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Week 4 - Geology 1610 (with lab) flash cards

Author: Student Professor: Johnny Byers Term:

These flash cards are some words and questions from class that will be on exam 1 CHECK THEM OUT! They are really helpful for me I hope they do the same for you

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Common properties used to identify materials 

Crystal form, color streak, luster, reaction to acid, magnetic, taste, feel, striation lines, hardness, optical properties such as double refraction, cleavage planes, cleavage angles

Crystal form expresses what structure?

The internal structure 

Example of a mineral with a crystal face 

Quartz

Luster shows what?

Metallic VS Non-Metallic 

Metallic 

Looks like metal, reflects light, rusty 

Non-Metallic 

Vitreous, pearly, silky resinous, earthy 

Color

Not the best diagnostic for minerals, 

Diamond on hardness scale

Ten on Moh's Scale, found in kimberlite pipes

Kimberlite pipes

Branches, chimney of a volcano, comes from deep below the surface of the earth

Fracture 

Irregular, hacky, conchoidal, results through a break through a plane of strength 

Striation lines 

Indicatave of an oscillation between two different types of crystal forms 

Reaction to HCL tests for...

Calcite, distinguish cements in sedimentary rock 

Graphite formation 

Pure carbon formed under low pressure and temperature 

Feldspar

Crystal size tells rate of cooling 

Isotopes 

Two or more varieties of the same element that have the same atomic number and chemical properties but differ in mass numbers because they have varying numbers and electrons 

Ratio

Larger in ice formed when snow falls when climate is warm Ratio is smaller in ice formed when snow falls when climate is cold (Ration of 18O/16/O)

Rock cycle

Igneous/sedimentary/metamorphic 

IGNEOUS ROCKS (MAKES WHAT)

THESE ROCKS MAKE 90 PERCENT OF THE CRUST 

Magma

molten rock underground (composition) 

lava 

molten rock above ground 

Cooling history 

helps us tell how the rock was formed 

Crystallization 

Hot magma under pressure cools down quick 

Silicate minerals form through what? 

crystallization process

Silicates through crystallization become...

the foundation of igneous rock

Extrusive igneous

Magma cools on the surface quickly 

Intrusive igneous 

Some minerals cool faster than others 

Most common classification of igneous rocks 

Basalt and Granite 

Basalt

Form on the ocean floor (magma cooled underwater) 

Granite 

From the continental cores (magma cooled) 

Textures 

Aphanitic, Phaneritic, Porphyric 

Aphanitic

RAPID cooling tiny crystals, Extrusive rock (earths surface)

Phaneritic

Slow cooling larger crystals = intrusive rock (not reaching surface)

Porphyritic 

Visible large crystals and tiny crystals )a mix) The rock cooled BOTH below ground slowly (when larger crystals formed) and again above more quickly (when small crystals formed)

Crystal definitions 

Crystal definitions 

Phenocrysts

Large visible crystals 

Ground mass

Matrix of tiny crystals 

What texture is formed when magma cools quickly?

Glassy texture is formed 

If the magma contained a lot of gas which escaped, air travels through the rock, the rock exhibits what....

Vesicular (spongy) texture 

If magma explodes in volcanic eruption into angular piece which are welded together with ash creates....

Pyroclastic texture

There was a violent eruption from a volcano in the past when...

Vesicular and pyroclastic texture appear 

High amount of silica in igneous rock (70% ^) 

Felsic

60% Silicate is what kind of igneous rock?

Intermediate silica composition 

50% silicate and below forms what kind of igneous rock?

Mafic silica composition

Felsic color 

Light and speckled 

Intermediate color 

Black and white speckled 

Mafic color 

Dark, blackish in color 

Igneous comes from what latin word

IGNIS (FIRE) 

Radon Gas 

Contained by some igneous rocks (Granite) forms when naturally occuring uranium  isotopes in the rock decay 

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