ANTH 026 ANTH 026
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Anthropology 21: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cori Conchieri on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 026 at University of Vermont taught by Deborah Blom in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Study Guide | Exam One | ANTH 026: Biological Anthropology 1. Anthropology and Biological Anthropology Explain differences and similarities among the four branches of anthropology o Cultural anthropology: study of cultures and societies of human beings and their very recent past; study living cultures and present their observations in an ethnography Archaeology: study of past societies and their cultures especially the material remains of the past, such as tools, food remains and places where people lived Linguistic anthropology: study of language, especially how language is structured, evolution of language and social/cultural contexts for language Physical anthropology: study of human evolution and variation, both past and current Characterize the importance of the biocultural approach to anthropological inquiry o Biocultural approach: scientific approach of interrelationship between what humans have inherited genetically and culture Identify several different research areas in physical anthropology o Evolutionary history: all biological changes that have brought humanity to its present form o Forensic anthropology: examine skeletons to identify who they were in life Explain the four steps involved in doing science o Observation o Hypothesis o Predictions o Test Distinguish between hypotheses and theories o Hypotheses: testable statements that potentially explain specific phenomena observed in the natural world o Theory: set of hypotheses that has been rigorously tested and validated, leading to their establishment as a generally accepted explanation of specific phenomena 2. Development of Evolutionary Theory Outline and explain the major scientific principles from which Darwin drew to create his theory of evolution o Darwin pulled from 5 disciplines: 1. Geology: study of the Earth, in regards to composition, activity and history 2. Paleontology: study of fossils 3. Taxonomy: classifications of past and living life forms 4. Demography: study of populations, in regards to birth, survival and death 5. Evolutionary Biology: study of organisms and their changes Explain the ideas of Lamarck and Malthus as they relate to Darwin’s concept of evolution o Lamarckism: theory of evolution through inheritance of acquired characteristics in which an organism can pass on acquired features o Thomas Malthus: made claim that an abundance of food would let population increase geometrically and indefinitely; reality states that population is limited by food supply, those who successfully compete for food will have the most impact on the next generation Explain Darwin’s main contributions to the theory of evolution. o Hypothesized that surviving offspring had attributes advantageous for acquiring food Because these offspring survived, frequency of advantageous characteristics increased over time o Deduced that natural selection was the primary mechanism for evolution Compare and contrast Lamarckian and Darwinian theories o Mendelian Inheritance: basic principles associated with transmission of genetic material, forming basis of genetics, including the law of segregation and law of independent assortment Explain how the case of peppered moth illustrates natural selection o Evolutionary Synthesis: combination of Mendelian Inheritance and the theory of evolution; Darwin’s theory provided the mechanism for evolution (natural selection) while Mendel’s theory provided how traits were passed on systematically and predictably Explain role of Mendelian inheritance in the evolutionary synthesis o Mendel’s Law of Segregation: First law, which asserts that two alleles for any given trait are inherited, one from each parent; during gamete production, only one of two alleles will be present in each ovum and sperm o Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment: Second law, which asserts the inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of other traits 3. Molecular Genetics Identify the 4 nitrogen bases of DNA and explain how they combine o Guanine, Thymine, Arginine and Cytosine Describe the process of mitosis o 1] Chromosomes appear and duplicate 2] Duplicated chromosomes wind up 3] Chromosomes line up, membrane disappears and fibers from 4] Centromeres divide as spindle fibers pull duplicated chromosomes apart 5] Chromosomes arrive at opposite ends and fibers dissolve 6] Nuclear membranes form and chromosomes unwind Describe the human karyotype o Number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell; complete set of chromosomes in a species, or an individual organism o Human karyotype has 23 sets of chromosomes Describe the process of meiosis o 1] Parent cell is diploid, having 23 pairs of chromosomes 2] Meiosis begins like mitosis, cell’s DNA is replicated 3] Homologous pairs of chromosomes are paired 4] Pairs are separated and pulled