Study Guide for Test 1
Study Guide for Test 1 100
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at Fort Hays State University taught by Kenneth R Neuhauser in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geoscience at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
GSCI 100 Introduction to Geology Dr Kenneth Neuhauser Print these Sheets off and bring to Lecture You must my new terms to this list from material introduced in lecture Sometimes inthenews events will be incorporated or mentioned in the lectures You will also have Critical Thinking team projects and questions may come from that material as well Will questions on each and every one of these terms processes or concepts be on the exam No But you can count on 50 Multiple Choice andor True and False questions on these 4 exams as well as 100 of the same on the cumulative nal exam EXAM 1 winter 1 Introduction Geology physical and historical Why geology Scienti c method hypothesis and theory LithosphereAsthenosphereHydrosphereAtmosphereBiosphereCryospere Earth s elements amp Volcanic gases Rock cycleuniformitarianism Plate Tectonics Geologic Time Scale Chapter 2 Minerals De nition of a mineral Physical properties of minerals Parts of the atom Isotopes and radioactivity Bonding types Siliconoxygen tetrahedron and common silicates Other mineral oddities piezoelectricity uorescence ferromagnetism liquid crystals geophagy Chapter3 Igneous Rocks Magma plutonic intrusive and lava volcanic extrusive and how formed Viscosity textures and rates of cooling Classi cation and types of igneous rocks felsic intermediate ma c ultrama c How is basalt formed Granite Andesite ConcordantDiscordant examples Kansas surface igneous rock typesexposures and uses Hydrothermal solutions Chapter 4 Volcanoes Viscosity aa and pahoehoeLavaTephra types Shield vs composite volcano Pyroclastics nuee ardentes lahars Hot spots and partial melting Super volcanoes HazardsEffects 0n humansmonitoringpredicting Chapter 5 Weathering Mechanical and chemical weathering types and general processes Products of weathering sediments and ions in solutions Pedology soil pedocal pedalfer and laterite soil and taxesGIS geologic mapping with soil Acid rain acid mine drainage eastern western coal and relation to pyrite content Chapter 6 Sedimentarv Rocks Sedimentsclasticschemicalbiochemical Burialcompactioncementationauthigenesisprecipitationrecrystallization Sieve analysis Sorting angularity sphericity maturity Wentworth and phi scales Bedding plane features ripples mudcracks cross beds bioturbation Skolithos Ophiomorpha Point bars finingupward packages Stratigraphic up indicators turbidites Oil coal kerogen source and reservoir rocks oil shales tar sands CBM and methane hydrates Kansas crude completion cards drill rigs logs refineries Depositional environments paleogeographic maps tonsteins EXAM 2 Chapter 7 Metamorphism Regional contact and dynamic metamorphism processes impact features shocked qtz pseudotachylite shatter cones tektites fulgarites Trinitite Classification scheme progradation retrogradation index minerals facies Foliation nonfoliation rock cleavage Riecke s Principle Slaty schistose gneissose textures accessory minerals Carrara marble Yule marble Washington DC monuments other sculptures Chapter 8 Mass Movement Mass wasting flows slides and slumps Slope stability factors triggering mechanisms role of water Creep solifluction subsidence hydrocompaction uid removal organic oxidation solutioning mining Lahars karst sinks I70 sink FHSU survey GISSRI anthropogenic sinks gypstacks Mitigation examples Chapter 9 Hydrology Hydrologic cycle and evapotranspiration Divide drainage basin gradient discharge gauging stations Big Creek Channel natural levee oodplain alluvium and load types How rivers erode ultimatelocal base level effect of dams Meander point bars oxbow lake deltas subsidence and New Orleans Drainage patterns terraces neotectonics Floods causes frequency and mitigation Deltas coarseningupward packages Katrina Mississippi delta New Orleans Chapter 10 Hydrogeology Groundwater more sources of aquifer unconfined and confined aquitard aquiclude Porosity and permeability infiltration controls hydraulic headgradient Darcy s Law Zones of aerationsaturation water tableperchedsprings movement rates Potentiometric surface cone of depression drawdown mound of recharge artesian condition Water quality standards landfills leachate LNAPL DNAPL perc BTEX caveat emptor Hays water treatmentsewage treatment air strippers charcoal filters SVEs Hays landfill Basic water doctrines rhabdomancy saltwater intrusion desalination plants Geothermal power covered in igneous too karst features EXAM 3 Chapter 11 Glaciation Cryosphere Pleistocene Epoch and other glacial episodes Glacial types zone of accumulation zone of wastage rates of ablation calving glacial surges Glacial deposits and features drift erratics moraines eskers drumlins kettles kames varves Glacial erosional features striations groves polish roche moutonnee Ushape hanging valleys DEM imagery near Great Lakes Ronkonkoma moraine and New York skyline Kansas erratics Pleistocene glacial and interglacial stages North America tectonic hypothesis Past glaciations causes of glaciation global warmingO18 isotope ratios tillites Washington scab lands Milankovitch and astronomy ice cores Key Largo reef cycles phenology phrenology Loess pluvial lakes Death Valley Racetrack playal Modern glacial monitoring techniques and glacial retreat Tuvalu what if Florida model If glaciers melt demographics agriculture forestry fisheries water supplies energy production transportationshipping routes Chapter 12 Deserts Deserts locations and causes