 1936 b. What were some of his major contributions to social psychology? Established behavior is a function of the interaction between the person and environment Emphasized interplay of internal and eternal factors (interactionist perspective) c. What were the contributions of Muzafer Sherif? Published experimental research on social influence Drew from his experience watching Greek soldiers kill his friends as a Turkish youth d. How did both Kurt Lewin and GordonAllport contribute to applied social psychology? i. Lewin influenced the field by advocating for social psychological theories to be applied to important practical issues ii. Allport inspires research on stereotyping and prejudice 8. Be prepared to know some of the most recent trends in social psychology, such as: -- Integration of emotion, motivation, and cognition (distinguish between the “cold” perspective” and the “hot” perspective, and the value of merging them). COLD: emphasizes role of cognition and de-emphasizes the role of emotion and motivation in explaining social psychological issues HOT: focuses on emotion and motivation as determinants of our thoughts and actions Motivations we aren’t consciously aware of can bias how we interact with or interpret information about other people -- The distinction between automatic and controllable processes -- Emergence of the subfield of social neuroscience (what is this subfield?) The study of the relationship between neural and social processes --Advances in behavioral genetics Examining the role of genetic factors in behavior -- Growing area of evolutionary psychology (what are some of the major principles?) Uses principals of evolution to understand human social behavior How tendencies/reactions to jealousy have evolved from natural selection processes of our ancestors -- Emphasis on cross-cultural and multicultural research (what is the difference?) Cross-cultural research examines similarities and differences across a variety of cultures Multicultural research examines racial and ethnic differences within cultures Cross-cultural research is more broad, multicultural is more specific -- Development of behavioral economics questions asked and methodologies employed are crossing traditional academic boundaries this subfield focuses on how psychology, social and cognitive, relate to economic decision making -- The study of embodied cognition (what is this?) Perceptions and judgements reflect and can influence their bodily experiences examination of close links between mind/body position reducing guilt by hand washing with soap people have more admiration for stranger if they pull their arms towards themselves while viewing the stranger’s picture 4 people score lower on self-esteem tests if they are slumped over -- Use of new technologies Brain imaging technologies Use of the internet Virtual reality technology eye tracking (what is sexually appealing) Research Methods 1. All research begins with a research question. What are some of the common sources of research questions? What is the distinction between a research question and a hypothesis? sources: own experiences, observations of life, reading about research already done (searching literature), theory distinction: hypothesis is a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events (variables) 2. What are the stages of the research process? 1. generating RQ or hypothesis 2. find relevant research/theory 3. select research method a. collect data b. analyze data 4. report results 3. Distinguish between each term in the following pairs of methodological terms: • basic research vs. o Goal is to increase understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on a theory • applied research o enlarge understanding of naturally occurring events and contribute to the solution of social problems o Goal is to find solutions for practical problems ▪ goal is in mind by counselors and therapists aren’t involved • conceptual variable (definition) vs. variables in an abstract, general form • o operational variable (definition) o specific way a conceptual variable is measured/manipulated • random assignment vs. o participants are not assigned to a condition on the basis of their personal or behavioral characteristics o essential in determining the independent variable ha • random sample o everyone in a population has an equal chance of being selected for participation o data collected is representative of the broader population • laboratory experiments vs. o takes place in a controlled situation • field experiments o occurs in natural setting and is higher in external validity (realism) • independent variable vs. o experimental factors researcher manipulates • dependent variable 5 o variables being measured depend on independent variable • manipulated variable vs. o a condition a participant is assigned to • subject variable (in experimental designs) o Characteristics of participants in experiment (gender) ▪ pre-existing / not manipulated • external validity vs. o Sample: can the results generalize to other people o Setting/ situation: can results generalize to other situations ▪ trade-off between mundane/experimental realism • internal validity o degree to which one can be certain that the independent variables caused the effects on the dependent variable • experimental realism vs. o Degree to which procedures are involving and lead the experiment • mundane realism o Degree to which the experiment resembles the real world (physically) • positive correlation vs. o as scores of one variable increase scores of the other variable increase too as scores of one variable decrease scores of the other variable decrease too • o negative correlation o as scores of one variable increase scores of the other variable decrease • self-reports vs. o participants reveal thoughts, feelings, desires and actions o questionnaires that consist of individual questions or sets of questions that relate to a single conceptual variable • observations o observing individuals systematically, often in natural settings o require interrater reliability which is the degree to which observers agree on what they have observed • direct observation vs. o involves systematic observations about behavior; conducted in lab or natural setting • participant observation o researcher makes systemic observation of behaviors and plays active role in interactions ▪ avoids recollections/other self-report biases ▪ a person’s knowing your watching may affect behavior (reactance) • convenience sample vs. o used by most social psychologists o made up of people who are easy to reach • random sample o strengthens external validity • correlation vs. o an association between two variables exist o can be used for predicting and generating hypotheses 6 • causation one variable is proven to cause another o • descriptive research vs. o social psychologists record how frequent participants think, feel or behave • correlational research o determining the strength and direction of an association between two variables 4. What are the advantages and primary disadvantage of doing correlational (survey) research as compared to experiments? a. advantage: enables researchers to study naturally occurring variables, including variables that are too difficult or unethical to manipulate b. disadvantage: can’t determine cause and effect relationships 5. What are the essential characteristics of an experiment? a. The experimenter has control over the experimental procedures, manipulating variables of interest and ensuring uniformity elsewhere b. participants are randomly assigned to different conditions (manipulations) c. Why and how is each of these important for the internal validity of the experiment? i. They help ensure a level playing field, that the independent variable actually causes the effects obtained on the dependent variable 6. Describe how each of the following could reduce the internal validity of an experiment: -- a confound some other factor varied along with the independent variable, this makes it impossible to tell if the independent variable caused the effect -- experimenter expectancy effects results found in an experiment may have been produced by the experimenters actions not the independent variable How do you prevent these issues from occurring? keep experimenters uninformed about assignments to conditions experimenters can’t treat subjects as a function of their condition 7. What are the major ethical criteria that one must consider when using human subjects? a. Be approved by universities Institutional Review Board b.Acquire informed consent from participants c.Avoid physical/psychological harm d.Assure anonymity or confidentiality e. Have debriefing if there was deception Why are the ethnical criteria important in conducting research in social psychology? Deception is usually key to research What is the responsibility of institutional review boards? Review research proposals to confirm the welfare of participants is adequately protected What is the purpose of informed consent? Participants are provided with enough information of what will be required with them so they can make an informed decision 8. Describe the procedures used in… a. systematic observation i. individuals observed in natural settings ii. realism is part of the results b. archival analysis. i. researchers examine existing records and documents such as newspaper articles, diaries and published crime statistics ii. important in diagnosing cultural and historical trends c. What is the importance of inter-rater reliability in observational studies? 7 i. this is the level of agreement between multiple observers ii. the data can only be trusted when different observers agree


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