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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Bartz on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1300 at East Carolina University taught by WALTER CURTIS in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Geography at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
ATMO/GEOG 1300, Weather and Climate, Curtis, Test #1 1. What is the difference between climate and weather? Weather is a pinpoint that is controlled by climate Climate impacts weather 2. What is a hypothesis and how is it different from a theory? A hypothesis is a prediction A theory is an accepted hypothesis 3. What are the 4 steps of the scientific method? a. Collect scientific facts through observation and measurement b. Develop one or more working hypotheses c. Develop observations and experiments to test hypotheses d. Accept (theory), reject or modify hypotheses based on extensive testing 4. What was Wladimir Peter Koppen known for? Delineation and mapping of the climatic regions of the world 5. What international organization is responsible for meteorological standards and data collection? World meteorological organization 6. What is an ASOS? The Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) program is a joint effort of the National Weather Service (NWS) 7. Where is temperature, pressure, and dew point temperature placed on a station diagram? Temperature is located upper left corner, pressure is upper right, dew point is bottom left 8. How do you “decode” a pressure reading on a station diagram? 1. Place decimal point to the left of the last number 2. Place either a 9 or 10 in front 3. To determine whether to place a 9 or 10 in front: if the number falls between 00.0 and 55.9 place a 10 9. How is a 5 kt wind signified on a station diagram? A 10 kt wind? A 50 kt wind? 5 kt.= small stick, 10kt.= large stick, 50kt.= flag 10. If the wind is from the NE, where is the wind barb placed on a station diagram? Upper left 11. How is cloudiness indicated on a weather station diagram? Open circle 12. Where would you find a precipitation symbol on a weather station diagram? Between temperature and dew point temperature 13. What is an air mass? Temperature and moisture characteristics the same *horizontally* Continental inn size ( 1600km/ 1000 mi across) 14. What are the 4 types of air masses? Which one is the coldest and driest? Warmest? wettest? Continental polar, continental tropical, maritime polar, maritime tropical 15. Where are the source areas for air masses in the U.S? Canada, gulf of Alaska/north Atlantic, gulf of mexico, mexico and southwestern US 16. Which air mass affects eastern North Carolina the most and where is its source area? Maritime tropical; midAtlantic 17. What is the polar front?\ stationary; divides cT’s and mT’s 18. How do fronts slope with height? Warm air front has a lower frontal slope while a cold air front has a higher frontal slope 19. Why are cold fronts more associated with severe weather than warm fronts?As a fast moving, dense cold front runs into a warm air mass, the warm, moist air is pushed upwards quickly. This sudden intense rising of moist air forms the extremely tall clouds that violent storms stem from Accompanied by heavy thunder and lightning, these storms produce heavy rainfall and only last for short periods of time. 20. What would you experience if a warm front passed over you? Temperature increases, skies clear 21. What would you experience if a cold front passed over you? Temperature falls, sky get cloudy 22. What is a stationary front? is a pair of air masses, neither of which is strong enough to replace the other. 23. What is an occluded front? What is the difference between a coldtype and warmtype occlusion? a composite front produced by occlusion 24. What is a dry line? sharp drop in humidity without appreciable drop in temperature. cT is more dense than mT 25. Can you identify fronts on a weather map? Red triangles= warm front, blue semicircles= cold front, pattern of red triangles and blue semicirlce= stationary front, purple semicirlce= occluded front 26. Which 2 air masses are normally divided by a 1) warm front, 2) cold front, 3) occluded front, 4) dry line? 1. mT and mP 2. cP and mT 3. cP and mP 4. cT and mT 27. What is a meteogram? a graph that shows how several meteorological variables change over time. 28. Upper air maps are often at a constant pressure (e.g. 500 mb). If so, how is pressure change indicated? 29. What is the jet stream? zone of fast winds in the upper atmosphere 30. Can you identify a trough/ridge in an upper air map? 31. What is the 850 mb map good at representing? Chart is good for assessing low level warm air and cold air advection 32. What is a radiosonde? a lightweight package of weather instruments fitted with a radio transmitter and carrier aloft by a balloon. 