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First Exam Study Guide

by: Thomas Ranson

First Exam Study Guide 045

Thomas Ranson
Penn State

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About this Document

Lecture notes as well as vocab and notes from the book
Cultural Anthropology
Dr. Marcie Venter
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Cultural Anthropology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Thomas Ranson on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 045 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Marcie Venter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
Anthropology:   • Story  of  humankind   • Study  of  human  species  and  immediate  ancestors   • Descriptive,  explanatory,  comparative   • Integrates  science,  biology,  society,  language  and  culture   Culture:  Traditions  and  customs  transmitted  through  learning,  that  forms  and  guide   the  beliefs  and  behavior  of  the  people  to  which  it  is  exposed   It  is  the  total  way  of  life  in  any  society  not  just  ideal  parts     Cultural  Adaptation:   • Adaptation  is  the  process  by  which  organisms  cope  with  the  stresses  and   forces  of  the  environment  to  which  they  belong   • Human  beings  adapt  using  biological  and  cultural  means   • Over  the  past  10000  years  the  rate  of  cultural  change  has  accelerated   • For  example  foraging  was  the  basis  of  human  subsistence  for  millions  of   years,  but  the  past  700  years  has  seen  the  steady  increase  of  food  production   rather  than  foraging.  Cultivation  and  domestication   • Anthropology  has  specialized  into  subfields:   1. Biological/Physical     • Paleoanthropology   • Human  Variation     • Bio  cultural   2. Cultural   • Archeology   • Linguistics   • Ethnology/Sociology   Anthropology  seeks  reliable  explanations  with  reference  to  the  material  and   physical  world,  because  of  this  use  the  scientific  method   Primary  goal  of  anthropology  is  to  document  and  understand  change  in  culture   • Enculturation  (learning  from  within  a  culture)   • Independent  invention/innovation   • Diffusion   • Acculturation  (learning  from  outside  the  culture)   Neolithic  Revolution:   • Approx.  11,000  years  ago,  around  the  middle  east   • Food  Production   • Sedentism  (staying  in  one  place)   • Population  increase   • nonegalitarian  societies   Catalysts  for  rapid  change   • Imperial  expansion  and  colonial  administration   1. Imperialism  –  Policy  of  extending  rule  of  a  country/empire  over  foreign   nations  and  of  taking  and  holding  colonies   2. Colonialism  –  Long  term  foreign  control  of  a  territory  and  its  people   (takes  place  after  imperialism)   The  World  System   • A  set  of  mechanisms,  which  redistribute  surplus  value  from  the  periphery   (outside)  to  the  core.  –Wallerstein   • Core  was  the  developed  part  of  the  world   • Periphery  (outside)  was  the  underdeveloped  part  of  the  world   • The  core  exploited  the  periphery  through  markets   Industrial  Era   • Mercantile  interests  with  military  support   • Colonies  meant  more  consumers   Global  trade  allowed  for  capitol  investment  in  new  forms  of  production   • Merchant  ships  carried  products  and  raw  materials  however  was  very   expensive  and  required  naval  protection   Industrial  Revolution:  English  Origin   • Emerged  out  of  the  world  system     • Capitalism:  Economic  system  based  on  private  ownership  of  the  means  of   production  and  the  production  itself  of  goods  and  services  in  a  market   economy   • Industrialization  saw  agrarian  society  move  towards  industrial  through   technological  advances   • Economy  reoriented  to  manufacturing   Aspects  of  Culture   • Culture  is  artificial  in  that  it  is  maintained,  reinforced,  and  manipulated   • Culture  is  shared  –  Attributes  of  groups,  determines  norms  and  values   • Culture  is  learned  –  Dependent  on  its  ability  to  be  adopted  or  experienced  by   others,  both  actively  and  passively  learned   Culture  is  Symbolic   • When  people  bestow  meaning  to  a  thing  or  event  and  others  understand   these  meanings   • Verbal/written  as  well  as  non-­‐verbal   Culture  includes  all  aspects  of  how  people  live  their  lives   Culture  is  integrated  and  systemized   Culture  can  either  be  adaptive  (survive/continue)  or  maladaptive  (degrade/not   sustained)   Culture  exists  on  different  scales  (International,  national,  micro/macro)   Cultural  Organization   • All  cultures  consist  of  overlapping  and  broad  structures   1. Social  Organizations   2. Economic  Organizations   3. Political  Organizations   4. Religious  Organizations   Attempts  to  Understand  Culture   • Unilineal  Evolutionists   1. Louis  Henry  Morgan  (US)   2. Cultures  would  change  gradually  over  time  and  constantly.  Every  society   would  evolve  from  savagery  to  civilization   3. They  views  that  all  societies  would  evolve  to  enlightenment,  didn’t  see   that  culture  was  adaptive  to  environment   • Historical  Particularists   1. Franz  Boas   2. Viewed  that  culture  would  adopt  to  its  environment  and  historical   context   3. Students:  Benedict  and  Mead  =  Culture  shapes  human  life   4. Mead  (Nature/Nurture)   • Structural  Functionalists   1. Each  component  of  society  has  a  function  that  maintains  equilibrium  in   the  larger  structure   2. They  ignore  conflict,  tension,  change   • Interpretivists   1. Geertz   2. Culture  is  a  symbolic  system  through  which  we  assign  meaning  to  things,   events,  behaviors   Cultural  Ecology:  Culture  is  humanities  adaptation  to  the  physical  and  social   environment.  