Bio 111 Exam 1 Study Guide
Bio 111 Exam 1 Study Guide Biology 111
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallori Wisuri on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 111 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Metzler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Bio 111 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 (1/12/16; 1/14/16; 1/19/16) 1. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization and be able to place objects in the proper levels. Lowest to highest: -‐Atoms -‐Molecules -‐Organelles -‐Cells -‐Tissues -‐Organs and Organ systems -‐Organisms -‐Populations -‐Communities -‐Ecosystems -‐Biosphere 2. Know the characteristics of life Seven: 1. Order-‐ ex. sunflower 2. Evolutionary adaption-‐ to change over time ex. Camouflage from prey 3 Respond to stimuli-‐ ex. Venus fly trap ; any living thing can have this capability 4 Reproduce-‐making an offspring; the ability not based off your decision (sexual or asexual) 5. Grow and develop-‐ ex. Nile crocodile 6. Energy processing-‐ ex. humming birds 7. Regulation-‐ ex. Jack rabbit. They have big ears with blood vessels to regulate body temperature. Organisms can regulate concentrations in their body, sugar, surface area to volume ratio (size to volume), sleeping/waking cycles, hormones, and pH. 3. Distinguish among the three domains of life. -‐Bacteria: find prokaryotic cells -‐Eukarya: find eukaryotic cells -‐Archaea: find prokaryotic cells 4. List and distinguish among the three kingdoms of multicellular, eukaryotic life. -‐Fungi -‐Plantae -‐Animilia 5. Know, be able to identify, and describe the steps of the scientific method. -‐Make an observation -‐Form a hypothesis -‐Prediction -‐Perform the experiment -‐Analyze the data -‐Report your findings -‐Invite others to reproduce the results 6. Explain why hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable but are not provable. Scientist don’t prove anything because according to a good hypothesis it must be falsifiable. This means there has to be the potential to collect negative data. This is why scientists say supported! 7. Distinguish between the everyday meaning of the term ‘theory’ and its meaning to scientists. -‐Take several hypotheses together and put together a huge idea about how we think something works. -‐All these hypotheses used in a certain theory have to be supported by data. -‐Theory holds more weight if it supported by lots of different types of data. -‐Theory’s have the ability to change and grow with new information. Chapter 2(1/19/16) 1. Identify the four elements that make up 96% of living matter. Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen 2. Draw and label a simplified model of an atom. 3. Distinguish between neutrons, protons, and electrons (See picture above) Electron: capable or effecting bonding (negative) Proton: contribute mass of atom (positive) Neutron: contribute mass of the atom (neutral) 4. Explain how two isotopes of an element are similar. Explain how they are different. Isotopes are various forms of an element. They have different number of neutrons so they have different mass. Have different characteristics then the regular forms of the element. 5. Explain why electrons in the first electron shell have less potential energy than electrons in higher electron shells. -‐Similarly charged electrons are placed into the same shell. -‐If an electron gains or loses energy it can move. This is important for biologically to use. 6. Distinguish between nonpolar covalent, polar covalent and ionic bonds. -‐Polar covalent bond: sharing electrons unequally -‐This can be tested by electronegativity. The more electronegative an element the stronger affinity it is for electrons. Ex. Water molecules -‐Nonpolar covalent bond: sharing electrons equally -‐Ionic bond o Movement of electrons, o Electrons are transferred and not shared like in covalent bonds. o Weak bond according to biology perspective o One atom will gain electron(s) while the other atom loses electron(s). Try to complete electron shell to become more stable Ex. NaCl opposites attract so going to form a bond. -‐Cation: Na ; positive (t looks like a plus sign) -‐Anion: Cl ; negative 7. Distinguish between hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interaction, and van der Waals interactions. -‐Van der waals o Electrons are in a cloud and don’t know their exact location o Electrons constantly moving o A separation of charge is caused o Only happen when atoms are very close to one another and they both have opposing dipole moments o Very weak bond o Important role in proteins and cell membranes -‐Hydrophobic o Like substances will dissolve like substance (like dissolves like) -‐CH3(carbon hydrogen chain molecules) o Means afraid of water or nonpolar -‐Hydrophilic: water loving or polar o Ex. Oil o Due to weak interactions can break easily will