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ANSC 23000 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Gayatri

ANSC 23000 Exam 1 Study Guide ANSC 23000

Marketplace > Purdue University > Agriculture and Forestry > ANSC 23000 > ANSC 23000 Exam 1 Study Guide
GPA 3.91
Animal Physiology
Dr. Scott Mills

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About this Document

Includes the topics covering Histology, Endocrinology, and Neurology
Animal Physiology
Dr. Scott Mills
Study Guide
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Gayatri on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 23000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Scott Mills in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Animal Physiology in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
ANSC 23000 Exam 1 Study Guide Histology To understand and de ne the four tissue types that make up an organ 0 Epithelial tissue I Cover exposed surfaces I Line internal passageways and chambers I Produce glandular secretions 0 Muscle tissue I Contract to produce movement 0 Neural tissue I Conduct electrical impulses I Carries information o Connective tissue adipose tissue I Fill internal spaces I Provide structural support I Store energy I Made of protein bers I Can be loose found in uid blood lymph loose ber network under skin and around organs or dense brous sheath around muscle I Components 0 Has a broblast which is responsible for secretion of proteins that strengthen organs 0 Has a capillary with RBCs o Nucleus of capillary belonging to epithelial cell 0 WBC outside capillary To recognize and distinguish between epithelial classes and to begin to associate structure with function of epithelia o Epithelial classes I Shape Squamous at I Layers Cuboidal Simple single layered cube Strati ed multi layered Columnar tall 0 Epithelia are classi ed by function I Exchange epithelia cardiovascular system Small at thin leaky cells allow for free crossing of substances simple squamous I Protective epithelia integumentary system Tough thick cells strati ed squamous I Ciliated epithelia reproductive system in females Tall long cells with modi ed surfaces pseudostrati ed columnar I Transport epithelia digestive system Long thick cells with tight junctions provide selective transport simple columnar To distinguish between exocrine and endocrine glands o A gland is an organized collection of secretory epithelia cells and is formed during development by production of epithelial cells so that they project into the underlying connective tissue 0 Exocrine glands are those that retain their connection with the surface via a duct I Secretions travel through ducts to their target o Endocrine glands are those that lose their direct continuity with the surface when their ducts denigrate during development I Secretions travel through the bloodstream To have a simple understanding of the composition of blood and to distinguish between plasma and serum Blood test hematocrit used to calculate PCV packed cell volume the percent of whole blood composed of erythrocytes 0 Normal PCV 45 and Anemia lt 45 lt Dehydration o Determined by centrifuguing in a tube with anticoagulants gives three layers 1 Plasma 2 Buffy coat of WBCs 3 RBCs Plasma is composed of RBCs WBCs clotting factors proteins hormones and uses anticoagulants Serum is composed of the same materials but is allowed to clot Endocrinology Endocrine Concepts 0 Regulation of function is done by lthe neural system and 2the endocrine system 0 It is characterized by production of chemical messengers hormone by ductless glands that are carried through the bloodstream to initiate a cellular response in a distal target cell Control systems 0 Endocrine Hormones go from endocrine gland 9 bloodstream 9 cell 0 Neural Neurotransmitters go from axon 9 synapse 9 cell 0 Neuroendocrine Neurohormones travel from axon 9 synapse 9 bloodstream 9 cell Receptors 0 Two types I Receptors on cell membrane for peptide hormones E g FSH GH I Receptors inside the cell for steroidlipid hormones Progesterone 0 Properties I Specificity for a cell to respond to a hormone it must eXpress the gene to make the receptor for it I Sensitivity cells can change the number of receptors made more receptors 9 increased sensitivity and response Location of Endocrine glands and secretions o Pituitary located at the base of the brain very well protected in cave in the skull I Known as the master gland I Two parts Anterior pituitary smaller portion to the left has 6 different types of cells that produce 6 hormones o TSH Posterior pituitary larger portion made of neural tissue 0 ADH Oxytocin o Hypothalamus above the pituitary I Regulates secretion from the pituitary along with temperature thirst and hunger Important Hormones o Melanocyte stimulating hormone targets melanocytes skin cells with melanin pigment responsible for skin darkening I Pineal gland located in brain regulates melatonin via light intensity Calcium Homeostasis o Hormones involved all three of these target bone kidney and intestine I PTH from parathyroid gland Stimulates calcium mobilizationreabsorption in bone Stimulates calcium reabsorption from urine and activates Vitamin D in kidney I Calcitonin from thyroid Increases calcium deposition in bone I Vitamin D Calcitriol Increases calcium absorption from food in intestine 0 When Ca in blood decreases PTH and Vitamin D increase and work to raise Ca 8 mg 1000 ml 0 When Ca in blood increases PTH and Vitamin D decrease and Vitamin D increases and works to lower Ca 12mg1000 ml 0 Hypocalcemiamilk feverparturient paresis occurs in females postpartum due to milk production I Results in paralysis because Calcium is needed for muscle contraction I Prevention lower Ca levels in diet for body ahead of time to have enough time to prepare for major calcium loss during lactation Important Systems 0 The master gland Pituitary and hypothalamus 0 Fuel homeostasis cells for this come from Islets of Langerhans I Normal glucose is 5 mM I Hyperglycemia excess glucose 55 mM fed state Beta cells in the pancreas secrete insulin which has three targets 0 Liver glycogenesis occurs 0 Muscle glycogenesis occurs 0 Adipose