Commonalities  of  human  experience  (food,  shelter,  problem  solving)   Human  decisions,  practices,  behaviors,  affect  culture  change   • Enculturation   • Diffusion  and  invention/innovation   • Acculturation  (Colonialism,  Industrialization,  Globalization)   • Knowledge  of  a  culture  can  be  lost,  acquired,  transformed   Globalization  has  expanded  the  economy  and  created  linkages  to  modern  world,   erased  old  boundaries   Catalysts  for  rapid  change   • Political  and  ethnic  groups  emerging   • The  volume  and  scale  of  human  movement  and  overall  connectedness   • Dispersion  of  communities   Indigeneity   Indigenous  –  Those  who  claim  ancestry  from  a  self-­‐governing  society  that  have   inhabited  a  region  before  the  advent  of  invasion,  conquest  or  occupation  of  a   different  people   Strong  link  to  territory  and  resources   Resolve  to  maintain  cultural  distinctiveness   Perception  of  American  Indians   • Noble  savage  came  from  Columbus  (1492)   • Explorers  praised  the  virtue  and  goodness  of  natives,  thought  of  natives  as   being  in  a  pure  state  of  nature     • Blood  Thirsty,  the  thought  of  natives  who  massacred  settlers   Natives  in  America   • Members  of  hundreds  of  different  groups     • Different  languages  and  culture,  felt  primary  loyalty  to  own  group   • 95%  decimated  population,  classified  environmentally  and  placed  into  10-­‐11   culture  areas   Culture  Areas   • Alfred  Kroeber   • Culture  area  of  approach  was  so  that  the  vast  diversity  of  the  Native   American  cultures  can  be  sorted  down  into  geographical  areas  that  share   cultural  similarity   Ethnography:  Provides  an  account  of  a  particular  community,  society,  or  culture   • Focused  on  the  details  of  daily  life     • Objective,  and  tried  to  understand  whole  culture   • Early  Anthropology  was  descriptive   • Early  anthropologists  focused  on  the  exotic,  primitive,  and  emphasized   differences  instead  of  understanding  whole  culture   • Ethnology  examines  and  compares  the  results  of  ethnography  (compare  and   contrast  to  make  generalizations   Etic:  The  view  of  culture  from  the  perspective  of  the  outsider,  emphasizes  the   categories,  interpretations,  and  things  that  are  important   Emic:  A  view  of  culture  from  the  insider’s  perspective   Culture  differences  can  affect  perspective  (Culture  Shock/Ethnocentrism)   Ethnocentrism:  The  tendency  to  view  ones  own  culture  as  superior  and  applying   ones  own  values  in  judging  the  behavior  and  beliefs  of  peoples  in  other  cultures   Cultural  Relativism:  The  argument  that  because  cultures  reflect  the  accumulated   adaptations  to  particular  sets  of  environmental,  social,  historical  circumstances,  that   behavior  in  one  culture  should  not  be  judged  by  the  standards  of  another   Techniques  of  Ethnography   • Participant  Observation   • Direct  First  Hand  Observation   • Conservation   • Geneology:  understand  how  kin  are  reckoned/  identified   • Key  Cultural  Consultants   • In  depth  interviewing     • Team  Research   • Longitudinal  Research   • Multi  Sited  Research   Languages  and  Communication   Language:  A  system  of  communication  organized  by  rules  that  use  symbols  (Words,   sounds,  gesture)  to  convey  information   Verbal   • Speech,  tone  and  pronunciation  (Accent,  Dialect)   • Nonverbal  (body  language/  Writing)   • Vary  from  culture  to  culture   • Symbolic  communication   Symbolic  Communication:  a  meaning  is  known  even  when  reference  is  not  present   (meaning  is  arbitrary)   Origins  of  Language   • Biologically  modern  humans   • FOXP2  gene   • Cranial  capacity  increased   • Throat  anatomy     • Advancements  in  technology  (Communication  necessary  for  learning)   • Human  ability  to  improvise   Noam  Comsky:  Human  brain  is  limited  to  a  set  of  rules  for  organizing  language,  all   languages  have  common  structural  basis   Sapir  –  Whorf  Hypothesis:  Different  languages  produce  different  patterns  of   thought,  focal  vocabularies:  The  words  and  terminology  that  develop  with  particular   sophistication  to  describe  the  unique  cultural  realities  experienced  by  a  group  of   people   Descriptive  Linguistics:  The  study  of  sounds,  symbols  and  gestures  of  a  language   that  can  be  combined  into  forms  that  communicate  meaning   Phonemes:  The  smallest  units  of  sound  that  can  make  a  difference  in  meaning   Phonology:  The  study  of  what  sounds  exist  and  their  importance  to  particular   languages   Morphemes:  The  smallest  units  of  sound  that  carry  their  own  meaning   Morphology:  The  study  of  patterns  and  rules  of  how  sounds  combine  to  make   morphemes   Syntax:  The  specific  patterns  and  rules  for  making  phrases  and  sentences   Grammar:  The  combined  set  of  observations  about  the  rules  governing  the   formation  morphemes  and  syntax  that  different  languages  use   Kinesics:  The  study  of  the  relationship  between  body  movement  and   communication   Paralanguage:  An  extensive  set  of  noises  and  tones  of  voice  that  convey  important   information  about  the  speaker  (Emoticons  are  like  this)   Sociolinguists  investigate  the  social  and  linguistic  variation  in  social  context     • Code  switching:  Switch  to  different  language  mid  sentence   • Style  switching:  Chang  the  style  mid  conversation   Linguistic  Stratification:  Different  accents  and  dialects  and  the  assumption  therein     • The  assumptions  made  upon  hearing  different  regional  speech  patterns   Languages  are  Fluid     • Prescriptivists:  Correct  ways  of  speaking  a  language   • Descriptivists:  Language  diversity   • Historical  Linguistics:  Reconstruct  features  of  past  languages  through   daughter  languages   Language  Family:  A  set  of  languages  that  derive  from  the  same  protolanguage   (Reconstructed  common  ancestor)          


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