eventually reform bonds o Important to structure of proteins -‐Hydrogen bond o No exchange of electrons at all to create bonds unlike covalent and ionic bonds o Will not develop unless polar covalent bonds have happened in another molecule o Bonds can occur between polar molecules o Hydrogen from water is bondng to the Nitrogen of the ammonia molecule o Interaction between polar molecules such a C, N, O o One atom forming bond is hydrogen o Hold two DNA strands together o Doesn’t take a lot of energy to break/form. This is helpful to living things Chapter 3(1/21/16) 1. With the use of a diagram or diagrams, explain why water molecules are: a. Polar It is a polar molecule and contains 2 polar covalent bonds Oxygen hogs the electrons from the 2 hydrogen’s b. Capable of hydrogen bonding with 4 neighboring water molecules Water molecules are excellent at hydrogen bonding 2. List four characteristics of water that result from hydrogen bonding. -‐Cohesion -‐Temperature stabilizer -‐Ice is less dense then liquid form of water -‐Powerful solvent 3. Define cohesion and adhesion. Explain how water’s cohesion and adhesion contribute to the movement of water from the roots to the leaves of a tree. o Cohesion: stick to yourself Creates surface tension Ex. Water and water o Adhesion: stick to something else Ex. Water and glass -‐ Capillary actions: when cohesion and adhesion combine together. -‐Important for very large trees (Redwoods) for pulling water up to the top of trees. 4. Explain the following observations by referring to the properties of water: • Coastal areas have milder climates than adjacent inland areas. Temperature stabilizer: -‐Water has high specific heat and high evaporation point -‐Requires ton of energy to raise temperature of water -‐Huge body of water absorbs heat and keeps coast cool • Ocean temperatures fluctuate much less than temperatures on land. Temperature stabilizer: -‐Water has high specific heat and high evaporation point -‐Requires ton of energy to raise temperature of water -‐Huge body of water absorbs heat and keeps coast cool • Insects like water striders can walk on the surface of a pond without breaking the surface. Cohesion: stick to yourself -‐Creates surface tension Ex. Water and water • If you slightly overfill a water glass, the water will form a convex surface above the top of the glass. o Cohesion: stick to yourself -‐Creates surface tension Ex. Water and water o Adhesion: stick to something else Ex. Water and glass • If you place a paper towel so that it touches spilled water, the towel will draw in the water. Adhesion: stick to something else Ex. Water and glass -‐ Capillary actions: when cohesion and adhesion combine together. -‐Important for very large trees (Redwoods) for pulling water up to the top of trees. -‐Ex. Sucking up water from your cup through your straw to your mouth. • Ice floats on water. Ice less dense then liquid form of water because when ice form of water(solid): atoms get slower and Hydrogen bonds when formed are further away from one another. • Humans sweat and dogs pant to cool themselves on hot days. Temperature stabilizer: -‐Water has high specific heat and high evaporation point -‐Requires ton of energy to raise temperature of water -‐Our body can handle huge temperature changes without affecting our body temperature -‐When your body gets hot you sweat and skin turns red. 5. Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances. -‐Hydrophobic means afraid of water or nonpolar -‐Hydrophilic: water loving or polar 6. Define acid, base, and pH. Acid: -‐pH lower then 7 -‐Proton donor -‐Dissociates to release hydrogen ion [H] Base: -‐Proton acceptor -‐Dissociate to release hydroxide ion [OH] -‐pH higher then 7 pH scale: -‐Concentration of H and OH ions -‐This is a log scale -‐6 to 7 a factor of 10, not 1 7. Explain how acids and bases may directly or indirectly alter the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. (SEE NUMBER 6 ABOVE) 8. Explain how buffers work. -‐Resistance change in pH -‐The have a range in which they function -‐Buffers are weak acids or weak bases -‐Blood uses carbonic acid good to regulate pH in blood 9. Explain where electrolytes come from and their importance. -‐Mix acid and base will form a water and salt -‐Salt in presents of water will dissolve/dissociate -‐Electrolytes: ions that are created from dissociation Chapter 4(1/26/16) 1. Explain how carbon’s electron configuration explains its ability to form large, complex and diverse organic molecules. Hydrocarbon only composed of C and H Nonpolar molecules; nonpolar covalent bonds Don’t react well or at all with other molecules Electrons being equally shared 2. Describe how carbon skeletons may vary, and explain how this variation contributes to the diversity and complexity of organic molecules. Take on a lot of different arrangements Ex. Branching, Bonding (single/double), Ring