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Bio 111 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Mallori Wisuri

Bio 111 Exam 1 Study Guide Biology 111

Marketplace > Ball State University > Biology 111 > Bio 111 Exam 1 Study Guide
Mallori Wisuri
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Exam 1 Study Guide
Dr. Metzler
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallori Wisuri on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 111 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Metzler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Bio  111  Exam  1  Study  Guide     Chapter  1  (1/12/16;  1/14/16;  1/19/16)     1. Diagram  the  hierarchy  of  structural  levels  in  biological  organization  and  be   able  to  place  objects  in  the  proper  levels.     Lowest  to  highest:   -­‐Atoms     -­‐Molecules     -­‐Organelles   -­‐Cells     -­‐Tissues     -­‐Organs  and  Organ  systems   -­‐Organisms     -­‐Populations   -­‐Communities     -­‐Ecosystems   -­‐Biosphere       2. Know  the  characteristics  of  life     Seven:     1.  Order-­‐  ex.  sunflower     2.  Evolutionary  adaption-­‐  to  change  over  time  ex.  Camouflage  from  prey     3  Respond  to  stimuli-­‐  ex.  Venus  fly  trap  ;  any  living  thing  can  have  this   capability     4  Reproduce-­‐making  an  offspring;  the  ability  not  based  off  your  decision   (sexual  or  asexual)   5.  Grow  and  develop-­‐  ex.  Nile  crocodile     6.  Energy  processing-­‐  ex.  humming  birds   7.  Regulation-­‐  ex.  Jack  rabbit.  They  have  big  ears  with  blood  vessels  to   regulate  body  temperature.    Organisms  can  regulate  concentrations  in  their   body,  sugar,  surface  area  to  volume  ratio  (size  to  volume),  sleeping/waking   cycles,  hormones,  and  pH.       3. Distinguish  among  the  three  domains  of  life.     -­‐Bacteria:  find  prokaryotic  cells   -­‐Eukarya:  find  eukaryotic  cells     -­‐Archaea:  find  prokaryotic  cells       4. List  and  distinguish  among  the  three  kingdoms  of  multicellular,  eukaryotic   life.   -­‐Fungi   -­‐Plantae     -­‐Animilia     5. Know,  be  able  to  identify,  and  describe  the  steps  of  the  scientific  method.     -­‐Make  an  observation   -­‐Form  a  hypothesis   -­‐Prediction       -­‐Perform  the  experiment   -­‐Analyze  the  data   -­‐Report  your  findings   -­‐Invite  others  to  reproduce  the  results       6. Explain  why  hypotheses  must  be  testable  and  falsifiable  but  are  not  provable.     Scientist  don’t  prove  anything  because  according  to  a  good  hypothesis  it   must  be  falsifiable.  This  means  there  has  to  be  the  potential  to  collect   negative  data.  This  is  why  scientists  say  supported!         7. Distinguish  between  the  everyday  meaning  of  the  term  ‘theory’  and  its   meaning  to  scientists.     -­‐Take  several  hypotheses  together  and  put  together  a  huge  idea  about  how   we  think  something  works.       -­‐All  these  hypotheses  used  in  a  certain  theory  have  to  be  supported  by  data.     -­‐Theory  holds  more  weight  if  it  supported  by  lots  of  different  types  of  data.     -­‐Theory’s  have  the  ability  to  change  and  grow  with  new  information.         Chapter  2(1/19/16)     1. Identify  the  four  elements  that  make  up  96%  of  living  matter.     Oxygen   Carbon   Hydrogen   Nitrogen                   2. Draw  and  label  a  simplified  model  of  an  atom.           3. Distinguish  between  neutrons,  protons,  and  electrons   (See  picture  above)     Electron:  capable  or  effecting  bonding    (negative)   Proton:  contribute  mass  of  atom  (positive)   Neutron:  contribute  mass  of  the  atom  (neutral)       4. Explain  how  two  isotopes  of  an  element  are  similar.    Explain  how  they  are   different.     Isotopes  are  various  forms  of  an  element.  They  have  different  number  of   neutrons  so  they  have  different  mass.  