to opposite sides as the cell divides 5] Cell divides, forming 2 daughter cells 6] Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, but are not paired 7] Second cell division follows, without DNA replication; chromosomes are separated into single chromatids and are pulled to opposite sides as the cell divides 8] Each new daughter cell has half the genetic information of the original cell Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play o Transcription section of DNA molecule with base pairs, DNA molecule temporarily separates as bases, mRNA lines up its bases with their complements on the coding side of DNA o Translation mRNA moves out of cell nucleus to ribosomes; as ribosomes move along mRNA, tRNA picks up amino acids and lines up along mRNA according to base complement; tRNA transfers its amino acid to the next active tRNA as it leaves, resulting in a chain of amino acids Explain the importance of Hox genes and what effects a mutation in these genes could have. o Hox genes have been identified in all animals, plants and fungi In fruit flies, Hox gene determines the thoracic region of the body during the larval stage of development is called Antp. Flies and other insects, Hox genes determine their body regions during embryological development In mice, the Hoxc6 gene delimits the thoracic region, which is indicated by the thoracic vertebrae Birds and reptiles, have a Hoxc6 gene which determine the location of the thorax in the embryo; location of Hoxc6 gene varies in each animal, allowing for variation in the length of the cervical region Humans, have a Hoxc6 gene which determines location of thoracic region; have a neck of intermediate length when compared to geese and pythons; responsible for determining the location of the thorax Distinguish between the roles of structural and regulatory genes o Regulatory Genes: essentially turn other genes off/on, important in differentiation of cells and whether particular proteins produced o Structural Genes: gene that codes for any RNA or protein product other than a regulatory factor; code for structural protein, an enzyme or an RNA molecule not involved in regulation Explain difference between phenotype and genotype o Phenotype: individuals observable trait o Genotype: genetic contribution to phenotype, traits are largely determine by genotype 4. Population Genetics | Evolutionary Forces Describe characteristics of a species. o Species: individuals who are capable of breeding with other and producing viable, fertile offspring is key; can include multiple populations; reproductive isolation is key Define the term “deme” and its importance to genetics and the study of evolution o Deme: breeding population; a local population of organisms that have similar genes, interbreed, and produce offspring Compare microevolution and macroevolution, including one difference between them o Microevolution: change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population; due to 4 different processes o Macroevolution: evolution on a scale of separated, focus on change that occurs at or above the level of species Explain Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium o Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: if no evolutionary forces acting, allele frequencies will remain constant over time; random mating predict the next generation’s genotype frequencies Describe common mutations in humans and animals Define different types of mutations o Induced Mutations: caused by mutagens, including toxins like chemicals, radiation or viruses; must be in sex cells (gametes) in order to have an evolutionary impact o Point Mutation: replacement of a single nitrogen base with another base (can be synonymous or nonsynonymous) o Frameshift Mutation: deletion or insertion of one or more nitrogen bases o Chromosomal Mutation: consist of errors of cell division/meiosis in sex cells (trisomy 21) o Sex Chromosomes Mutations Turner Syndrome: many health problems including underdeveloped ovaries, infertility Kleinfelters Syndrome: small testes and reduced fertility, 1/1000 males, 1/500 have extra x with no syndrome, shoes presence of y determines maleness Compare the 3 patterns of natural selection and provide examples of each o Directional Selection: mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing allele frequency to shift over time in direction of that phenotype o Stabilizing Selection: type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases and the population mean stabilizes on a particular trait value o Disruptive Selection: describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values; variance of the trait increases and population is divided into two distinct groups Define genetic drift and founder effect and provide real world examples of each o Genetic Drift: random change in the frequency of alleles; random chance of alleles being passed on, based on probability of law; “sampling error” o Founder Effect: the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population Explain how gene flow contributes to genetic diversity o Gene Flow: spread of genetic material from one