structures, Carbon chains 3. Describe the basic structure of a hydrocarbon and explain why these molecules are hydrophobic. Hydrocarbon only composed of C and H Like substances will dissolve like substance (like dissolves like) -‐CH3(carbon hydrogen chain molecules) Hydrophobic: Means afraid of water or nonpolar 4. Name the major chemical groups found in organic molecules. Describe the basic structure of each chemical group and outline the chemical properties of the organic molecules in which they occur. Hydroxyl: OH -‐Polar group because of electronegative oxygen -‐Can now Hydrogen bond Carbonyl: C double bonded to Oxygen -‐2 varities: Ketone: O double bonded to 2 carbon chains Aldehyde: O double bonded to a carbon chain and Hydrogen -‐Found in sugars -‐Lets off interesting smells Carboxyl: C double bonded Oxygen and Hydroxyl -‐Acidic -‐Called carboxylic acid -‐Ionize Hydrogen will come off in presence in water, allows it to participate in ionic bonding -‐Important in structure of proteins Amino group: Nitrogen bonded to 2 Hydrogen’s –Ionize in living things –Acts as base –Picks up Hydrogen, which allows it to participate in ionic bonding Sulfhydryl group: Sulfur bonded to hydrogen and carbon -‐Not found very often -‐Only found on 1 amino acids (Cysteine) -‐Makes covalent bond (Disulfide bridge) -‐Cross links and helps with protein structure Phosphate group: phosphate with 4 oxygen’s -‐Takes on a negative charge -‐Structure of nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) -‐Plays a role in specific type of lipid Chapter 5(1/26/16)(1/28/16) 1. List the four major classes of macromolecules. Proteins Nucleic acids Carbohydrates Lipids 2. Distinguish between monomers and polymers. Polymers: large molecule built smaller subunits that have been linked together Monomer: small subunit held together by covalent bond (varies between biomolecules) 3. Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation and hydrolysis reactions. o Dehydration reaction: how polymers formed -‐removes water molecules; forming covalent bond between monomer subunit o Hydrolysis reaction: how polymers break down back into monomer subunits -‐adds water molecules; breaks covalent bond 4. Distinguish between monosaccharide’s, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. -‐Monosacchrides: named for how many Carbons they contain. Come in lots of different sizes. Ex. Glucose -‐Disaccharides: put 2 monomers together dehydration reaction form bond called glycoside linkage(covalent bond) Ex. Sucrose -‐Polysaccharides: the true biomolecule. Composed of glucoses. How the glucose are arranged and the arrangement of covalent bond. Ex. Starch and Glycogen Starch: make a fairly tight chain made up of glucose. Used for energy. (Plants) Glycogen: Lots of branching made up of glucose. Found in cells of liver and in muscle cells. (Humans) -‐Cellulose: plant cells build cell walls out of a different version of glucose called the Beta form that are linked together. They call this fiber because we cannot break it down in the human body due to the Beta bond. In humans can only break down the Alpha form of glucose. 5. Describe the formation of a glycosidic linkage. Dehydration reaction form bond called glycosidic linkage (covalent bond) 6. Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is biologically important. Starch forms glycosidic linkage is a Alpha where as a Cellulose forms a Beta. Biologically important because they call this fiber because we cannot break it down in the human body due to the Beta bond. In humans can only break down the Alpha form of glucose. 7. Describe the building-‐block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and steroids. o Lipids –No monomer subunit -‐Group them based on chemical nature -‐Nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules -‐Used in energy storage, structural component, or signaling § Triacylglycerol’s: made up of 3 fatty acids tails (big hydrocarbon chains) -‐Glycerol molecule attached to fatty acid tails -‐Dehydration reaction forms an ester linkage(covalent bond) between the glycerol and fatty acid tails. -‐In animals this is how we store energy -‐Fatty acids come in 2 varities: § Saturated fats: straight tail, no Carbon Carbon double bonds. Saturated with Hydrogens. Solid at room temperature. Ex. Butter, lard. Come from animals and are sticky § Unsaturated fats: Carbon Carbon double bond in tail; rigid no flexibility causes it to kink. Doesn’t allow for packing of tails so liquid at room temperature. Ex. Come from plant sources or fish § Phospholipids: structure important for in creating the structure of your membrane (lipid bilayer in cell membranes) -‐Amphipathic: both hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar region) -‐Head group: Hydrophilic and composed of glycerol molecule, phosphate group and head group. -‐Tails: two hydrophobic tails and can be saturated or unsaturated. § Steroid: distinguished by four connected carbon rings with various functional groups attached. Ex. Cholesterol: common compound of animal call membranes and a precursor for other steroids, including many hormones. 