Have  different  characteristics  then  the   regular  forms  of  the  element.       5. Explain  why  electrons  in  the  first  electron  shell  have  less  potential  energy   than  electrons  in  higher  electron  shells.     -­‐Similarly  charged  electrons  are  placed  into  the  same  shell.     -­‐If  an  electron  gains  or  loses  energy  it  can  move.  This  is  important  for   biologically  to  use.             6. Distinguish  between  nonpolar  covalent,  polar  covalent  and  ionic  bonds.             -­‐Polar  covalent  bond:  sharing  electrons  unequally   -­‐This  can  be  tested  by  electronegativity.  The  more  electronegative  an   element  the  stronger  affinity  it  is  for  electrons.     Ex.  Water  molecules     -­‐Nonpolar  covalent  bond:  sharing  electrons  equally     -­‐Ionic  bond     o Movement  of  electrons,   o  Electrons  are  transferred  and  not  shared  like  in  covalent  bonds.     o Weak  bond  according  to  biology  perspective     o One  atom  will  gain  electron(s)  while  the  other  atom  loses  electron(s).   Try  to  complete  electron  shell  to  become  more  stable   Ex.  NaCl  opposites  attract  so  going  to  form  a  bond.         -­‐Cation:  Na  ;  positive  (t  looks  like  a  plus  sign)     -­‐Anion:  Cl  ;  negative     7. Distinguish  between  hydrogen  bonds,  hydrophobic  interaction,  and  van  der   Waals  interactions.     -­‐Van  der  waals   o Electrons  are  in  a  cloud  and  don’t  know  their  exact  location   o Electrons  constantly  moving     o A  separation  of  charge  is  caused     o Only  happen  when  atoms  are  very  close  to  one  another  and  they  both   have  opposing  dipole  moments   o Very  weak  bond   o Important  role  in  proteins  and  cell  membranes       -­‐Hydrophobic     o Like  substances  will  dissolve  like  substance  (like  dissolves  like)   -­‐CH3(carbon  hydrogen  chain  molecules)   o Means  afraid  of  water  or  nonpolar   -­‐Hydrophilic:  water  loving  or  polar   o Ex.  Oil     o Due  to  weak  interactions  can  break  easily  will  eventually  reform   bonds   o Important  to  structure  of  proteins       -­‐Hydrogen  bond   o No  exchange  of  electrons  at  all  to  create  bonds  unlike  covalent  and   ionic  bonds   o Will  not  develop  unless  polar  covalent  bonds  have  happened  in   another  molecule   o Bonds  can  occur  between  polar  molecules     o Hydrogen  from  water  is  bondng  to  the  Nitrogen  of  the  ammonia   molecule     o Interaction  between  polar  molecules  such  a  C,  N,  O     o One  atom  forming  bond  is  hydrogen   o Hold  two  DNA  strands  together   o Doesn’t  take  a  lot  of  energy  to  break/form.  This  is  helpful  to  living   things         Chapter  3(1/21/16)     1. With  the  use  of  a  diagram  or  diagrams,  explain  why  water  molecules  are:     a. Polar   It  is  a  polar  molecule  and  contains  2  polar  covalent  bonds   Oxygen  hogs  the  electrons  from  the  2  hydrogen’s         b. Capable  of  hydrogen  bonding  with  4  neighboring  water  molecules   Water  molecules  are  excellent  at  hydrogen  bonding     2. List  four  characteristics  of  water  that  result  from  hydrogen  bonding.   -­‐Cohesion   -­‐Temperature  stabilizer   -­‐Ice  is  less  dense  then  liquid  form  of  water   -­‐Powerful  solvent       3. Define  cohesion  and  adhesion.    Explain  how  water’s  cohesion  and  adhesion   contribute  to  the  movement  of  water  from  the  roots  to  the  leaves  of  a  tree.   o Cohesion:  stick  to  yourself   Creates  surface  tension     Ex.  Water  and  water   o Adhesion:  stick  to  something  else   Ex.  Water  and  glass   -­‐  Capillary  actions:  when  cohesion  and  adhesion  combine   together.     -­‐Important  for  very  large  trees  (Redwoods)  for  pulling  water   up  to  the  top  of  trees.           