population to another through; migration of individuals from one group to another; sexual reproduction Decreases variation between groups ARTICLE NOTES Darwin’s Rib | Notes | Section One Men anatomically have one less pair of ribs than women religious belief “Eve was made from one of Adam’s ribs” Scientific results should be compelling because the collected observations/experiments leave room for only one possible rational explanation Questions are what drive science, not answers Studying comparative anatomy is “pretty straight-forward stuff” beginning with homologies/analogies, transitioned forms, convergent evolution and vestigial traits o Still possible to learn ALL this and believe God created Eve from Adam’s ribs Assumed all children of Adam would also be missing one single rib – although they come in pairs – including women (makes no sense) Lamarckism at its finest PROBLEM. Lamarck is wrong, problem is that generations of Jewish/Muslim males have been circumcised, without effect on presence of absence of penile foreskin of offspring o No creditable evidence to support Lamarckian inheritance; ribs aren’t a sex-linked trait o Nowhere in Bible does it state how many ribs Adam began/ended with Religion remained intact but learning to think about assumptions and to reason more about things other than religion The Five Sexes | Notes | Section Four 1843 Levi Suydam asked town board of selectman to validate his right to vote as a Whig in hotly contested local election; said that Suydam was more female than male, and could not be allowed to cast a ballot o Barry’s diagnosis declared the prospective voter a male, but was premature; Suydam menstruated regularly and had a vaginal opening o Had narrow shoulders and broad hips and felt occasional sexual yearnings for women; had “feminine propensities” Western culture deeply committed to idea that there are only 2 sexes; means being available, or exempt from, draft registration, and being subject to a number of laws governing marriage, the human and family intimacy o In US, two people legally registered as men cannot have sexual relations without violating anti-sodomy statutes. (1993) “…if state and the legal system have an interest in maintaining a 2- party sexual system, they are in defiance of nature…” Uses intersex as “catch-all” for 3 major subgroups of some mixture of male and female characteristics: herms, ferms and merms. o Herm: True hermaphrodite o Ferms: female pseudomaphrodites, born with ovaries but some sort of male genitalia o Merms: male pseudomaphrodites, born with testes but with some sort of female genitalia Inner lives of the people in each subgroup, their special needs and their problems, attractions and repulsions, have gone unexplored by science Advances in physiology and surgical technology now enable physicians to catch most intersexuals at the moment of birth; infants are added into hormonal and surgical management so they can slip “quietly into society as a ‘normal’ heterosexual male or female” Hermaphrodite comes from Greek name “Hermes”, known as messenger of the gods, patron of music, controller of dreams or protector of livestock, and “Aphrodite” the goddess of sexual love and beauty o Hermes and Aphrodite came together to parent Hermaphroditus, who at age 15 became half male and half female when his body fused to a nymph he fell in love with In hermaphrodites, testis and ovary can grow separately but bilaterally and in others they grow together within the same organ, forming an ovo-testis. Pseudohermaphrodites possess two gonads of the same kind along with the usual male (XY) or female (XX) chromosomal makeup; external genitalia and secondary sex characteristics do not match their characteristics 1969 2 investigators described 98% cases of true hermaphroditism (signifying people with both ovarian and testicular tissue) solely according to the appearance of external genitalia and accompanying ducts o Main problem was with the phallus (embryological term for a structure that during usual development goes on to form either a clitoris or penis) o More feminine types: oversize and sexually alert clitoris, labia partly fused, forming an incomplete scrotum, phallus was between 1.5/2.8 inches long o More masculine types: urethra runs through the phallus which looks more like a penis than a clitoris, breasts appear at puberty, menstruation occurs periodically through urination Embryonic gonad generally chooses early in development to follow either a male or a female sexual pathway Uro-genital swellings in the embryo that usually either stay open to become vaginal labia, or fuse to become a scrotum Modern Anglo-Saxon legal systems require that newborns be registered as either male or female; US (1993) sex determination is governed by state laws: o Illinois permits adults to change the sex recorded on performed the appropriate surgery o New York Academy of Medicine argued that the chromosomal sex remains the same, a person’s wish to conceal his or her original sex cannot outweigh the public interest in protection against fraud 1969 medical and surgical approaches to intersexuality had