8. Identify an ester linkage and describe how it is formed. Dehydration reaction forms an ester linkage (covalent bond) between a fatty acid head and tail. 9. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats. -‐Saturated fats: straight tail, no Carbon Carbon double bonds. Saturated with Hydrogens. Solid at room temperature. Ex. Butter, lard. Come from animals and are sticky -‐Unsaturated fats: Carbon Carbon double bond in tail; rigid no flexibility causes it to kink. Doesn’t allow for packing of tails so liquid at room temperature. Ex. Come from plant sources or fish 10. Name the principal energy storage molecules of plants and animals. Starch-‐Plants Fat/ Triacylglycerol-‐Animals 11.Explain how a peptide bond forms between two amino acids. Linking amino acids together occurs in a dehydration reaction where a peptide bond (covalent bond) forms. This bond forms between the carboxyl group and amino group of the amino acid coming in. You can break the peptide bond in a hydrolysis reaction. 12. List and describe the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties of the R group. -‐Amino acid: monomer subunit that consists of an amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen, and R-‐group/Side chain (The R-‐group varies and is what is unique between 20 amino acids) -‐Break proteins up into groups based on chemical nature: -‐Polar: do a lot of H bonding, find an extra amino group and OH groups. -‐Nonpolar: side chains are carbons and hydrogen’s. Form hydrophobic interaction and find them on interior of proteins. -‐Electrically charged: ionize in presence of water forming charges, extra carboxylic group (acidic) or extra amino group (basic). Water loves charge and can form ionic bonds. 13. Explain how the primary structure of a protein is determined. Primary: order of amino acids when you link tem together by peptide bonds and make a chain. Held together by covalent bonds. Controls all other level of structures. 14. Name two types of secondary protein structure. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining secondary structure. Secondary: two types; maintained by Hydrogen bonding between amino and carboxyl groups. -‐Alpha helix: very flexible, elastic, come back into shape. -‐Beta pleated sheets: more stable configuration, strong, 15. Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary protein structure. Tertiary: contributes to 3D shape; interaction between side chains; hydrophobic, ionic, van der waals, and disulfide bonds (covalent bond). Every protein gets to this level! -‐Globular proteins: blob like (hemoglobin) -‐Fibrous proteins: rope-‐like (collagen) 16. Understand the process of denaturation. Denaturation: causes proteins to unfold. The protein loses tertiary and secondary structure, but not its primary structure. 17. Explain how chaperonins may assist in proper folding of proteins. Roles of Chaperones: help proteins fold properly 18. List the major components of a nucleotide, and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid. Nucleic Acid -‐Monomer subunit: nucleotide made up of 3 parts phosphate functional group, pentose sugar (Deoxyribose-‐DNA; Ribose-‐RNA) and nitrogenous bases (A,U,C,G,T) -‐Dehydration reaction created the phosphodiester bond (covalent bond) between the phosphate group and sugar. 19. Distinguish between: a. ribose and deoxyribose Ribose is the sugar group found in RNA Deoxyribose is the sugar group found in DNA. It has one less oxygen group then ribose. b. 5ʹ′ end and 3ʹ′ end of a nucleotide 5’ end is a phosphate group and 3’ end is a hydroxyl group. Next, nucleotide will link with the 3’ end. 20. Briefly describe the three-‐dimensional structure of DNA. DNA is double stranded, stable, double helix (spiral staircase), constant diameter (2nm), right handed. 21. Describe differences between DNA and RNA Nucleic Acid -‐Monomer subunit: nucleotide made up of 3 parts phosphate functional group, pentose sugar (Deoxyribose-‐DNA; Ribose-‐RNA) and nitrogenous bases (A,U,C,G,T) Thymine (DNA) Uracil (RNA) -‐Uses: store/transmit genetic information and help make proteins. -‐RNA is single stranded and unstable -‐DNA is double stranded, stable, double helix (spiral staircase), constant diameter (2nm), right handed. -‐Complementary base pairing: A pairs with T (2 H bonds); C pairs with G (3 H bonds) -‐DNA strands run antiparallel to each other. -‐Dehydration reaction created the phosphodiester bond (covalent bond) between the phosphate group and sugar. -‐5’ end is a phosphate group and 3’ end is a hydroxyl group. Next, nucleotide will link with the 3’ end.
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