4. Explain  the  following  observations  by  referring  to  the  properties  of  water:     • Coastal  areas  have  milder  climates  than  adjacent  inland  areas.   Temperature  stabilizer:   -­‐Water  has  high  specific  heat  and  high  evaporation  point   -­‐Requires  ton  of  energy  to  raise  temperature  of  water   -­‐Huge  body  of  water  absorbs  heat  and  keeps  coast  cool       • Ocean  temperatures  fluctuate  much  less  than  temperatures  on  land.   Temperature  stabilizer:   -­‐Water  has  high  specific  heat  and  high  evaporation  point   -­‐Requires  ton  of  energy  to  raise  temperature  of  water   -­‐Huge  body  of  water  absorbs  heat  and  keeps  coast  cool         • Insects  like  water  striders  can  walk  on  the  surface  of  a  pond  without   breaking  the  surface.   Cohesion:  stick  to  yourself   -­‐Creates  surface  tension     Ex.  Water  and  water       • If  you  slightly  overfill  a  water  glass,  the  water  will  form  a  convex  surface   above  the  top  of  the  glass.   o Cohesion:  stick  to  yourself   -­‐Creates  surface  tension     Ex.  Water  and  water     o Adhesion:  stick  to  something  else   Ex.  Water  and  glass     • If  you  place  a  paper  towel  so  that  it  touches  spilled  water,  the  towel  will   draw  in  the  water.   Adhesion:  stick  to  something  else   Ex.  Water  and  glass   -­‐  Capillary  actions:  when  cohesion  and  adhesion  combine   together.     -­‐Important  for  very  large  trees  (Redwoods)  for  pulling  water   up  to  the  top  of  trees.       -­‐Ex.  Sucking  up  water  from  your  cup  through  your  straw  to   your  mouth.       • Ice  floats  on  water.   Ice  less  dense  then  liquid  form  of  water  because  when  ice  form  of   water(solid):  atoms  get  slower  and  Hydrogen  bonds  when  formed  are   further  away  from  one  another.     • Humans  sweat  and  dogs  pant  to  cool  themselves  on  hot  days.   Temperature  stabilizer:   -­‐Water  has  high  specific  heat  and  high  evaporation  point   -­‐Requires  ton  of  energy  to  raise  temperature  of  water   -­‐Our  body  can  handle  huge  temperature  changes  without  affecting  our   body  temperature     -­‐When  your  body  gets  hot  you  sweat  and  skin  turns  red.         5. Distinguish  between  hydrophobic  and  hydrophilic  substances.     -­‐Hydrophobic  means  afraid  of  water  or  nonpolar   -­‐Hydrophilic:  water  loving  or  polar       6. Define  acid,  base,  and  pH.     Acid:   -­‐pH  lower  then  7   -­‐Proton  donor   -­‐Dissociates  to  release  hydrogen  ion  [H]     Base:   -­‐Proton  acceptor   -­‐Dissociate  to  release  hydroxide  ion  [OH]   -­‐pH  higher  then  7     pH  scale:     -­‐Concentration  of  H  and  OH  ions     -­‐This  is  a  log  scale   -­‐6  to  7  a  factor  of  10,  not  1     7. Explain  how  acids  and  bases  may  directly  or  indirectly  alter  the  hydrogen  ion   concentration  of  a  solution.   (SEE  NUMBER  6  ABOVE)     8. Explain  how  buffers  work.     -­‐Resistance  change  in  pH   -­‐The  have  a  range  in  which  they  function   -­‐Buffers  are  weak  acids  or  weak  bases   -­‐Blood  uses  carbonic  acid  good  to  regulate  pH  in  blood     9. Explain  where  electrolytes  come  from  and  their  importance.     -­‐Mix  acid  and  base  will  form  a  water  and  salt     -­‐Salt  in  presents  of  water  will  dissolve/dissociate   -­‐Electrolytes:  ions  that  are  created  from  dissociation       Chapter  4(1/26/16)     1. Explain  how  carbon’s  electron  configuration  explains  its  ability  to  form  large,   complex  and  diverse  organic  molecules.     Hydrocarbon  only  composed  of  C  and  H   Nonpolar  molecules;  nonpolar  covalent  bonds     Don’t  react  well  or  at  all  with  other  molecules       Electrons  being  equally  shared       2. Describe  how  carbon  skeletons  may  vary,  and  explain  how  this  variation   contributes  to  the  diversity  and  complexity  of  organic  molecules.     