tissue glucose 9 triglycerides stored in fat cells I Hypoglycemia de cient glucose 45 mM fasted state Alpha cells in the pancreas secrete glucagon which has two targets 0 Liver glycogenolysis occurs 0 Amino acids gluconeogenesis occurs 0 Epinephrine and Norepinephrine I Epinephrine a neurohormone is secreted from the medulla which is made of neural tissue 9 heart causes increase in heart rate adrenaline ght or ight I Norepinephrine is a similar hormone goes from the spinal cord through the sympathetic nerve 9 heart causes same response as Epi I Other targets and responses caused by Epi and NEpi Muscle increase in glycogenolysis glucose increases Intestine decrease in secretion and motility Heart increase in heart rate Adipose tissue breakdown of triglycerides Lungs dilation expansion of bronchioles Liver increase in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis glucose increases 0 Glucocorticoids I Secreted by the outer adrenal cortex one of the three classes of steroids made in cortical cells I Primary steroid is cortisol released in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH ACTH is a catabolic hormone because it causes net breakdown of nutrients Affects l metabolism 0 Stimulation of gluconeogenesis in liver 0 Protein breakdown in muscle 0 Inhibition of glucose uptake in cells 2 Immune response antiin ammatory effects 0 Thyroid hormones I Contain Iodine I Two versions T3 triodothyronine most active T4 thyroxine present in blood can convert to T3 in peripheral tissues I They are peptides but are insoluble so function like steroids Need transport proteins in blood Have intracellular receptors I Adapted to store iodine for thyroxine synthesis 0 Diabetes I Type I Juvenile diabetes autoimmune disorder Beta cells are damaged and don t secrete enough insulin Treatment insulin shots or supplements I Type II adult onset diabetes linked to obesity Beta cells are still functioning but develop resistance to insulin no response to stimulus Leads to hyperglycemia because excess insulin Treatment exercise proper diet and weight management 0 Hormones and Feed Intake I Leptin secreted from adipose tissue 9 hypothalamus Indicates stored energy I Cholecystekinin CCK secreted from intestinal tract 9 hypothalamus Indicates fullness I Both are stimulated by feed intake and tell the body to stop eating I Growth and milk 0 Growth hormone from the anterior pituitary I Deficiency stunted growth 9 dwarfism I Excess tumor of pituitary 9 giantism I Two targets Liver 0 Causes secretion of IGFI which stimulates cell proliferation in I Muscle I Bone I Mammary glands I organs Adipose tissue 0 Growth is decreased by lipolysis I E g Ractopamine increases muscle growth used in pigs trade name Paylean Neurology Cells of the nervous system 0 Neuron know how to diagram I Bundle of neurons nerve o Glial cells surround neurons and maintain homeostasis form myelin and provide support and protection I Schwann cells CNS I Oligodendrocvte I Astrocyte blood brain barrier contribute to selectivity of capillary I Microglial WBC Nerve Transmission 0 Action potential know how to diagram I When pain is sensed by sensory receptors neurons transmit this info via action potentials I Sodium Na and Pottasium K gradients exist action potential occurs when these are changed and the membrane potential is changed I Steps A stimulus from a sensory cell or another neuron causes the target cell to depolarize toward the threshold potential If the threshold is reached Na channels open and the membrane depolarizes At the peak K channels open and K begins to leave the cell At the same time Na channels close The membrane becomes hyperpolarized as K ions continue to leave the cell refractory period begins The K channels close and the NaK pump restores the resting potential 70 mV 0 Chemical synapse neurotransmitters I Neurotransmitters are released at the neuromuscular junction which bind to receptors and cause another action to occur in this case acetylcholine is the NT and its receptor is a NaK channel which makes Na flow in and Na gated channels open propagating the signal I They are also degraded quickly when their job is done 0 Neuromuscular junction and muscle contraction diagram I Na release from Na gated channels goes down and causes a muscular action potential which goes 9 T tubule 9 Sarcoplasmic reticulum which causes release of calcium which then stimulates contraction of muscle involving myosin and actin Divisions of the nervous system 0 Central vs peripheral vs enteric I Central NS consists of spinal cord and brain I Peripheral NS consists of reception and action Enteric is the portion of peripheral part of autonomic that controls GI tract 0 Motor nerves somatic vs autonomic I Somatic nerves are responsible for voluntary action usually involving skeletal muscle I Autonomic nerves are responsible for involuntary action usually involving internal organs Has two components sympathetic and parasympathetic o Sensory nerves and receptors part of peripheral NS monitor external and internal conditions and send signals 0 Spinal cord and brain part of central NS responsible for decision making Sensory motor tracts o Neural re exes don t involve cerebrum key to regulating body function I Involuntary rapid I Respond to emergencies o Neuroendocrine re exes 0 Voluntary control higher brain responses cerebrum is involved Special senses o Olfaction smell olfactory sensory neurons have cilia that extend into nasal cavity and axons that synapse with olfactory nerve in olfactory bulb I Cilia have receptors for various chemicals 0 Gustation taste taste buds are pockets of gustatory cells and detect dissolved chemicals I 4 types sweet sour bitter salty also umami meaty I Pain receptors detect heat not gustatory ones 0 Hearing and Balance I 3 bones malleus uricus stapes amplify Vibration from tympanic membrane inner ear I Ear canal funnels sound to the bones I Fluid filled chamber of cochlea Vibrates the basal membrane holding hair cells stimulating action potential to auditory nerve I Area of cochlea duct Vibration detects pitch I Equilibrium and balance is established by cells in vestibular complex


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