33. Why do midlatitude cyclones often form at a stationary front? Midlatitude cyclones tend to have a warm front east of them and a cold front to the west of them 34. Why do midlatitude cyclones usually die after obtaining an extended occluded front? As more of the front is forced aloft, the pressure gradient weakens, friction slows the surface flow and circulation ceases to exist 35. In which general direction do midlatitude cyclones pass through the US? West to east 36. What is the difference between zonal and meridional upperair flow? Zonal: fair weather Meridional: often initiates stormy weather 37. Where are you most likely to find upperair divergence/convergence in relation to troughs or ridges? Upperlevel convergence favored downstream (east) of ridge divergence occurs downstream of upperlevel trough 38. Where are you most likely to find a surface low/high in relation to troughs or ridges? air entering a zone of high wind speed, air accelerates and stretches out (divergence) air entering a zone of slower wind speed, an air pile up (convergence) results 39. What are the three conveyor belts in the conveyor belt model of midlatitude cyclones? Warm, dry, cold 40. Which region of the United States experiences the highest frequency of midlatitude cyclones? most severe in the US during winter and spring when the greatest temperature contrasts are found 41. Name one source region of midlatitude cyclones. flow at higher altitudes thens to be W to E 42. What is persistence forecasting? Assume that what is happening in the present will continue in the future 43. What is trend forecasting? Assume that a trend observed at a place will continue in that same direction in the future 44. What is analog/statistical forecasting? Looks at spatial patterns that have existed in the past and assumes those patterns will repeat themselves in the future 45. What are the three phases in numerical weather modeling? • Analysis phase Looking at the models to see what’s going to happen • Prediction phase The forecast that is decided • Postprocessing phase What the answer was and determining how close you were 46. Name a problem of numerical weather prediction (i.e. why can’t weather people get the forecast right?) Rely on accuracy of observational data input into the models Sensitive dependence on initial conditions o Limits prediction to less than a week Models are simplifications 47. What does a % chance of rain mean? Percent chance of rain: The chance that 0.01 inches will fall at any point in the area during the period covered by the forecast 48. Why does forecast skill improve with lower rain rates, in the winter, and with forecaster input? more accurate; not a lot of random scatters 49. What is the difference between a geostationary satellite and a polar orbiter? Geostationary satellite: orbits around the equator Polar satellite: orbits above the poles 50. What are the three primary “channels” of the GOES satellite? Which one views the middle of the atmosphere, roughly? Which one is related to temperature? Three channels: visible, thermal infrared, water vapor 51. Choose the best terms to complete the sentence: In a hurricane, water (evaporates/condenses) from the ocean and oceanic energy (decreases/increases); then water (evaporates/condenses) to form a cloud and atmospheric energy (decreases/increases) 52. What is the direct transition from ice to water vapor called? Sublimation 53. What is the direct transition from water vapor to ice called? Deposition 54. What is the definition of latent heat? The heat energy released or absorbed during the transition of water from one phase to another 55. What is the definition of sensible heat? The heat energy that goes into temperature change 56. What are the three ways to move heat directly? Which one works best in a solid? Which one does not require a medium? Which one works best for a hurricane? Radiation, conduction, convection; conduction works best in solid; radiation doesn’t require a medium; convection is best for a hurricane 57. How is advection different from convection? Advection: the transfer of heat or matter by the flow of a fluid, especially horizontally in the atmosphere or the sea. Convection: the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat 58. What are the three scales of temperature? What would be a typical “room temperature” in each scale? 59. What does absolute zero mean? Absolutely no molecule movement READ CHAPTERS 1 (up to Composition of the Atmosphere), 8, 9, 12, 2 (Heat, Conduction, Convection, and Radiation, but before Solar Radiation), 3 (Temperature Scales), & 4 (Water’s Changes of State). One short answer question on the test (10 pts) will come from “Give It Some Thought” at the end of one of these chapters!
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