Take  on  a  lot  of  different  arrangements   Ex.  Branching,  Bonding  (single/double),  Ring  structures,  Carbon  chains         3. Describe  the  basic  structure  of  a  hydrocarbon  and  explain  why  these   molecules  are  hydrophobic.     Hydrocarbon  only  composed  of  C  and  H   Like  substances  will  dissolve  like  substance  (like  dissolves  like)   -­‐CH3(carbon  hydrogen  chain  molecules)   Hydrophobic:  Means  afraid  of  water  or  nonpolar     4. Name  the  major  chemical  groups  found  in  organic  molecules.    Describe  the   basic  structure  of  each  chemical  group  and  outline  the  chemical  properties  of   the  organic  molecules  in  which  they  occur.       Hydroxyl:  OH   -­‐Polar  group  because  of  electronegative  oxygen   -­‐Can  now  Hydrogen  bond       Carbonyl:  C  double  bonded  to  Oxygen   -­‐2  varities:                        Ketone:  O  double  bonded  to  2  carbon  chains            Aldehyde:  O  double  bonded  to  a  carbon  chain  and  Hydrogen     -­‐Found  in  sugars   -­‐Lets  off  interesting  smells     Carboxyl:  C  double  bonded  Oxygen  and  Hydroxyl     -­‐Acidic   -­‐Called  carboxylic  acid     -­‐Ionize  Hydrogen  will  come  off  in  presence  in  water,  allows  it  to   participate  in  ionic  bonding   -­‐Important  in  structure  of  proteins     Amino  group:  Nitrogen  bonded  to  2  Hydrogen’s   –Ionize  in  living  things   –Acts  as  base   –Picks  up  Hydrogen,  which  allows  it  to  participate  in  ionic  bonding     Sulfhydryl  group:  Sulfur  bonded  to  hydrogen  and  carbon     -­‐Not  found  very  often     -­‐Only  found  on  1  amino  acids  (Cysteine)     -­‐Makes  covalent  bond  (Disulfide  bridge)   -­‐Cross  links  and  helps  with  protein  structure       Phosphate  group:  phosphate  with  4  oxygen’s     -­‐Takes  on  a  negative  charge   -­‐Structure  of  nucleic  acid  (DNA/RNA)   -­‐Plays  a  role  in  specific  type  of  lipid         Chapter  5(1/26/16)(1/28/16)     1. List  the  four  major  classes  of  macromolecules.   Proteins   Nucleic  acids   Carbohydrates   Lipids       2. Distinguish  between  monomers  and  polymers.   Polymers:    large  molecule  built  smaller  subunits  that  have  been  linked  together     Monomer:  small  subunit  held  together  by  covalent  bond  (varies  between   biomolecules)     3. Draw  diagrams  to  illustrate  condensation  and  hydrolysis  reactions.     o Dehydration  reaction:  how  polymers  formed     -­‐removes  water  molecules;  forming  covalent  bond  between  monomer   subunit     o Hydrolysis  reaction:  how  polymers  break  down  back  into  monomer   subunits     -­‐adds  water  molecules;  breaks  covalent  bond     4. Distinguish  between  monosaccharide’s,  disaccharides,  and  polysaccharides.     -­‐Monosacchrides:  named  for  how  many  Carbons  they  contain.  Come  in  lots  of   different  sizes.     Ex.  Glucose   -­‐Disaccharides:  put  2  monomers  together   dehydration  reaction  form  bond  called  glycoside  linkage(covalent  bond)     Ex.  Sucrose   -­‐Polysaccharides:  the  true  biomolecule.  Composed  of  glucoses.  How  the  glucose   are  arranged  and  the  arrangement  of  covalent  bond.     Ex.  Starch  and  Glycogen   Starch:  make  a  fairly  tight  chain  made  up  of  glucose.  Used  for  energy.  (Plants)   Glycogen:  Lots  of  branching  made  up  of  glucose.  Found  in  cells  of  liver  and  in   muscle  cells.  (Humans)   -­‐Cellulose:  plant  cells  build  cell  walls  out  of  a  different  version  of  glucose  called   the  Beta  form  that  are  linked  together.  They  call  this  fiber  because  we  cannot   break  it  down  in  the  human  body  due  to  the  Beta  bond.  In  humans  can  only   break  down  the  Alpha  form  of  glucose.       5. Describe  the  formation  of  a  glycosidic  linkage.     Dehydration  reaction  form  bond  called  glycosidic  linkage  (covalent  bond)     6. Distinguish  between  the  glycosidic  linkages  found  in  starch  and  cellulose.     