neared a state of rigid uniformity, hardly surprising that such a hardening of opinion took place in the era of the feminine mystique o Scientific dogma has held fast to the assumption that without medical care, hermaphrodites are doomed to a life of misery o Multiple contradictions in that kind of power call for some scrutiny, the medical “management” of intersexuality certainly developed as part of an attempt to free people from perceived psychological pain o If one accepts the assumption that in a sex-divided culture people can realize their greatest potential for happiness and productivity only if they are sure they belong to one of only 2 acknowledged sexes: modern medicine can be extremely successful Why should we care if a ‘woman’ defined as one who has breasts, a vagina, a uterus and ovaries and who menstruates, also has a clitoris large enough to penetrate the vagina of another woman? Why Should we care if there are people whose biological equipment enables them to have sex ‘naturally’ with both men and women? o Answers seem to lie in a cultural need to maintain clear distinctions between the sexes, society mandates the control of intersexual bodies because they blur and bridge the “great divide” o Challenged traditional beliefs about sexual difference: possess the irritating ability to live sometimes as one sex and sometimes the other, and they raise the specter of homosexuality Hermaphrodites would be concerned primarily not about whether they can develop potentially life-threatening conditions – hernias, gonadal rumors, salt imbalance caused by adrenal malfunction – that sometimes accompany hermaphroditic development The Five Sexes, Revised | Notes | Section Four Cheryl Chase has a talk titles “Sexual Ambiguity: Patient-Centered Approach” which was measured critique of near-universal practice of performing immediate “corrective” surgery on thousands of infants born each year with ambiguous genitalia “The 5 Sexes” article argued the two sex system embedded into society is not adequate enough to encompass full spectrum of human sexuality o 5 sex system was suggested to include people born with ambiguous genitalia Herms true hermaphrodite Merms male pseudomaphrodites (born with testes and some aspect of female genitalia) Ferms female pseudomaphrodites (born with ovaries and some aspect of male genitalia) Concept of intersexuality is rooted in the ideas of male and female; idealized biological world, human beings are divided into 2 kinds: a perfectly dimorphic species Chromosomes, hormones, the internal sex structures, gonads and external genitalia vary more than people realize o 4% of live births are intersexual Some populations possess relevant genes at high frequency, intersexual birth rate is not uniform throughout the world CAH (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) gene is inherited from both parents, leads to baby with masculinized external genitalia who possesses 2 X chromosomes and internal reproductive organs of a potentially fertile woman Clinics how specializing in treatment of intersex babies rely on case- management principles developed in 1950’s by psychologists John Money o Believed gender identity is completely malleable for 18 months after birth When a treatment team is presented with an infant who has ambiguous genitalia, the team would make a gender assignment solely on the basis of what made the best surgical sense; physicians could simply encourage the parents to raise the child according to surgically assigned gender. o Through surgery, the physicians were merely completing nature’s intention Money published detailed case studies of intersex children that had adjusted, one case in particular proved his theory. o Didn’t involve intersexuality at all: one of a pair of identical twin boys lost his penis as a result of a circumcision accident, money recommended that “John” be surgically turned into “Joan” and raised as a girl, and was thought to like dressing in feminine clothes/having her hair done o “Joan” rejected his female assignment, and went on masculinizing medication, and married a woman with children Physicians should minimize what he calls irreversible assignments: taking steps such as the surgical removal/modification of gonads/genitalia that the patient may one day want to have reversed McCullough urges physicians to abandon their practice of treating the birth child with genital ambiguity as a medical or social emergency… take the sexual sensitivity Revelation of cases of failed reassignments and emergence of intersex activism have led an increasing number of pediatric endocrinologists, urologists, and psychologists to reexamine the wisdom of early genital surgery How Sexually Dimorphic Are We? | Notes | Section Four With respect to sex chromosome composition, gonadal structure, hormone levels and structure of internal genital duct systems and external genitalia, we generally consider Homo sapiens to be absolutely dimorphic Medical scientists define as abnormal any deviation from bimodally distributed genitalia or chromosomal composition.
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