latitude continental center rain shadow cold ocean currents Anthropogenic desertification nomadic political Dirty 30s Wind driven pollutionnutrients from China and NW Africa Erosional landforms deflation abrasionfrosted grains pedestals ventifacts pavement yardangs Depositional landforms dune types and conditions White Sands National MonumentGreat Sand Dunes contrasts and comparisons Playas playa lakes Cryptogamic soil xerophytes Mars Lake Chad Aral Sea Lake Mead Chapter 13 Coastal Dynamics Nature of waves wave base ripples breaker surf swash longshore current drift wave refraction Beach parts high lowtide trough rip current undertow foreshorebackshore Sand budget summer vs winter tide types and causes coastal erosion hurricanestsunamis Mitigation groins seawalls breakwaters revetments jetties Ajacks reef balls Waf eCrete Beach restoration Dubai Chapter 16 Sil oor Oceanograwy Seafloor research history TharpHeezen echo sounding seismic sidescan radar submersibles NOAA Ocean floor features abyssal plain midocean ridge seamount guyot shelf trench Subduction obduction ophiolitesCyprus atoll development CCD Rifts smokers chemosynthetic communities hydrocarbon seeps hypersaline seeps AlvinWHOI Sediment types biogenous hydrogenous terrigenous manganese nodules methane hydrates EEZ Robert Ballard Jason project Titanic new and strange deepsea critters Chapter 14 mics and Earth Interior Seismology seismometer seismograms happy and sad faultearthquakeelastic rebound Wave types and vibration mode of P S Love Rayleigh Mercalli Richter Magnitude scales epicenter focus focal point triangulation Kansas quakes brine disposal fracking politics natural vs explosion liquefaction Tsunamis causes BPRs warning signs Damage to propertylife prediction mitigation of quakes Earth interior parts crust mantle lithosphere asthenosphere core seismic evidence tomography Internal heat sources Project Moho and Russian drilling Kola Peninsula Magnetic field cause declination inclination Brenton paleomagnetism reversals spinner magnetometers magnetostratigraphy Chapter 15 Plate Tectonics Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading historyevidencehypothesestheories Seafloor spreading evidences magnetic anomalies rock ages thicknesses patterns heat flow gravity Driving mechanisms Pangaea plateboundary types hot spots aulacogens CNAR MGA Plate motions rate determinations SLR VLB GPS SRI velocities Plate names you must know Paleogeographic maps Tectonic theory explains Future tectonic movement EXAM 4 Chapter 17 Deformation Mountain Building Mountain distributions orogeny isostasy accretion shields cratons belts NA Mountain types Accreted terrane microplates exotic terrane Wrangellia Tectonic convergent styles extension thin skin basement involved accretionary wedge Structural geology folds anticline syncline and faults hanging wallfootwall normalreversethruststrikeslip Orogenies Taconic Acadian Ouachita Red Rocks Fountain Fm Sevier Cretaceous foreland basin deposits Laramie Ogallala Fm Chapter 18 Geologic Time Geologic Time Scale some etymology relativeradiometric datingnew techniques what is being dated Principles superposition original horizontality faunal succession crosscutting relationships inclusion Uniformitarianism Actualism index fossils fossil assemblages marker beds Unconformities disconformity angular nonconformity GSA Time Scale must know whole time scale in lab Photo comparisons magnetostratigraphy dendrochronology fission tracking lichenometry coral growth rings obsidian hydration DNA ESR electron spin resonance flowstones C14 limitations Age of Earth 46 Ga Oldest dated rock 40 Ga Moon Rock 44 Ga Meteorites 46 Ga Chapter 19 Historical Geologv Preview Age of universe 137 Ga Big Bang and nebular hypotheses Goldilocks Paradox origin of Earth s moon Composition of early universe earlypresent Earth atmosphere outgassing water vaporno free 02 Precambrian highlights procaryoteseucaryotesstromatolites photosynthesis endosymbiotic theory Recent missing links Agrobacterium tumefaciens Lokiarchaeto DNA RNA ATP Oldest dated prokaryote fossils 38 Ga multicellular eucaryotes 12 Ga Banded Iron Formations BIFs 22 Ga evidence of 02 in oceans Oldest dated red beds 15 Ga 02 in atmosphere Bitter Springs Fm Apex Chert Gunflint chert actual sample Carbonaceous chondrites NEA meteorite impacts extremophiles Tardigrades LatePrecambrian life forms Paleozoic highlights Lower Paleozoic life forms trilobites Archeocyathids inarticulate brachiopods Ostracoderms actual sample Skeletal benefitsland barriers to plantsanimals Sonic Hedgehog SHH gene Tiktaalik rosea missing link Pangea and tectonic split volcanic gases extinctions Mesozoic highlights Age of the Reptiles marine and land life form examples Kansas Cretaceous forams coccoliths ammonites AllosaurusTRexArcheopteryx Solnhofen Ls Amber C02 methane gasestermites KT boundary iridium other mass extinctions when and possible causes Gamma Ray Burst Dinosaurs and plants dying out before KT boundary Who lived Cenozoic highlights Age of the Mammals marine life seals sea lions walruses Megalodon Laramide Orogeny Ogallala Fm intermountain basins and niches super volcanoes Ash Fall Nebraska Evolution of horses cladogram Toba eruptionvolcanic winter genetic bottleneck mitochondrial DNA studies 70 K years ago Early humans nearly go extinct 14th Century Black Death pandemic Early humans human genome Great American interchange PaleoGIS Younger Dryas impact hypothesis PETM climate change Little Ice Age effect on artwineVikings Anthropocene and What next Conclusion and what I expect you to remember and Jimmy Buffett May The Curve Be Ever In Your Favor
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