Explain  why  the  difference  is  biologically  important.     Starch  forms  glycosidic  linkage  is  a  Alpha  where  as  a  Cellulose  forms  a  Beta.   Biologically  important  because  they  call  this  fiber  because  we  cannot  break  it   down  in  the  human  body  due  to  the  Beta  bond.  In  humans  can  only  break  down   the  Alpha  form  of  glucose.     7. Describe  the  building-­‐block  molecules,  structure,  and  biological  importance  of   fats,  phospholipids,  and  steroids.     o Lipids     –No  monomer  subunit     -­‐Group  them  based  on  chemical  nature   -­‐Nonpolar,  hydrophobic  molecules     -­‐Used  in  energy  storage,  structural  component,  or  signaling       § Triacylglycerol’s:  made  up  of  3  fatty  acids  tails  (big   hydrocarbon  chains)   -­‐Glycerol  molecule  attached  to  fatty  acid  tails   -­‐Dehydration  reaction  forms  an  ester  linkage(covalent  bond)   between  the  glycerol  and  fatty  acid  tails.     -­‐In  animals  this  is  how  we  store  energy     -­‐Fatty  acids  come  in  2  varities:   § Saturated  fats:  straight  tail,  no  Carbon  Carbon  double   bonds.  Saturated  with  Hydrogens.  Solid  at  room   temperature.   Ex.  Butter,  lard.  Come  from  animals  and  are  sticky   § Unsaturated  fats:  Carbon  Carbon  double  bond  in  tail;   rigid  no  flexibility  causes  it  to  kink.  Doesn’t  allow  for   packing  of  tails  so  liquid  at  room  temperature.       Ex.  Come  from  plant  sources  or  fish     § Phospholipids:  structure  important  for  in  creating  the   structure  of  your  membrane  (lipid  bilayer  in  cell  membranes)     -­‐Amphipathic:  both  hydrophobic  (nonpolar)  and  hydrophilic   (polar  region)     -­‐Head  group:  Hydrophilic  and  composed  of  glycerol  molecule,   phosphate  group  and  head  group.     -­‐Tails:  two  hydrophobic  tails  and  can  be  saturated  or   unsaturated.       § Steroid:  distinguished  by  four  connected  carbon  rings  with   various  functional  groups  attached.     Ex.  Cholesterol:  common  compound  of  animal  call  membranes   and  a  precursor  for  other  steroids,  including  many  hormones.           8. Identify  an  ester  linkage  and  describe  how  it  is  formed.     Dehydration  reaction  forms  an  ester  linkage  (covalent  bond)  between  a  fatty   acid  head  and  tail.       9.  Distinguish  between  saturated  and  unsaturated  fats.       -­‐Saturated  fats:  straight  tail,  no  Carbon  Carbon  double  bonds.  Saturated  with   Hydrogens.  Solid  at  room  temperature.   Ex.  Butter,  lard.  Come  from  animals  and  are  sticky     -­‐Unsaturated  fats:  Carbon  Carbon  double  bond  in  tail;  rigid  no  flexibility  causes   it  to  kink.  Doesn’t  allow  for  packing  of  tails  so  liquid  at  room  temperature.       Ex.  Come  from  plant  sources  or  fish     10.  Name  the  principal  energy  storage  molecules  of  plants  and  animals.     Starch-­‐Plants   Fat/  Triacylglycerol-­‐Animals         11.Explain  how  a  peptide  bond  forms  between  two  amino  acids.     Linking  amino  acids  together  occurs  in  a  dehydration  reaction  where  a  peptide   bond  (covalent  bond)  forms.  This  bond  forms  between  the  carboxyl  group  and   amino  group  of  the  amino  acid  coming  in.  You  can  break  the  peptide  bond  in  a   hydrolysis  reaction.         12.  List  and  describe  the  four  major  components  of  an  amino  acid.  Explain  how   amino  acids  may  be  grouped  according  to  the  physical  and  chemical  properties   of  the  R  group.     -­‐Amino  acid:  monomer  subunit  that  consists  of  an  amino  group,  carboxyl  group,   alpha  carbon,  hydrogen,  and  R-­‐group/Side  chain  (The  R-­‐group  varies  and  is  what   is  unique  between  20  amino  acids)     -­‐Break  proteins  up  into  groups  based  on  chemical  nature:   -­‐Polar:  do  a  lot  of  H  bonding,  find  an  extra  amino  group  and  OH  groups.   -­‐Nonpolar:  side  chains  are  carbons  and  hydrogen’s.  Form  hydrophobic   interaction  and  find  them  on  interior  of  proteins.     -­‐Electrically  charged:  ionize  in  presence  of  water  forming  charges,  extra   carboxylic  group  (acidic)  or  extra  amino  group  (basic).  Water  loves  charge   and  can  form  ionic  bonds.         13.  Explain  how  the  primary  structure  of  a  protein  is  determined.     Primary:  order  of  amino  acids  when  you  link  tem  together  by  peptide  bonds  and   make  a  chain.  Held  together  by  covalent  bonds.  Controls  all  other  level  of   structures.     14.  Name  two  types  of  secondary  protein  structure.  Explain  the  role  of  hydrogen   bonds  in  maintaining  secondary  structure.     Secondary:  two  types;  maintained  by  Hydrogen  bonding  between  amino  and   carboxyl  groups.   -­‐Alpha  helix:  very  flexible,  elastic,  come  back  into  shape.     -­‐Beta  pleated  sheets:  more  stable  configuration,  strong,         15.  Explain  how  weak  interactions  and  disulfide  bridges  contribute  to  tertiary   protein  structure.     Tertiary:  contributes  to  3D  shape;  interaction  between  side  chains;   hydrophobic,  ionic,  van  der  waals,  and  disulfide  bonds  (covalent  bond).   Every  protein  gets  to  this  level!     -­‐Globular  proteins:  blob  like    (hemoglobin)   -­‐Fibrous  proteins:  rope-­‐like  (collagen)       16.  Understand  the  process  of  denaturation.     Denaturation:  causes  proteins  to  unfold.  The  protein  loses  tertiary  and   secondary  structure,  but  not  its  primary  structure.       17.  Explain  how  chaperonins  may  assist  in  proper  folding  of  proteins.     Roles  of  Chaperones:  help  proteins  fold  properly     18.  List  the  major  components  of  a  nucleotide,  and  describe  how  these  monomers   are  linked  to  form  a  nucleic  acid.     Nucleic  Acid     -­‐Monomer  subunit:  nucleotide  made  up  of  3  parts  phosphate   functional  group,  pentose  sugar  (Deoxyribose-­‐DNA;  Ribose-­‐RNA)  and   nitrogenous  bases  (A,U,C,G,T)   -­‐Dehydration  reaction  created  the  phosphodiester  bond  (covalent   bond)  between  the  phosphate  group  and  sugar.           19.  Distinguish  between:     a. ribose  and  deoxyribose     Ribose  is  the  sugar  group  found  in  RNA   Deoxyribose  is  the  sugar  group  found  in  DNA.  It  has  one  less  oxygen   group  then  ribose.       b. 5ʹ′  end  and  3ʹ′  end  of  a  nucleotide   5’  end  is  a  phosphate  group  and  3’  end  is  a  hydroxyl  group.  Next,  nucleotide   will  link  with  the  3’  end.         20.  Briefly  describe  the  three-­‐dimensional  structure  of  DNA.     DNA  is  double  stranded,  stable,  double  helix  (spiral  staircase),  constant   diameter  (2nm),  right  handed.         21.  Describe  differences  between  DNA  and  RNA     Nucleic  Acid     -­‐Monomer  subunit:  nucleotide  made  up  of  3  parts  phosphate   functional  group,  pentose  sugar  (Deoxyribose-­‐DNA;  Ribose-­‐RNA)  and   nitrogenous  bases  (A,U,C,G,T)     Thymine  (DNA)   Uracil  (RNA)   -­‐Uses:  store/transmit  genetic  information  and  help  make  proteins.     -­‐RNA  is  single  stranded  and  unstable   -­‐DNA  is  double  stranded,  stable,  double  helix  (spiral  staircase),   constant  diameter  (2nm),  right  handed.     -­‐Complementary  base  pairing:  A  pairs  with  T  (2  H  bonds);  C  pairs   with  G  (3  H  bonds)   -­‐DNA  strands  run  antiparallel  to  each  other.     -­‐Dehydration  reaction  created  the  phosphodiester  bond  (covalent   bond)  between  the  phosphate  group  and  sugar.     -­‐5’  end  is  a  phosphate  group  and  3’  end  is  a  hydroxyl  group.  Next,   nucleotide  will  link  with  the  3’  end.          


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